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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339418/survey-of-kinesiologists-functional-capacity-evaluation-practice-in-canada
#1
Kathryn E Sinden, Taya L McGillivary, Elizabeth Chapman, Steven L Fischer
BACKGROUND: In Canada, functional capacity evaluations (FCEs) are commonly administered by several health care professions including kinesiologists. Kinesiologists have been recently regulated as health care professionals in Ontario and we know little about their demographics, the frequency of FCE administration, or the types of FCEs used by this group. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to identify: 1) the demographic characteristics and FCE education of kinesiology FCE practitioners; 2) the FCE systems most used by these practitioners and 3) the constructs from assessments used to determine functional capacity...
March 23, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335786/matching-safety-to-access-global-actors-and-pharmacogovernance-in-kenya-a-case-study
#2
Kathy Moscou, Jillian C Kohler
BACKGROUND: The Kenyan government has sought to address inadequacies in its National Pharmaceutical Policy and the Pharmacy and Poisons Board's (PPB) medicines governance by engaging with global actors (e.g. the World Health Organization). Policy actors have influenced the way pharmacovigilance is defined, how challenges are understood and which norms are requisite to address drug safety issues. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between specific modes of engagement among global (exogenous) and domestic actors at the national and sub-national level to identify the positive or negative effect on pharmacovigilance and pharmacogovernance in Kenya...
March 23, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334023/preferences-for-the-provision-of-whole-genome-sequencing-services-among-young-adults
#3
Christopher H Wade, Kailyn R Elliott
OBJECTIVES: As whole genome sequencing (WGS) becomes increasingly available, clinicians will be faced with conveying complex information to individuals at different stages in life. The purpose of this study is to characterize the views of young adults toward obtaining WGS, learning different types of genomic information, and having choice about which results are disclosed. METHODS: A mixed-methods descriptive study was conducted with a diverse group of 18 and 19-years-olds (N = 145)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320846/working-memory-load-strengthens-reward-prediction-errors
#4
Anne G E Collins, Brittany Ciullo, Michael J Frank, David Badre
Reinforcement learning in simple instrumental tasks is usually modeled as a monolithic process in which reward prediction errors are used to update expected values of choice options. This modeling ignores the different contributions of different memory and decision-making systems thought to contribute even to simple learning. In an fMRI experiment, we asked how working memory and incremental reinforcement learning processes interact to guide human learning. Working memory load was manipulated by varying the number of stimuli to be learned across blocks...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316785/narrative-change-narrative-stability-and-structural-constraint-the-case-of-prisoner-reentry-narratives
#5
David J Harding, Cheyney C Dobson, Jessica J B Wyse, Jeffrey D Morenoff
Cultural sociologists and other social scientists have increasingly used the concept of narrative as a theoretical tool to understand how individuals make sense of the links between their past, present, and future, how individuals construct social identities from cultural building blocks, and how culture shapes social action and individual behavior. Despite its richness, we contend that the narratives literature has yet to grapple with narrative change and stability when structural constraints or barriers challenge personal narratives and narrative identities...
March 2017: Am J Cult Sociol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299747/the-measurement-of-water-scarcity-defining-a-meaningful-indicator
#6
REVIEW
Simon Damkjaer, Richard Taylor
Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful...
