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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140499/simple-arithmetic-not-so-simple-for-highly-math-anxious-individuals
#1
Hyesang Chang, Lisa Sprute, Erin A Maloney, Sian L Beilock, Marc G Berman
Fluency with simple arithmetic, typically achieved in early elementary school, is thought to be one of the building blocks of mathematical competence. Behavioral studies with adults indicate that math anxiety (feelings of tension or apprehension about math) is associated with poor performance on cognitively demanding math problems. However, it remains unclear whether there are fundamental differences in how high and low math anxious individuals approach overlearned simple arithmetic problems that are less reliant on cognitive control...
November 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140274/an-efficient-approach-for-lipase-catalyzed-synthesis-of-retinyl-laurate-nutraceutical-by-combining-ultrasound-assistance-and-artificial-neural-network-optimization
#2
Shang-Ming Huang, Hsin-Ju Li, Yung-Chuan Liu, Chia-Hung Kuo, Chwen-Jen Shieh
Although retinol is an important nutrient, retinol is highly sensitive to oxidation. At present, some ester forms of retinol are generally used in nutritional supplements because of its stability and bioavailability. However, such esters are commonly synthesized by chemical procedures which are harmful to the environment. Thus, this study utilized a green method using lipase as a catalyst with sonication assistance to produce a retinol derivative named retinyl laurate. Moreover, the process was optimized by an artificial neural network (ANN)...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#3
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139213/heterogeneous-neuronal-activity-in-the-lateral-habenula-after-short-and-long-term-cocaine-self-administration-in-rats
#4
Ping Gao, Henk J Groenewegen, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Cocaine addiction is thought to be the result of drug-induced functional changes in a neural network implicated in emotions, learning, and cognitive control. Recent studies have implicated the lateral habenula (LHb) in drug-directed behavior, especially its aversive aspects. Limited cocaine exposure has been shown to alter neuronal activity in the LHb, but the impact of long-term drug exposure on habenula function has not been determined. Therefore, using c-fos as a marker, we here examined neuronal activity in LHb in rats that self-administered cocaine for either 10 or 60 days...
November 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139174/neural-mechanisms-of-interference-control-in-working-memory-capacity
#5
Jessica Bomyea, Charles T Taylor, Andrea D Spadoni, Alan N Simmons
The extent to which one can use cognitive resources to keep information in working memory is known to rely on (1) active maintenance of target representations and (2) downregulation of interference from irrelevant representations. Neurobiologically, the global capacity of working memory is thought to depend on the prefrontal and parietal cortices; however, the neural mechanisms involved in controlling interference specifically in working memory capacity tasks remain understudied. In this study, 22 healthy participants completed a modified complex working memory capacity task (Reading Span) with trials of varying levels of interference control demands while undergoing functional MRI...
November 14, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139049/feedforward-architectures-driven-by-inhibitory-interactions
#6
Yazan N Billeh, Michael T Schaub
Directed information transmission is paramount for many social, physical, and biological systems. For neural systems, scientists have studied this problem under the paradigm of feedforward networks for decades. In most models of feedforward networks, activity is exclusively driven by excitatory neurons and the wiring patterns between them, while inhibitory neurons play only a stabilizing role for the network dynamics. Motivated by recent experimental discoveries of hippocampal circuitry, cortical circuitry, and the diversity of inhibitory neurons throughout the brain, here we illustrate that one can construct such networks even if the connectivity between the excitatory units in the system remains random...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138490/bidirectional-modulation-of-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-by-dopaminergic-d4-receptors-in-the-ca1-area-of-hippocampus
#7
Sheeja Navakkode, Katherine C M Chew, Sabrina Jia Ning Tay, Qingshu Lin, Thomas Behnisch, Tuck Wah Soong
Long-term potentiation (LTP) is the persistent increase in the strength of the synapses. However, the neural networks would become saturated if there is only synaptic strenghthening. Synaptic weakening could be facilitated by active processes like long-term depression (LTD). Molecular mechanisms that facilitate the weakening of synapses and thereby stabilize the synapses are also important in learning and memory. Here we show that blockade of dopaminergic D4 receptors (D4R) promoted the formation of late-LTP and transformed early-LTP into late-LTP...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137924/nasal-and-otic-placode-specific-regulation-of-sox2-involves-both-activation-by-sox-sall4-synergism-and-multiple-repression-mechanisms
#8
Satoko Sugahara, Tooru Fujimoto, Hisato Kondoh, Masanori Uchikawa
Transcription factor gene Sox2 is expressed throughout sensory development, but the enhancers that regulate the gene vary depending on the developmental stages and tissues. To gain new insights into the gene regulatory network in sensory placode specification, regulation of the nasal-otic bispecific NOP1 enhancer of Sox2 was investigated in chicken embryos. Deletion and mutational analyses using electroporation showed that transcriptional repression mechanisms in combination with activation mechanisms determine placodal specificity...
