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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715669/the-contributions-of-numerical-acuity-and-non-numerical-stimulus-features-to-the-development-of-the-number-sense-and-symbolic-math-achievement
#1
Ariel Starr, Nicholas K DeWind, Elizabeth M Brannon
Numerical acuity, frequently measured by a Weber fraction derived from nonsymbolic numerical comparison judgments, has been shown to be predictive of mathematical ability. However, recent findings suggest that stimulus controls in these tasks are often insufficiently implemented, and the proposal has been made that alternative visual features or inhibitory control capacities may actually explain this relation. Here, we use a novel mathematical algorithm to parse the relative influence of numerosity from other visual features in nonsymbolic numerical discrimination and to examine the strength of the relations between each of these variables, including inhibitory control, and mathematical ability...
July 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715239/parental-self-efficacy-to-support-teens-during-a-suicidal-crisis-and-future-adolescent-emergency-department-visits-and-suicide-attempts
#2
Ewa K Czyz, Adam G Horwitz, Carlos E Yeguez, Cynthia J Ewell Foster, Cheryl A King
This study of adolescents seeking emergency department (ED) services and their parents examined parents' self-efficacy beliefs to engage in suicide prevention activities, whether these beliefs varied based on teens' characteristics, and the extent to which they were associated with adolescents' suicide-related outcomes. Participants included 162 adolescents (57% female, 81.5% Caucasian), ages 13-17, and their parents. At index visit, parents rated their self-efficacy to engage in suicide prevention activities and their expectations regarding their teen's future suicide risk...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707123/visual-properties-and-memorising-scenes-effects-of-image-space-sparseness-and-uniformity
#3
Jiří Lukavský, Filip Děchtěrenko
Previous studies have demonstrated that humans have a remarkable capacity to memorise a large number of scenes. The research on memorability has shown that memory performance can be predicted by the content of an image. We explored how remembering an image is affected by the image properties within the context of the reference set, including the extent to which it is different from its neighbours (image-space sparseness) and if it belongs to the same category as its neighbours (uniformity). We used a reference set of 2,048 scenes (64 categories), evaluated pairwise scene similarity using deep features from a pretrained convolutional neural network (CNN), and calculated the image-space sparseness and uniformity for each image...
July 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705187/analysis-of-home-based-rehabilitation-in-patients-with-motor-impairment-in-primary-care-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Francisco Antonio Vega-Ramírez, Remedios López-Liria, Genoveva Granados-Gámez, Jose Manuel Aguilar-Parra, David Padilla-Góngora
BACKGROUND: The purpose of health and social policies is to encourage older people more longevity, remain free of disability and experience quality of life while living in their homes. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of 473 patients diagnosed with motor impairment in primary care, the objectives of home-based rehabilitation and its functional impact. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the Almería Health District...
July 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701031/patient-s-cognitive-function-and-attitudes-towards-family-involvement-in-cancer-treatment-decision-making-a-patient-family-caregiver-dyadic-analysis
#5
Dong Wook Shin, Juhee Cho, Debra L Roter, So Young Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Hyung Kook Yang, Hyun Woo Lee, Sun-Seog Kweon, Yune Sik Kang, Keeho Park
Purpose: Older patient populations commonly have cognitive impairment, which might impact decisional capacity. We examined patients and family caregivers preferences for family involvement in treatment decision making assuming different level of cognitive impairment, and sought to explore the factors associated with the preferences and the degree to which patients and family members agree on preferences. Materials and Methods: A total of 358 elderly cancer patient and caregiver dyads were recruited from the 11 cancer centers in Korea, and were asked to express their preferences for family involvement in treatment decision making using hypothetical scenarios with three different levels of cognitive status (intact, mild impairment, and severe impairment)...
July 4, 2017: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699195/model-based-meta-analysis-on-the-efficacy-of-pharmacological-treatments-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Phyllis Chan, Leon Bax, Chunlin Chen, Nancy Zhang, Shu-Pang Huang, Holly Soares, Glenn Rosen, Malaz AbuTarif
Recently the FDA approved the first two drugs (pirfenidone and nintedanib) indicated for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The purpose of this analysis was to leverage publicly available data to quantify comparative efficacy of compounds that are approved or in development. An analysis-ready database was developed, and the analysis dataset is composed of summary-level data from 43 arms in 20 trials, with treatment durations ranging from 8 to 104 weeks. A hierarchical multivariable regression model with non-parametric placebo estimation was used to fit the longitudinal profile of change from baseline of percent predicted forced vital capacity (%predicted FVC) data...
