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palliative ethics

Olga Tursunov, Nathan I Cherny, Freda DeKeyser Ganz
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To describe the experience of family members of patients receiving palliative sedation at the initiation of treatment and after the patient has died and to compare these experiences over time.
. DESIGN: Descriptive comparative study.
. SETTING: Oncology ward at Shaare Zedek Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel.
. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 34 family members of dying patients receiving palliative sedation...
November 1, 2016: Oncology Nursing Forum
Robert Horowitz, Bernard Sussman, Timothy Quill
In this article three palliative care physicians review narratives about the complicated experience of voluntarily stopping eating and drinking (VSED). Despite consensus about its legality, the decision to end life by VSED is emotionally and ethically challenging for patients, family members and clinicians. Each VSED story is unique, and the individual perspectives within a single story may diverge, conflict, and evolve over time. The narratives differ substantially in the range of suffering described, from acute, graphic, physical symptoms to primarily anticipatory and psychological distress...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Mark Corbett
Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
Laura Chahda, Bernice A Mathisen, Lindsay B Carey
PURPOSE: Given minimal studies describing the role and practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in adult palliative care, the aim of this review was to compile a database of research literature, examine the potential research gaps and to consider material that specifically discussed the need for and/or use of procedures and protocols for SLPs working in palliative care that would support the development of SLP palliative care guidelines. METHOD: A scoping review was conducted utilising Arksey and O'Malley's framework with the goal of exploring any key concepts and approaches utilised by SLPs in adult palliative care, plus any literature and/or recommendations regarding SLP practice in adult palliative care settings...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Joseph Sacco, Rebecca Virata
The discontinuation of life sustaining medical treatment (LSMT) in severely and permanently impaired neonates, especially artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is subject to uncertainty and controversy. Definitive clinical guidelines are lacking, clinical research is limited, ethical disagreement is commonplace, and while case and statutory law provide legal underpinning for the practice in defined circumstances, uncertainty in this realm likely influences clinical practice. We use the case of a neurologically devastated neonate to highlight and review these arenas, and show how, using available legal, ethical, and clinical standards and practice, the case of Baby O was resolved, and to underline the need for further research in neonatal palliative care...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
F J Erbguth, L Erbguth
End-of-life decisions in neurology have repeatedly given occasion for controversies. Often these are based on lack of knowledge of the juridical and ethical framework conditions. This review describes the juridical-ethical basis for the implementation and continuation, and for withholding and withdrawal of life-sustaining measures, in particular, the significance of medical indication and patient's will. The different forms of assisted dying ("Sterbehilfe"), namely homicide by request, assisted suicide, palliative symptom relief and treatment withdrawal are characterized...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Mohammed Rafique Moosa, Jonathan David Maree, Maxwell T Chirehwa, Solomon R Benatar
Universal access to renal replacement therapy is beyond the economic capability of most low and middle-income countries due to large patient numbers and the high recurrent cost of treating end stage kidney disease. In countries where limited access is available, no systems exist that allow for optimal use of the scarce dialysis facilities. We previously reported that using national guidelines to select patients for renal replacement therapy resulted in biased allocation. We reengineered selection guidelines using the 'Accountability for Reasonableness' (procedural fairness) framework in collaboration with relevant stakeholders, applying these in a novel way to categorize and prioritize patients in a unique hierarchical fashion...
2016: PloS One
C Rehmann-Sutter, H Lehnert
BACKGROUND: The aim of palliative medicine is to adequately care for and attend to patients suffering from life-threatening and incurable medical conditions according to their needs. This implies that for these patients it is not a matter of dealing with diseases that can be treated separately but with their existence in the face of their approaching death. OBJECTIVE: This article investigates which ethical questions are currently prioritized for discussion in palliative medicine...
October 2016: Der Internist
M Begoña Girbau Campo, Pablo Monedero Rodríguez, Carlos Centeno Cortés
Recent scientific literature has shown a growing interest to integrate palliative medicine principles into the daily workflow in the intensive care unit (ICU). This article reviews this trend with the goal that its application might provide more understanding in the resolution of some current ethical issues. Patients with an advanced disease process and at the end of life who are admitted in the intensive care unit are in such a profound level of suffering and vulnerability that only an holistic and comprehensive approach can provide adequate relief to them...
May 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Cécile Furstenberg
The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice.
August 2016: Revue de L'infirmière
Zubair Umer Mohamed, Fazil Muhammed, Charu Singh, Abish Sudhakar
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The practice of intensive care includes withholding and withdrawal of care, when appropriate, and the goals of care change around this time to comfort and palliation. We decided to survey the attitudes, training, and skills of intensive care residents in relation to end-of-life (EoL) care. All residents at our institute who has worked for at least a month in an adult Intensive Care Unit were invited to participate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After Institutional Ethics Committee approval, a Likert-scale questionnaire, divided into five composite measures of EoL skills including training and attitude, was handed over to individual residents and completed data were anonymized...