November 11, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137445/altered-resting-state-functional-activity-in-isolated-pontine-infarction-patients-with-pathological-laughing-and-crying
#9
Tao Liu, Jianjun Li, Shixiong Huang, Changqinq Li, Zhongyan Zhao, Guoqiang Wen, Feng Chen
We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the global spontaneous neural activity involved in pathological laughing and crying after stroke. Twelve pathological laughing and crying patients with isolated pontine infarction were included, along with 12 age- and gender-matched acute isolated pontine infarction patients without pathological laughing and crying, and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We examined both the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation and the regional homogeneity in order to comprehensively evaluate the intrinsic activity in patients with post-stroke pathological laughing and crying...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137413/abnormal-neural-activities-of-directional-brain-networks-in-patients-with-long-term-bilateral-hearing-loss
#10
Long-Chun Xu, Gang Zhang, Yue Zou, Min-Feng Zhang, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Hua Ma, Wen-Bo Zhao, Guang-Yu Zhang
The objective of the study is to provide some implications for rehabilitation of hearing impairment by investigating changes of neural activities of directional brain networks in patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss. Firstly, we implemented neuropsychological tests of 21 subjects (11 patients with long-term bilateral hearing loss, and 10 subjects with normal hearing), and these tests revealed significant differences between the deaf group and the controls. Then we constructed the individual specific virtual brain based on functional magnetic resonance data of participants by utilizing effective connectivity and multivariate regression methods...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137394/measuring-plasma-levels-of-three-micrornas-can-improve-the-accuracy-for-identification-of-malignant-breast-lesions-in-women-with-bi-rads-4-mammography
#11
Julia Alejandra Pezuk, Thiago Luiz Araujo Miller, José Luiz Barbosa Bevilacqua, Alfredo Carlos Simões Dornellas de Barros, Felipe Eduardo Martins de Andrade, Luiza Freire de Andrade E Macedo, Vera Aguilar, Amanda Natasha Menardo Claro, Anamaria Aranha Camargo, Pedro Alexandre Favoretto Galante, Luiz F L Reis
A BI-RADS category of 4 from a mammogram indicates suspicious breast lesions, which require core biopsies for diagnosis and have an approximately one third chance of being malignant. Human plasma contains many circulating microRNAs, and variations in their circulating levels have been associated with pathologies, including cancer. Here, we present a novel methodology to identify malignant breast lesions in women with BI-RADS 4 mammography. First, we used the miRNome array and qRT-PCR to define circulating microRNAs that were differentially represented in blood samples from women with breast tumor (BI-RADS 5 or 6) in comparison to controls (BI-RADS 1 or 2)...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137009/brain-metabolism-in-patients-with-freezing-of-gait-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#12
Seo Yeon Yoon, Sang Chul Lee, Na Young Kim, Young-Sil An, Yong Wook Kim
Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136642/common-and-distinct-structural-features-of-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-the-european-network-on-psychosis-affective-disorders-and-cognitive-trajectory-enpact-study
#13
Eleonora Maggioni, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Igor Nenadic, Francesco Benedetti, Christian Gaser, Heinrich Sauer, Roberto Roiz-Santiañez, Sara Poletti, Veronica Marinelli, Marcella Bellani, Cinzia Perlini, Mirella Ruggeri, A Carlo Altamura, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Paolo Brambilla
INTRODUCTION: Although schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV) using both voxel based morphometry (VBM) and a region of interest (ROI) approach. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC) and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136608/variation-of-the-korotkoff-stethoscope-sounds-during-blood-pressure-measurement-analysis-using-a-convolutional-neural-network
#14
Fan Pan, Peiyu He, Chengyu Liu, Taiyong Li, Alan Murray, Dingchang Zheng
Korotkoff sounds are known to change their characteristics during blood pressure (BP) measurement, resulting in some uncertainties for systolic and diastolic pressure (SBP and DBP) determinations. The aim of this study was to assess the variation of Korotkoff sounds during BP measurement by examining all stethoscope sounds associated with each heartbeat from above systole to below diastole during linear cuff deflation. Three repeat BP measurements were taken from 140 healthy subjects (age 21 to 73 years; 62 female and 78 male) by a trained observer, giving 420 measurements...
