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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786892/association-between-initial-age-of-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-and-cognitive-control-preliminary-evidence
#1
Kristen L Mackiewicz Seghete, Anne P DePrince, Marie T Banich
Cognitive control, which relies on the protracted development of frontal-parietal regions into adolescence, is a brain process that may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of childhood abuse. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine associations between the age of onset of childhood abuse and alterations to the neural mechanisms supporting cognitive control in early adulthood, which have not been previously examined. During fMRI scanning, participants completed hybrid block/event-related versions of a classic color-word Stroop task as well as emotional Stroop tasks (threat and positive words)...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786659/deep-learning-to-predict-falls-in-older-adults-based-on-daily-life-trunk-accelerometry
#2
REVIEW
Ahmed Nait Aicha, Gwenn Englebienne, Kimberley S van Schooten, Mirjam Pijnappels, Ben Kröse
Early detection of high fall risk is an essential component of fall prevention in older adults. Wearable sensors can provide valuable insight into daily-life activities; biomechanical features extracted from such inertial data have been shown to be of added value for the assessment of fall risk. Body-worn sensors such as accelerometers can provide valuable insight into fall risk. Currently, biomechanical features derived from accelerometer data are used for the assessment of fall risk. Here, we studied whether deep learning methods from machine learning are suited to automatically derive features from raw accelerometer data that assess fall risk...
May 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786470/direct-cortical-stimulation-of-inferior-frontal-cortex-disrupts-both-speech-and-music-production-in-highly-trained-musicians
#3
Matthew K Leonard, Maansi Desai, Dylan Hungate, Ruofan Cai, Nilika S Singhal, Robert C Knowlton, Edward F Chang
Music and speech are human-specific behaviours that share numerous properties, including the fine motor skills required to produce them. Given these similarities, previous work has suggested that music and speech may at least partially share neural substrates. To date, much of this work has focused on perception, and has not investigated the neural basis of production, particularly in trained musicians. Here, we report two rare cases of musicians undergoing neurosurgical procedures, where it was possible to directly stimulate the left hemisphere cortex during speech and piano/guitar music production tasks...
May 22, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786167/neuroplasticity-in-stroke-recovery-the-role-of-microglia-in-engaging-and-modifying-synapses-and-networks
#4
REVIEW
Ioanna Sandvig, Ingrid Lovise Augestad, Asta Kristine Håberg, Axel Sandvig
Neuroplasticity after ischemic injury involves both spontaneous rewiring of neural networks and circuits as well as functional responses in neurogenic niches. These events involve complex interactions with activated microglia, which evolve in a dynamic manner over time. Although the exact mechanisms underlying these interactions remain poorly understood, increasing experimental evidence suggests a determining role of pro- and anti-inflammatory microglial activation profiles in shaping both synaptogenesis and neurogenesis...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786081/distinct-learning-induced-changes-in-stimulus-selectivity-and-interactions-of-gabaergic-interneuron-classes-in-visual-cortex
#5
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785841/effects-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-neurites-relevant-to-schizophrenia-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Xu-Feng Huang, Xueqin Song
Although antipsychotic drugs are mainly used for treating schizophrenia, they are widely used for treating various psychiatric diseases in adults, the elderly, adolescents and even children. Today, about 1.2% of the worldwide population suffers from psychosis and related disorders, which translates to about 7.5 million subjects potentially targeted by antipsychotic drugs. Neurites project from the cell body of neurons and connect neurons to each other to form neural networks. Deficits in neurite outgrowth and integrity are implicated in psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia...