August 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Nikki McCaffrey, Hareth Al-Janabi, David Currow, Renske Hoefman, Julie Ratcliffe
INTRODUCTION: Despite informal caregivers' integral role in supporting people affected by disease or disability, economic evaluations often ignore the costs and benefits experienced by this group, especially in the palliative setting. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify preference-based instruments for measuring care-related outcomes and provide guidance on the selection of instrument in palliative care economic evaluations. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive search of the literature will be conducted from database inception (ASSIA; CINAHL; Cochrane library including DARE, NHS EED, HTA; Econlit; Embase; PsychINFO; PubMed)...
September 12, 2016: BMJ Open
Aasim I Padela, Omar Qureshi
The ever-increasing technological advances of modern medicine have increased physicians' capacity to carry out a wide array of clinical interventions near the end-of-life. These new procedures have resulted in new "types" of living where a patient's cognitive functions are severely diminished although many physiological functions remain active. In this biomedical context, patients, surrogate decision-makers, and clinicians all struggle with decisions about what clinical interventions to pursue and when therapeutic intent should be replaced with palliative goals of care...
September 9, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Sandra Martins Pereira, Carla Margarida Teixeira, Ana Sofia Carvalho, Pablo Hernández-Marrero
INTRODUCTION: Professionals working in intensive and palliative care units, hence caring for patients at the end-of-life, are at risk of developing burnout. Workplace conditions are determinant factors to develop this syndrome among professionals providing end-of-life care. OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare burnout levels between professionals working in intensive and palliative care units; and to assess which workplace experiences are associated with burnout...
2016: PloS One
J Downing, R Kiman, S Boucher, B Nkosi, B Steel, C Marston, E Lascar, J Marston
The International Children's Palliative Care Network held its second international conference on children's palliative care in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from the 18th-21st May 2016. The theme of the conference was 'Children's Palliative Care…. Now!' emphasising the need for palliative care for children now, as the future will be too late for many of them. Six pre-conference workshops were held, addressing issues connected to pain assessment and management, adolescent palliative care, ethics and decision-making, developing programmes, the basics of children's palliative care, and hidden aspects of children's palliative care...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
David Musyoki, Sarafina Gichohi, Johnson Ritho, Zipporah Ali, Asaph Kinyanjui, Esther Muinga
Palliative care is patient and family-centred care that optimises quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering. Open Society Foundation public health program (2011) notes that people facing life-threatening illnesses are deeply vulnerable: often in severe physical pain, worried about death, incapacitation, or the fate of their loved ones. Legal issues can increase stress for patients and families and make coping harder, impacting on the quality of care. In the absence of a clear legal provision expressly recognising palliative care in Kenya, providers may face numerous legal and ethical dilemmas that affect the availability, accessibility, and delivery of palliative care services and commodities...
2016: Ecancermedicalscience
Elise W Sarvas, Scott A Schwantes, Jeffrey M Karp
Pediatric dentists are the primary providers of dental homes for children with life-threatening and complex chronic conditions. These children are increasingly living at home and seeking health care in community-based settings, including dental offices. Pediatric dentists may feel ill prepared to assume the roles and responsibilities of a pediatric palliative care provider due to limited education and training during dental school and residency; however, they should be sensitive to the palliative care needs of children and families...
2016: Pediatric Dentistry
John P Sherbeck, Renee D Boss
This case of platelet transfusion in palliative care illustrates a common dilemma in transfusion medicine: approval of the use of a scarce, yet potentially life-saving, resource. As in this case, these decisions often involve seriously ill patients with acute needs and evolving goals of care. The use of resources to treat the patient at hand must be balanced against maintaining adequate resources to treat future patients. In this setting, the ethical principles of beneficence and social justice are in conflict...
2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
Guy Lin, Tal Marom, David Dagan, Merin Ofer
OBJECT: The massive typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) ripped across the central Philippines on November 8, 2013, and damaged infrastructure including hospitals. The Israeli Defense Forces field hospital was directed by the Philippine authorities to Bogo City in the northern part of the island of Cebu, to assist the damaged local hospital. Hundreds of patients with neglected diseases sought for medical treatment which was merely out of reach for them. Our ethical dilemmas were whether to intervene, when the treatment we could offer was not the best possible...
August 19, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Francisca Rego, Rui Nunes
In palliative care, a biopsychosocial-spiritual model is essential to address the patient in its totality. Spirituality is often a relevant issue in such settings, yet there is a need to differentiate spirituality from religion. Spirituality in palliative care focuses on the psychological and spiritual aspects of care, helping to relieve the physical, emotional, social and spiritual distresses of the patient, family members and healthcare professionals, produced in such conditions. Psychologists, according to their ethical responsibilities, may include the assessment of their patients' spiritual needs in therapy, as it will help to identify the patients' values, belief systems, spiritual history, distress and needs...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
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