July 11, 2017: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699053/vicarious-effort-based-decision-making-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#7
Maya G Mosner, Jessica L Kinard, Sean McWeeny, Jasmine S Shah, Nathan D Markiewitz, Cara R Damiano-Goodwin, Margaret R Burchinal, Helena J V Rutherford, Rachel K Greene, Michael T Treadway, Gabriel S Dichter
This study investigated vicarious effort-based decision-making in 50 adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) compared to 32 controls using the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task. Participants made choices to win money for themselves or for another person. When choosing for themselves, the ASD group exhibited relatively similar patterns of effort-based decision-making across reward parameters. However, when choosing for another person, the ASD group demonstrated relatively decreased sensitivity to reward magnitude, particularly in the high magnitude condition...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695561/medical-challenges-at-the-end-of-the-first-ten-decades-of-life
#8
Thomas Münzer
Demographic changes worldwide challenge the healthcare system. Advanced age is associated with a number of biological alterations that, together with concomitant comorbidities, increase the risk for functional decline by inducing functional disintegration. In this concept frailty and sarcopenia play an important role. Consequently the preservation of muscle mass and function are prominent targets of medicine in old age. In order to professionally care for persons in their last years of life several other factors influencing medical decisions regarding diagnostic and treatments are important...
July 11, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693385/observations-from-california-s-delivery-system-reform-incentive-payment-program
#9
Ulfat Shaikh, Kenneth W Kizer
California's Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) Program provided $3.3 billion over 5 years to support 21 public hospitals improve the quality of health care delivery and population health. The Institute for Population Health Improvement provided technical support and quality improvement mentorship to the California Department of Health Care Services in implementing the DSRIP Program. This report describes the following key observations on the implementation of the program: the need to reduce variability in data collection and management, memorialize decision-making processes, build broad quality improvement capacity, define and revisit improvement targets, anticipate evolution of clinical definitions and guidelines, provide frequent feedback to participating hospitals, engage frontline clinicians, balance short- and long-term improvement goals, acknowledge regulatory requirements and improvement efforts that may compete for resources, and build in shared learning and dissemination of interventions...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Medical Quality: the Official Journal of the American College of Medical Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692384/advancing-the-use-of-emergency-department-syndromic-surveillance-data-new-york-city-2012-2016
#10
Ramona Lall, Jasmine Abdelnabi, Stephanie Ngai, Hilary B Parton, Kelly Saunders, Jessica Sell, Amanda Wahnich, Don Weiss, Robert W Mathes
INTRODUCTION: The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa...
July 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691636/optimal-control-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-and-system-cost-for-integrated-municipal-solid-waste-management-with-considering-a-hierarchical-structure
#11
Jing Li, Li He, Xing Fan, Yizhong Chen, Hongwei Lu
This study presents a synergic optimization of control for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and system cost in integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management on a basis of bi-level programming. The bi-level programming is formulated by integrating minimizations of GHG emissions at the leader level and system cost at the follower level into a general MSW framework. Different from traditional single- or multi-objective approaches, the proposed bi-level programming is capable of not only addressing the tradeoffs but also dealing with the leader-follower relationship between different decision makers, who have dissimilar perspectives interests...
July 1, 2017: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689031/re-defining-the-characteristics-of-environmental-volunteering-creating-a-typology-of-community-scale-green-infrastructure
#12
Gemma Jerome, Ian Mell, Dave Shaw
One way to engage people with green infrastructure (GI) is as environmental volunteers. Previous studies explored the nature of such groups/projects in terms of the benefits they deliver such as their impact on levels of social capital within a pre-defined community. However, existing literature contributes little to our understanding of the composition, characteristics and mechanisms used to form and maintain these groups. As such, it is difficult to establish the influencing factors determining the capacity of a group to sustain its provision over time...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686563/-legal-capacity-and-instruments-assessing-cognitive-functions-in-patients-with-dementia
#13
P Voskou, S Papageorgiou, A Economou, A Douzenis
The term "legal capacity" refers to the ability of a person to make a valid declaration of his will or to accept such a declaration. This ability constitutes the main condition for the validity of the legal transaction. The legal transaction includes issues that are adjusted by the Civil Code with which the relations of the citizens in a society are regulated. General practitioners and legal advisors, in any case of a person with cognitive impairment of various severity, should take into account that the assessment tests of the cognitive functions are not by themselves diagnostic of the dementia and they cannot be used as the only way of evaluation of the capacity of patients with cognitive impairment or possible dementia to respond to the needs of everyday life and in more complex decisions, such as the legal capacity...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686129/centres-for-leadership-a-strategy-for-academic-integration
#14
Gillian King, Kathryn Parker, Sean Peacocke, C J Curran, Amy C McPherson, Tom Chau, Elaine Widgett, Darcy Fehlings, Golda Milo-Manson
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how an Academic Health Science Centre, providing pediatric rehabilitation services, research, and education, developed a Centres for Leadership (CfL) initiative to integrate its academic functions and embrace the goal of being a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach Historical documents, tracked output information, and staff members' insights were used to describe the ten-year evolution of the initiative, its benefits, and transformational learnings for the organization...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Health Organization and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683420/shoulder-assessment-according-to-the-international-classification-of-functioning-by-means-of-inertial-sensor-technologies-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Liesbet De Baets, Rob van der Straaten, Thomas Matheve, Annick Timmermans
This review investigates current protocols using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) in shoulder research, and outlines future paths regarding IMU use for shoulder research. Different databases were searched for relevant articles. Criteria for study selection were (1) research in healthy persons or persons with shoulder problems, (2) IMUs applied as assessment tool for the shoulder (in healthy subjects and shoulder patients) or upper limb (in shoulder patients), (3) peer-reviewed, full-text papers in English or Dutch...