March 15, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293199/the-science-of-racing-against-opponents-affordance-competition-and-the-regulation-of-exercise-intensity-in-head-to-head-competition
#7
Florentina J Hettinga, Marco J Konings, Gert-Jan Pepping
Athlete-environment interactions are crucial factors in understanding the regulation of exercise intensity in head-to-head competitions. Previously, we have proposed a framework based on the interdependence of perception and action, which allows us to explore athletic behavior in the more complex pacing situations occurring when athletes need to respond to actions of their opponents. In the present perspective we will further explore whether opponents, crucial external factors in competitive sports, could indeed be perceived as social invitations for action...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287850/five-challenges-to-ethical-communication-for-interprofessional-paediatric-practice-a-social-work-perspective
#8
Clare Delany, Angela Richards, Helen Stewart, Lauren Kosta
In paediatric clinical care, what is said to a parent or carer as well as when, where, and how it is said, directly advances or diminishes parents' capacities to understand available options and to contribute to decisions about treatment for their child. This makes interprofessional and patient communication an ethical endeavour. Social workers are uniquely situated to observe, participate in, and provide an active link in the communication between families and other health team members. This article reports phenomenological research exploring ethical issues encountered by social workers in their everyday practice communicating with families and other health professionals in a paediatric hospital context in Australia...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281320/measuring-choice-for-adults-with-an-intellectual-disability-a-factor-analysis-of-the-adapted-daily-choice-inventory-scale
#9
M-A O'Donovan, E Byrne, P McCallion, M McCarron
BACKGROUND: For most people, choice making is an everyday occurrence, but for adults with an intellectual disability (ID), such opportunities are often limited, if not, absent. Defining choice, and related opportunity capacity and supports continue to feature prominently in academic, practice and policy discourse within the field of ID as reflected in the range of measures available. This paper examines the factor analytic properties of an adapted 14-item choice inventory scale. METHOD: Presence and type of choice were recorded in wave 1 of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing using a choice inventory scale adapted for the Irish context for 753 participants with ID over age 40 years...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280932/bits-and-bytes-the-future-of-radiology-lies-in-informatics-and-information-technology
#10
James A Brink, Ronald L Arenson, Thomas M Grist, Jonathan S Lewin, Dieter Enzmann
Advances in informatics and information technology are sure to alter the practice of medical imaging and image-guided therapies substantially over the next decade. Each element of the imaging continuum will be affected by substantial increases in computing capacity coincident with the seamless integration of digital technology into our society at large. This article focuses primarily on areas where this IT transformation is likely to have a profound effect on the practice of radiology. KEY POINTS: • Clinical decision support ensures consistent and appropriate resource utilization...
March 9, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275850/analysis-of-swedish-forest-owners-information-and-knowledge-sharing-networks-for-decision-making-insights-for-climate-change-communication-and-adaptation
#11
Karin André, Julia Baird, Åsa Gerger Swartling, Gregor Vulturius, Ryan Plummer
To further the understanding of climate change adaptation processes, more attention needs to be paid to the various contextual factors that shape whether and how climate-related knowledge and information is received and acted upon by actors involved. This study sets out to examine the characteristics of forest owners' in Sweden, the information and knowledge-sharing networks they draw upon for decision-making, and their perceptions of climate risks, their forests' resilience, the need for adaptation, and perceived adaptive capacity...
March 8, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274298/treatment-decision-making-capacity-in-non-consensual-psychiatric-treatment-a-multicentre-study
#12
G Mandarelli, F Carabellese, G Parmigiani, F Bernardini, L Pauselli, R Quartesan, R Catanesi, S Ferracuti
AIMS: To evaluate treatment decision-making capacity (DMC) to consent to psychiatric treatment in involuntarily committed patients and to further investigate possible associations with clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of patients. METHODS: 131 involuntarily hospitalised patients were recruited in three university hospitals. Mental capacity to consent to treatment was measured with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T); psychiatric symptoms severity (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, BPRS-E) and cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE) were also assessed...
March 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270466/protecting-the-health-and-finances-of-the-elderly-with-early-cognitive-impairment
#13
Judith Edersheim, Evan D Murray, Jaya L Padmanabhan, Bruce H Price
The projected expansion of the nation's elderly population necessitates the revision of health care and policy strategies for safeguarding the health and assets of this community. The elderly are at greatly increased risk for developing mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. These conditions are associated with diminished complex decision-making abilities that adversely affect patients, their families, and society, even during early stages of Alzheimer's disease. We present three composite patient histories that demonstrate problems routinely encountered by families, health care providers, and legal professionals during the course of early AD and MCI...
March 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269808/development-of-a-framework-for-resilience-measurement-suggestion-of-fuzzy-resilience-grade-rg-and-fuzzy-resilience-early-warning-grade-rewg
#14
Mohsen Omidvar, Adel Mazlomi, Fam Iraj Mohammad, Fereshteh Nirumand
BACKGROUND: Resilience engineering (RE) can be an alternative technique to the traditional risk assessment and management techniques, to predict and manage safety conditions of modern socio-technical organizations. While traditional risk management approaches are retrospective and highlight error calculation and computation of malfunction possibilities, resilience engineering seeks ways to improve capacity at all levels of organizations in order to build strong yet flexible processes...