November 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136305/neural-basis-of-exertional-fatigue-in-the-heat-a-review-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-methods
#15
REVIEW
X R Tan, Ivan C C Low, Mary C Stephenson, T W Soong, Jason K W Lee
The central nervous system, specifically the brain, is implicated in the development of exertional fatigue under a hot environment. Diverse neuroimaging techniques have been used to visualize the brain activity during or after exercise. Notably, the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become prevalent due to its excellent spatial resolution and versatility. This review evaluates the significance and limitations of various brain MRI techniques in exercise studies - brain volumetric analysis, functional MRI, functional connectivity MRI and arterial spin labelling...
November 14, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136281/genetic-prediction-of-type-2-diabetes-using-deep-neural-network
#16
J Kim, J Kim, M J Kwak, M Bajaj
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has strong heritability but genetic models to explain heritability have been challenging. We tested deep neural network (DNN) to predict T2DM using the nested case-control study of Nurses' Health Study (3,326 females, 45.6% T2DM) and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (2,502 males, 46.5% T2DM). We selected 96, 214, 399, and 678 SNPs through Fisher's exact test and L1-penalized logistic regression. We split each dataset randomly in 4:1 to train prediction models and test their performance...
November 14, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136131/characteristic-increases-in-eeg-connectivity-correlate-with-changes-of-structural-mri-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#17
Bahman Nasseroleslami, Stefan Dukic, Michael Broderick, Kieran Mohr, Christina Schuster, Brighid Gavin, Russell McLaughlin, Mark Heverin, Alice Vajda, Parameswaran M Iyer, Niall Pender, Peter Bede, Edmund C Lalor, Orla Hardiman
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal progressive adult-onset neurodegeneration of the motor system. Although originally considered a pure motor degeneration, there is increasing evidence of disease heterogeneity with varying degrees of extra-motor involvement. How the combined motor and nonmotor degeneration occurs in the context of broader disruption in neural communication across brain networks has not been well characterized. Here, we have performed high-density crossectional and longitudinal resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) recordings on 100 ALS patients and 34 matched controls, and have identified characteristic patterns of altered EEG connectivity that have persisted in longitudinal analyses...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136004/predictability-of-machine-learning-techniques-to-forecast-the-trends-of-market-index-prices-hypothesis-testing-for-the-korean-stock-markets
#18
Sujin Pyo, Jaewook Lee, Mincheol Cha, Huisu Jang
The prediction of the trends of stocks and index prices is one of the important issues to market participants. Investors have set trading or fiscal strategies based on the trends, and considerable research in various academic fields has been studied to forecast financial markets. This study predicts the trends of the Korea Composite Stock Price Index 200 (KOSPI 200) prices using nonparametric machine learning models: artificial neural network, support vector machines with polynomial and radial basis function kernels...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135596/general-anesthetics-to-treat-major-depressive-disorder-clinical-relevance-and-underlying-mechanisms
#19
Laszlo Vutskits
Major depressive disorder is a frequent and devastating psychological condition with tremendous public health impact. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms involve abnormal neurotransmission and a relatedly impaired synaptic plasticity. Since general anesthetics are potent modulators of neuronal activity and, thereby, can exert long-term context-dependent impact on neural networks, an intriguing hypothesis is that these drugs could enhance impaired neural plasticity associated with certain psychiatric diseases...
November 10, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135365/deep-learning-to-classify-radiology-free-text-reports
#20
Matthew C Chen, Robyn L Ball, Lingyao Yang, Nathaniel Moradzadeh, Brian E Chapman, David B Larson, Curtis P Langlotz, Timothy J Amrhein, Matthew P Lungren
Purpose To evaluate the performance of a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN) model compared with a traditional natural language processing (NLP) model in extracting pulmonary embolism (PE) findings from thoracic computed tomography (CT) reports from two institutions. Materials and Methods Contrast material-enhanced CT examinations of the chest performed between January 1, 1998, and January 1, 2016, were selected. Annotations by two human radiologists were made for three categories: the presence, chronicity, and location of PE...
November 13, 2017: Radiology
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