June 27, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678433/qualitative-insights-into-the-experience-of-teaching-shared-decision-making-within-adult-education-health-literacy-programmes-for-lower-literacy-learners
#16
Danielle M Muscat, Suzanne Morony, Sian K Smith, Heather L Shepherd, Haryana M Dhillon, Andrew Hayen, Lyndal Trevena, Karen Luxford, Don Nutbeam, Kirsten J McCaffery
BACKGROUND: Enhancing health literacy can play a major role in improving healthcare and health across the globe. To build higher-order (communicative/critical) health literacy skills among socially disadvantaged Australians, we developed a novel shared decision making (SDM) training programme for adults with lower literacy. The programme was delivered by trained educators within an adult basic education health literacy course. OBJECTIVE: To explore the experience of teaching SDM within a health literacy programme and investigate whether communicative/critical health literacy content meets learner needs and teaching and institutional objectives...
July 5, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678165/functional-freedom-a-psychological-model-of-freedom-in-decision-making
#17
Stephan Lau, Anette Hiemisch
The freedom of a decision is not yet sufficiently described as a psychological variable. We present a model of functional decision freedom that aims to fill that role. The model conceptualizes functional freedom as a capacity of people that varies depending on certain conditions of a decision episode. It denotes an inner capability to consciously shape complex decisions according to one's own values and needs. Functional freedom depends on three compensatory dimensions: it is greatest when the decision-maker is highly rational, when the structure of the decision is highly underdetermined, and when the decision process is strongly based on conscious thought and reflection...
July 5, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673300/volunteer-navigation-partnerships-piloting-a-compassionate-community-approach-to-early-palliative-care
#18
Barbara Pesut, Wendy Duggleby, Grace Warner, Konrad Fassbender, Elisabeth Antifeau, Brenda Hooper, Madeleine Greig, Kelli Sullivan
BACKGROUND: A compassionate community approach to palliative care provides important rationale for building community-based hospice volunteer capacity. In this project, we piloted one such capacity-building model in which volunteers and a nurse partnered to provide navigation support beginning in the early palliative phase for adults living in community. The goal was to improve quality of life by developing independence, engagement, and community connections. METHODS: Volunteers received navigation training through a three-day workshop and then conducted in-home visits with clients living with advanced chronic illness over one year...
July 3, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670272/behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-impact-clinical-competence-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Elodie Bertrand, Eelco van Duinkerken, J Landeira-Fernandez, Marcia C N Dourado, Raquel L Santos, Jerson Laks, Daniel C Mograbi
Decision-making is considered a fundamental aspect of personal autonomy and can be affected in psychiatric and neurologic diseases. It has been shown that cognitive deficits in dementia impact negatively on decision-making. Moreover, studies highlighted impaired clinical competence in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. In this context, the current study explored the relationship between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and clinical competence, especially the capacity to consent to treatment, in Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665090/the-bingo-card-sign-as-an-early-symptom-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
C L A Hawco, D F Weaver
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized pathologically by irreversible protein misfolding-induced neuronal loss, and clinically by progressive impairments in memory, judgment, decision making, literacy and numeracy. We report a patient referred to Memory Clinic with a single complaint, "reduced capacity to play bingo." We suggest that the capacity to successfully play bingo may afford clinical clues indicating an early symptom of dementia and inquiries about bingo participation may be a useful when assessing individuals for dementia...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
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