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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243391/bayesian-molecular-dating-opening-up-the-black-box
#1
Lindell Bromham, Sebastián Duchêne, Xia Hua, Andrew M Ritchie, David A Duchêne, Simon Y W Ho
Molecular dating analyses allow evolutionary timescales to be estimated from genetic data, offering an unprecedented capacity for investigating the evolutionary past of all species. These methods require us to make assumptions about the relationship between genetic change and evolutionary time, often referred to as a 'molecular clock'. Although initially regarded with scepticism, molecular dating has now been adopted in many areas of biology. This broad uptake has been due partly to the development of Bayesian methods that allow complex aspects of molecular evolution, such as variation in rates of change across lineages, to be taken into account...
December 15, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240485/preparing-for-future-incapacity
#2
Richard Griffith
Richard Griffith, Senior Lecturer in Health Law at Swansea University, discusses the options available for those preparing for the future when ill health may affect their capacity to make decisions about their care.
December 14, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236698/madm-based-smart-parking-guidance-algorithm
#3
Bo Li, Yijian Pei, Hao Wu, Dijiang Huang
In smart parking environments, how to choose suitable parking facilities with various attributes to satisfy certain criteria is an important decision issue. Based on the multiple attributes decision making (MADM) theory, this study proposed a smart parking guidance algorithm by considering three representative decision factors (i.e., walk duration, parking fee, and the number of vacant parking spaces) and various preferences of drivers. In this paper, the expected number of vacant parking spaces is regarded as an important attribute to reflect the difficulty degree of finding available parking spaces, and a queueing theory-based theoretical method was proposed to estimate this expected number for candidate parking facilities with different capacities, arrival rates, and service rates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234514/mental-capacity-act-northern-ireland-2016
#4
REVIEW
Gerard Lynch, Catherine Taggart, Philip Campbell
Mental health legislation in Northern Ireland has always been separate from legislation in the rest of the UK; the Mental Health (Northern Ireland) Order (MHO) had been in place since 1986. In common with other jurisdictions, this legislation utilises the presence of mental disorder and risk as criteria for detention and involuntary treatment. The MHO has been replaced by the Mental Capacity Act (Northern Ireland) 2016 (MCA), an example of 'fusion' legislation in which impairment of decision-making capacity and best interests are the only criteria to be used when making decisions across health and social care...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234508/national-survey-of-training-of-psychiatrists-on-advance-directives-to-refuse-treatment-in-bipolar-disorder
#5
Richard Morriss, Mohan Mudigonda, Peter Bartlett, Arun Chopra, Steven Jones
Aims and method To determine features associated with better perceived quality of training for psychiatrists on advance decision-making in the Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA), and whether the quality or amount of training were associated with positive attitudes or use of advance decisions to refuse treatment (ADRTs) by psychiatrists in people with bipolar disorder. An anonymised national survey of 650 trainee and consultant psychiatrists in England and Wales was performed. Results Good or better quality of training was associated with use of case summaries, role-play, ADRTs, assessment of mental capacity and its fluctuation...
December 2017: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230428/an-account-from-the-inside-examining-the-emotional-impact-of-qualitative-research-through-the-lens-of-insider-research
#6
Lori E Ross
The benefits and challenges of insider positionality have been much written about in relation to qualitative research. However, the specific emotional implications of insider research have been little explored. In this manuscript, I aim to bring the literature on insider positionality to the study of emotion in qualitative research through a reflection on my experiences as a "total insider" conducting interviews for a longitudinal qualitative study examining mental health during the transition to parenthood among sexual minority women...