May 22, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785055/mindfulness-training-induces-structural-connectome-changes-in-insula-networks
#7
Paul B Sharp, Bradley P Sutton, Erick J Paul, Nikolai Sherepa, Charles H Hillman, Neal J Cohen, Arthur F Kramer, Ruchika Shaurya Prakash, Wendy Heller, Eva H Telzer, Aron K Barbey
Although mindfulness meditation is known to provide a wealth of psychological benefits, the neural mechanisms involved in these effects remain to be well characterized. A central question is whether the observed benefits of mindfulness training derive from specific changes in the structural brain connectome that do not result from alternative forms of experimental intervention. Measures of whole-brain and node-level structural connectome changes induced by mindfulness training were compared with those induced by cognitive and physical fitness training within a large, multi-group intervention protocol (n = 86)...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784996/dual-function-injectable-angiogenic-biomaterial-for-the-repair-of-brain-tissue-following-stroke
#8
Lina R Nih, Shiva Gojgini, S Thomas Carmichael, Tatiana Segura
Stroke is the primary cause of disability due to the brain's limited ability to regenerate damaged tissue. After stroke, an increased inflammatory and immune response coupled with severely limited angiogenesis and neuronal growth results in a stroke cavity devoid of normal brain tissue. In the adult, therapeutic angiogenic materials have been used to repair ischaemic tissues through the formation of vascular networks. However, whether a therapeutic angiogenic material can regenerate brain tissue and promote neural repair is poorly understood...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784939/automatic-cone-photoreceptor-localisation-in-healthy-and-stargardt-afflicted-retinas-using-deep-learning
#9
Benjamin Davidson, Angelos Kalitzeos, Joseph Carroll, Alfredo Dubra, Sebastien Ourselin, Michel Michaelides, Christos Bergeles
We present a robust deep learning framework for the automatic localisation of cone photoreceptor cells in Adaptive Optics Scanning Light Ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) split-detection images. Monitoring cone photoreceptors with AOSLO imaging grants an excellent view into retinal structure and health, provides new perspectives into well known pathologies, and allows clinicians to monitor the effectiveness of experimental treatments. The MultiDimensional Recurrent Neural Network (MDRNN) approach developed in this paper is the first method capable of reliably and automatically identifying cones in both healthy retinas and retinas afflicted with Stargardt disease...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784544/classifying-alzheimer-s-disease-with-brain-imaging-and-genetic-data-using-a-neural-network-framework
#10
Kaida Ning, Bo Chen, Fengzhu Sun, Zachary Hobel, Lu Zhao, Will Matloff, Arthur W Toga
A long-standing question is how to best use brain morphometric and genetic data to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from cognitively normal (CN) subjects and to predict those who will progress from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Here, we use a neural network (NN) framework on both magnetic resonance imaging-derived quantitative structural brain measures and genetic data to address this question. We tested the effectiveness of NN models in classifying and predicting AD. We further performed a novel analysis of the NN model to gain insight into the most predictive imaging and genetics features and to identify possible interactions between features that affect AD risk...
April 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783926/neural-networks-for-link-prediction-in-realistic-biomedical-graphs-a-multi-dimensional-evaluation-of-graph-embedding-based-approaches
#11
Gamal Crichton, Yufan Guo, Sampo Pyysalo, Anna Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Link prediction in biomedical graphs has several important applications including predicting Drug-Target Interactions (DTI), Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) prediction and Literature-Based Discovery (LBD). It can be done using a classifier to output the probability of link formation between nodes. Recently several works have used neural networks to create node representations which allow rich inputs to neural classifiers. Preliminary works were done on this and report promising results...
May 21, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783738/etracker-a-mobile-gaze-tracking-system-with-near-eye-display-based-on-a-combined-gaze-tracking-algorithm
#12
Bin Li, Hong Fu, Desheng Wen, WaiLun Lo
Eye tracking technology has become increasingly important for psychological analysis, medical diagnosis, driver assistance systems, and many other applications. Various gaze-tracking models have been established by previous researchers. However, there is currently no near-eye display system with accurate gaze-tracking performance and a convenient user experience. In this paper, we constructed a complete prototype of the mobile gaze-tracking system ' Etracker ' with a near-eye viewing device for human gaze tracking...
May 19, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783642/a-novel-locating-system-for-cereal-plant-stem-emerging-points-detection-using-a-convolutional-neural-network
#13
Hadi Karimi, Søren Skovsen, Mads Dyrmann, Rasmus Nyholm Jørgensen
Determining the individual location of a plant, besides evaluating sowing performance, would make subsequent treatment for each plant across a field possible. In this study, a system for locating cereal plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) has been developed. In total, 5719 images were gathered from several cereal fields. In 212 of these images, the PSEPs of the cereal plants were marked manually and used to train a fully-convolutional neural network. In the training process, a cost function was made, which incorporates predefined penalty regions and PSEPs...