February 28, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265798/the-role-of-a-hospital-ethics-consultation-service-in-decision-making-for-unrepresented-patients
#15
Andrew M Courtwright, Joshua Abrams, Ellen M Robinson
Despite increased calls for hospital ethics committees to serve as default decision-makers about life-sustaining treatment (LST) for unrepresented patients who lack decision-making capacity or a surrogate decision-maker and whose wishes regarding medical care are not known, little is known about how committees currently function in these cases. This was a retrospective cohort study of all ethics committee consultations involving decision-making about LST for unrepresented patients at a large academic hospital from 2007 to 2013...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265739/risk-stratifying-capacity-of-pet-ct-metabolic-tumor-volume-in-stage-iiia-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#16
Joshua H Finkle, Stephanie Y Jo, Mark K Ferguson, Hai-Yan Liu, Chenpeng Zhang, Xuee Zhu, Cindy Yuan, Yonglin Pu
OBJECTIVES: Stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in tumor burden, and its treatment is variable. Whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTVWB) has been shown to be an independent prognostic index for overall survival (OS). However, the potential of MTVWB to risk-stratify stage IIIA NSCLC has previously been unknown. If we can identify subgroups within the stage exhibiting significant OS differences using MTVWB, MTVWB may lead to adjustments in patients' risk profile evaluations and may, therefore, influence clinical decision making regarding treatment...
March 7, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265717/the-importance-of-physical-function-to-people-with-osteoporosis
#17
C Kerr, C Bottomley, S Shingler, L Giangregorio, H M de Freitas, C Patel, S Randall, D T Gold
There is increasing need to understand patient outcomes in osteoporosis. This article discusses that fracture in osteoporosis can lead to a cycle of impairment, driven by complex psychosocial factors, having a profound impact on physical function/activity which accumulates over time. More information is required on how treatments impact physical function. INTRODUCTION: There is increasing need to understand patient-centred outcomes in osteoporosis (OP) clinical research and management...
March 6, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263273/hospital-administration-and-nursing-leadership-in-disasters-an-exploratory-study-using-concept-mapping
#18
Tener Goodwin Veenema, Katherine Deruggiero, Sarah Losinski, Daniel Barnett
Strong leadership is critical in disaster situations when "patient surge" challenges a hospital's capacity to respond and normally acceptable patterns of care are disrupted. Activation of the emergency operations plan triggers an incident command system structure for leadership decision making. Yet, implementation of the emergency operations plan and incident command system protocols is ultimately subject to nursing and hospital leadership at the service- and unit level. The results of these service-/unit-based leadership decisions have the potential to directly impact staff and patient safety, quality of care, and ultimately, patient outcomes...
April 2017: Nursing Administration Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262511/are-non-demented-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-able-to-decide-about-their-own-treatment
#19
Sandra Eygelshoven, Anja van den Hout, Lara Tucha, Anselm B M Fuermaier, Dorien F Bangma, Johannes Thome, Jill Lobbestael, Oliver Tucha, Janneke Koerts
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are often confronted with difficult medical decisions, which might be hampered by cognitive impairment or chronic stress. Little is known, however, about the capacity to make medical decisions and the influence of cognition and stress on this ability. This study determined whether non-demented Parkinson's disease patients are able to make medical decisions and whether this capacity is influenced by cognition and stress. METHODS: Forty-six Parkinson's disease patients and 94 healthy controls were assessed with the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment during which participants were presented with deep brain stimulation as a treatment option for a fictional Parkinson's disease patient...
February 21, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257544/navigating-clinical-ethics-using-real-case-constellations-to-guide-learners-and-teachers-in-medicine
#20
Katherine Wasson, Mark Kuczewski, Michael P McCarthy, Kayhan Parsi, Emily E Anderson, Paul Hutchison
Case-based learning is a staple of clinical ethics education in medicine. The sources for medical educators generally are lengthy case books or single, often rare, case analyses in the literature. Busy clinicians may not have the time or inclination to sift through case books to find suitable teaching material, and the latter present unusual cases that many physicians may never encounter in their own practice. Relatively few articles present multiple cases involving ethical issues that are likely to appear in everyday practice in an accessible format for teaching...
March 2017: Southern Medical Journal
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