November 2017: Qualitative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228367/how-social-structure-drives-the-population-dynamics-of-the-common-vampire-bat-desmodus-rotundus-phyllostomidae
#7
Maïlis Huguin, Nidia Arechiga-Ceballos, Marguerite Delaval, Amandine Guidez, Isaï Jorge de Castro, Vincent Lacoste, Arielle Salmier, Alvaro Aguilar Setien, Claudia Regina Silva, Anne Lavergne, Benoit de Thoisy
Social systems are major drivers of population structure and gene flow, with important effects on dynamics and dispersal of associated populations of parasites. Among bats, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) has likely one of the most complex social structure. Using autosomal and mitochondrial markers on vampires from Mexico, French Guiana and North Brazil, from both roosting and foraging areas, we observed an isolation by distance at the wider scale and lower but significant differentiation between closer populations (<50 km)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227277/use-of-complementary-and-alternative-medicine-in-georgia
#8
I Nadareishvili, K Lunze, N Tabagari, A Beraia, G Pkhakadze
In Georgia, like in most countries globally, people commonly resort to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, not much is known about CAM practices there. The aim of the study was to document common practices of CAM in Georgia and related patient attitudes. We collected data from peoples who commonly use CAM at 20 service provision centers in Georgia using cluster sampling from 300 patients. We admininstered a cross-sectional survey and conducted descriptive statistical analyses. People in Georgia use CAM either for prevention to improve general health (33%) or to treat chronic conditions (36%), spending about 25 Euros per month out of pocket...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225669/self-regulation-principles-underlying-risk-perception-and-decision-making-within-the-context-of-genomic-testing
#9
Linda D Cameron, Barbara Bowles Biesecker, Ellen Peters, Jennifer M Taber, William M P Klein
Advances in theory and research on self-regulation and decision-making processes have yielded important insights into how cognitive, emotional, and social processes shape risk perceptions and risk-related decisions. We examine how self-regulation theory can be applied to inform our understanding of decision-making processes within the context of genomic testing, a clinical arena in which individuals face complex risk information and potentially life-altering decisions. After presenting key principles of self-regulation, we present a genomic testing case example to illustrate how principles related to risk representations, approach and avoidance motivations, emotion regulation, defensive responses, temporal construals, and capacities such as numeric abilities can shape decisions and psychological responses during the genomic testing process...
May 2017: Social and Personality Psychology Compass
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224699/measuring-physical-capacity-and-performance-in-older-people
#10
REVIEW
Sarah E Lamb, David J Keene
We highlight the important differences between the concepts of capacity and performance and highlight the development of measures and their application in common conditions encountered in health care practice with older people. A number of expert consensus projects have concluded that mobility, balance, muscle strength and dexterity are core domains for capacity measurement in older people. Instruments with evidence of adequate psychometric properties for the evaluation of capacity in response to intervention programmes include the Short Physical Performance Battery, hand grip strength, mini-BEST and 9-hole pegboard test...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219085/perceptions-about-data-informed-decisions-an-assessment-of-information-use-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-in-south-africa
#11
Edward Nicol, Debbie Bradshaw, Jeannine Uwimana-Nicol, Lilian Dudley
BACKGROUND: Information-use is an integral component of a routine health information system and essential to influence policy-making, program actions and research. Despite an increased amount of routine data collected, planning and resource-allocation decisions made by health managers for managing HIV programs are often not based on data. This study investigated the use of information, and barriers to using routine data for monitoring the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in two high HIV-prevalence districts in South Africa...
December 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215362/the-switch-to-refillable-bottled-water-in-indonesia-a-serious-health-risk
#12
Ahmad Komarulzaman, Eelke de Jong, Jeroen Smits
In recent years, the consumption of refillable bottled water has increased considerably in emerging countries. However, the quality of this water is often questionable, as authorities lack the capacity to properly check refilling depots. Given that refillable bottled water not only replaces unimproved water sources, but also better-quality sources, like piped and branded bottled water, its increasing use poses a major health risk. We investigate the motives behind the decision to switch to refillable bottled water in Indonesia...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212735/decision-making-capacity-for-chemotherapy-and-associated-factors-in-newly-diagnosed-patients-with-lung-cancer
#13
Asao Ogawa, Kyoko Kondo, Hiroyuki Takei, Daisuke Fujisawa, Yuichiro Ohe, Tatsuo Akechi
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess decision-making capacity in patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer, clinical factors associated with impaired capacity, and physicians' perceptions of patients' decision-making capacity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 122 patients newly diagnosed with lung cancer. One hundred fourteen completed the assessment. All patients were receiving a combination of treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or targeted therapy)...
December 6, 2017: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212362/how-health-professionals-facilitate-parents-involvement-in-decision-making-at-the-hospital-a-parental-perspective
#14
Antje Aarthun, Knut A Øymar, Kristin Akerjordet
In many western countries, parents have a legal right to influence and be involved in decision-making (DM) surrounding their children's healthcare. This ensures that the healthcare is customized as far as possible to meet the children's and families' needs and preferences. However, parental involvement in such DM is not sufficiently implemented and the parental role during hospitalizations has become demanding. More knowledge is required to inform health professionals (HPs) about how to improve parental involvement in DM from a health-promoting perspective...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210254/developing-a-legal-framework-for-advance-healthcare-planning-comparing-england-wales-and-ireland
#15
Mary Donnelly
This article examines the legislative frameworks for advance healthcare planning in England & Wales (the Mental Capacity Act 2005) and in Ireland (the Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Act 2015), undertaking a comparative analysis of each measure, with particular focus on the detail of the approaches taken. It is only through this kind of detailed focus that the normative choices made by legislation can fully be understood and evaluated. The article argues that, in several respects, possibly because the drafters were able to reflect lessons learned from other jurisdictions, the Assisted Decision-Making (Capacity) Act 2015 provides a more rounded and complete form of advance healthcare planning than that provided by the Mental Capacity Act...