May 18, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783124/neural-organization-of-ventral-white-matter-tracts-parallels-the-initial-steps-of-reading-development-a-dti-tractography-study
#14
Jolijn Vanderauwera, Astrid De Vos, Stephanie J Forkel, Marco Catani, Jan Wouters, Maaike Vandermosten, Pol Ghesquière
Insight in the developmental trajectory of the neuroanatomical reading correlates is important to understand related cognitive processes and disorders. In adults, a dual pathway model has been suggested encompassing a dorsal phonological and a ventral orthographic white matter system. This dichotomy seems not present in pre-readers, and the specific role of ventral white matter in reading remains unclear. Therefore, the present longitudinal study investigated the relation between ventral white matter and cognitive processes underlying reading in children with a broad range of reading skills (n = 61)...
May 18, 2018: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783122/bix-01294-promotes-the-differentiation-of-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-adipocytes-and-neural-cells-in-arbas-cashmere-goats
#15
Qing Wang, Xiao Wang, Defang Lai, Jin Deng, Zhuang Hou, Hao Liang, Dongjun Liu
Chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in regulating gene transcription. BIX-01294 is a specific inhibitor of histone methyltransferase G9a, which is responsible for methylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) that can also regulate DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of BIX-01294 on the potential of goat adipose derived stem cells (gADSCs) to differentiate into adipocytes and neural cells. To accomplish this, BIX-01294 was used to treat gADSCs for 24 h, and the global level of DNA methylation as well as the expression of genes related to cell proliferation, apoptosis and pluripotency were detected...
May 14, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783079/altered-neural-encoding-of-prediction-errors-in-assault-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#16
Marisa C Ross, Jennifer K Lenow, Clinton D Kilts, Josh M Cisler
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is widely associated with deficits in extinguishing learned fear responses, which relies on mechanisms of reinforcement learning (e.g., updating expectations based on prediction errors). However, the degree to which PTSD is associated with impairments in general reinforcement learning (i.e., outside of the context of fear stimuli) remains poorly understood. Here, we investigate brain and behavioral differences in general reinforcement learning between adult women with and without a current diagnosis of PTSD...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783076/disrupted-reward-and-cognitive-control-networks-contribute-to-anhedonia-in-depression
#17
Liang Gong, Cancan He, Haisan Zhang, Hongxing Zhang, Zhijun Zhang, Chunming Xie
Neuroimaging studies have identified that anhedonia, a core feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), is associated with dysfunction in reward and cognitive control processing. However, it is still not clear how the reward network (β-network) and the cognitive control network (δ-network) are linked to biased anhedonia in MDD patients. Sixty-eight MDD patients and 64 cognitively normal (CN) subjects underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A 2*2 ANCOVA analysis was used to explore the differences in the nucleus accumbens-based, voxelwise functional connectivity (FC) between the groups...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783042/synchronization-of-hybrid-coupled-reaction-diffusion-neural-networks-with-time-delays-via-generalized-intermittent-control-with-spacial-sampled-data
#18
Binglong Lu, Haijun Jiang, Cheng Hu, Abdujelil Abdurahman
The exponential synchronization of hybrid coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with time delays is discussed in this article. At first, a generalized intermittent control with spacial sampled-data is introduced, which is intermittent in time and data sampling in space. This type of control strategy not only can unify the traditional periodic intermittent control and the aperiodic case, but also can lower the update rate of the controller in both temporal and spatial domains. Next, based on the designed control protocol and the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach, some novel and readily verified criteria are established to guarantee the exponential synchronization of the considered networks...
May 4, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782993/generalized-recurrent-neural-network-accommodating-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-functional-mri-analysis
#19
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782510/individual-differences-in-learning-correlate-with-modulation-of-brain-activity-induced-by-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#20
Brian Falcone, Atsushi Wada, Raja Parasuraman, Daniel E Callan
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance cognitive performance on a variety of tasks. It is hypothesized that tDCS enhances performance by affecting task related cortical excitability changes in networks underlying or connected to the site of stimulation facilitating long term potentiation. However, many recent studies have called into question the reliability and efficacy of tDCS to induce modulatory changes in brain activity. In this study, our goal is to investigate the individual differences in tDCS induced modulatory effects on brain activity related to the degree of enhancement in performance, providing insight into this lack of reliability...
2018: PloS One
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