March 2017: European Journal of Health Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210012/the-invisibility-of-fisheries-in-the-process-of-hydropower-development-across-the-amazon
#16
Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria, Simone Athayde, Elineide E Marques, Maria Alice Leite Lima, Jynessa Dutka-Gianelli, Mauro Luis Ruffino, David Kaplan, Carlos E C Freitas, Victoria N Isaac
We analyze the invisibility of fisheries and inadequacy of fishers' participation in the process of hydropower development in the Amazon, focusing on gaps between legally mandated and actual outcomes. Using Ostrom's institutional design principles for assessing common-pool resource management, we selected five case studies from Brazilian Amazonian watersheds to conduct an exploratory comparative case-study analysis. We identify similar problems across basins, including deficiencies in the dam licensing process; critical data gaps; inadequate stakeholder participation; violation of human rights; neglect of fishers' knowledge; lack of organization and representation by fishers' groups; and lack of governmental structure and capacity to manage dam construction activities or support fishers after dam construction...
December 5, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209899/when-behavioral-health-concerns-present-in-pediatric-primary-care-factors-influencing-provider-decision-making
#17
Elizabeth H Connors, Prerna Arora, Angela M Blizzard, Kelly Bower, Kelly Coble, Joyce Harrison, David Pruitt, Janna Steinberg, Lawrence Wissow
Primary care providers (PCPs) frequently encounter behavioral health (BH) needs among their pediatric patients. However, PCPs report variable training in and comfort with BH, and questions remain about how and when PCPs address pediatric BH needs. Existing literature on PCP decisions to address pediatric BH in-office versus referring to subspecialty BH is limited and findings are mixed. Accordingly, this study sought to examine parameters and contextual factors influencing PCP decisions and practices related to BH care...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202428/factors-influencing-participation-of-psychiatry-inpatients-in-clinical-trials
#18
Nandeeshwar Reddy Mopuru, Sam Padamadan Jose, Biju Viswanath, C Naveen Kumar, Suresh Bada Math, Jagadisha Thirthalli
Serious concerns have arisen in recent years regarding the unethical and illegal practices resorted to during clinical trials. Clinical trials in psychiatry are further complicated by issues such as 'validity of consent' and 'decision making capacity' of patients. This study was planned to explore the factors determining patient participation in clinical trials. A random sample of 123 consenting psychiatry inpatients were provided the information and consent-form of a hypothetical clinical drug trial. They were interviewed regarding their decision, the decision maker and factors that led to the decision...
November 29, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197391/exploring-the-feasibility-of-ehealth-solutions-to-decrease-delays-in-maternal-healthcare-in-remote-communities-of-ghana
#19
Pedro Pagalday-Olivares, Bengt Arne Sjöqvist, Jessy Adjordor-van de Beek, Samuel Abudey, Ants R Silberberg, Ruben Buendia
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of the Millennium Development Goal to reduce maternal deaths from 400 to 100 per 100,000 live births, the proportion of maternal deaths is still much higher in most developing countries like Ghana. Various interventions have been implemented in Ghana that focus on increasing skilled maternal care. These are especially needed in rural areas. EHealth has the potential to contribute to reducing the challenges in maternal healthcare (MHC) that poor areas suffer...
December 2, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194029/development-of-the-supported-decision-making-inventory-system
#20
Karrie A Shogren, Michael L Wehmeyer, Hatice Uyanik, Megan Heidrich
Supported decision making has received increased attention as an alternative to guardianship and a means to enable people with intellectual and developmental disabilities to exercise their right to legal capacity. Assessments are needed that can used by people with disabilities and their systems of supports to identify and plan for needed supports to enable decision making. This article describes the steps taken to develop such an assessment tool, the Supported Decision Making Inventory System (SDMIS), and initial feedback received from self-advocates with intellectual disability...
December 2017: Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
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