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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934291/emotional-metacontrol-of-attention-top-down-modulation-of-sensorimotor-processes-in-a-robotic-visual-search-task
#1
Marwen Belkaid, Nicolas Cuperlier, Philippe Gaussier
Emotions play a significant role in internal regulatory processes. In this paper, we advocate four key ideas. First, novelty detection can be grounded in the sensorimotor experience and allow higher order appraisal. Second, cognitive processes, such as those involved in self-assessment, influence emotional states by eliciting affects like boredom and frustration. Third, emotional processes such as those triggered by self-assessment influence attentional processes. Last, close emotion-cognition interactions implement an efficient feedback loop for the purpose of top-down behavior regulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934220/prediction-of-thermal-conductivity-of-polyvinylpyrrolidone-pvp-electrospun-nanocomposite-fibers-using-artificial-neural-network-and-prey-predator-algorithm
#2
Waseem S Khan, Nawaf N Hamadneh, Waqar A Khan
In this study, multilayer perception neural network (MLPNN) was employed to predict thermal conductivity of PVP electrospun nanocomposite fibers with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and Nickel Zinc ferrites [(Ni0.6Zn0.4) Fe2O4]. This is the second attempt on the application of MLPNN with prey predator algorithm for the prediction of thermal conductivity of PVP electrospun nanocomposite fibers. The prey predator algorithm was used to train the neural networks to find the best models. The best models have the minimal of sum squared error between the experimental testing data and the corresponding models results...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932991/automated-reference-free-detection-of-motion-artifacts-in-magnetic-resonance-images
#3
Thomas Küstner, Annika Liebgott, Lukas Mauch, Petros Martirosian, Fabian Bamberg, Konstantin Nikolaou, Bin Yang, Fritz Schick, Sergios Gatidis
OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to provide an automated method for spatially resolved detection and quantification of motion artifacts in MR images of the head and abdomen as well as a quality control of the trained architecture. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-weighted MR images of the head and the upper abdomen were acquired in 16 healthy volunteers under rest and under motion. Images were divided into overlapping patches of different sizes achieving spatial separation...
September 20, 2017: Magma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932980/understanding-clinical-mammographic-breast-density-assessment-a-deep-learning-perspective
#4
Aly A Mohamed, Yahong Luo, Hong Peng, Rachel C Jankowitz, Shandong Wu
Mammographic breast density has been established as an independent risk marker for developing breast cancer. Breast density assessment is a routine clinical need in breast cancer screening and current standard is using the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System (BI-RADS) criteria including four qualitative categories (i.e., fatty, scattered density, heterogeneously dense, or extremely dense). In each mammogram examination, a breast is typically imaged with two different views, i.e., the mediolateral oblique (MLO) view and cranial caudal (CC) view...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932628/a-novel-in-silico-framework-to-improve-mhc-i-epitopes-and-break-the-tolerance-to-melanoma
#5
Cristian Capasso, Aniket Magarkar, Victor Cervera-Carascon, Manlio Fusciello, Sara Feola, Martin Muller, Mariangela Garofalo, Lukasz Kuryk, Siri Tähtinen, Lucio Pastore, Alex Bunker, Vincenzo Cerullo
Tolerance toward tumor antigens, which are shared by normal tissues, have often limited the efficacy of cancer vaccines. However, wild type epitopes can be tweaked to activate cross-reactive T-cell clones, resulting in antitumor activity. The design of these analogs (i.e., heteroclitic peptides) can be difficult and time-consuming since no automated in silico tools are available. Hereby we describe the development of an in silico framework to improve the selection of heteroclitic peptides. The Epitope Discovery and Improvement System (EDIS) was first validated by studying the model antigen SIINFEKL...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932189/delayed-mismatch-field-latencies-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-with-abnormal-auditory-sensitivity-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#6
Junko Matsuzaki, Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Hisato Sugata, Ryuzo Hanaie, Fumiyo Nagatani, Tomoka Yamamoto, Masaya Tachibana, Koji Tominaga, Masayuki Hirata, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike
Although abnormal auditory sensitivity is the most common sensory impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. In previous studies, we reported that this abnormal sensitivity in patients with ASD is associated with delayed and prolonged responses in the auditory cortex. In the present study, we investigated alterations in residual M100 and MMFs in children with ASD who experience abnormal auditory sensitivity. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure MMF elicited by an auditory oddball paradigm (standard tones: 300 Hz, deviant tones: 700 Hz) in 20 boys with ASD (11 with abnormal auditory sensitivity: mean age, 9...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932187/linking-network-activity-to-synaptic-plasticity-during-sleep-hypotheses-and-recent-data
#7
REVIEW
Carlos Puentes-Mestril, Sara J Aton
Research findings over the past two decades have supported a link between sleep states and synaptic plasticity. Numerous mechanistic hypotheses have been put forth to explain this relationship. For example, multiple studies have shown structural alterations to synapses (including changes in synaptic volume, spine density, and receptor composition) indicative of synaptic weakening after a period of sleep. Direct measures of neuronal activity and synaptic strength support the idea that a period of sleep can reduce synaptic strength...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932183/plant-polyphenols-and-exendin-4-prevent-hyperactivity-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-in-lps-treated-in-vitro-neuron-astrocyte-microglial-networks
#8
Francesca Gullo, Michela Ceriani, Alessia D'Aloia, Enzo Wanke, Andrew Constanti, Barbara Costa, Marzia Lecchi
Increasing evidence supports a decisive role for neuroinflammation in the neurodegenerative process of several central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Microglia are essential mediators of neuroinflammation and can regulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses by releasing reactive oxygen intermediates, nitric oxide, proteases, excitatory amino acids, and cytokines. We have recently shown that also in ex-vivo cortical networks of neurons, astrocytes and microglia, an increased level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was detected a few hours after exposure to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932180/hardware-efficient-on-line-learning-through-pipelined-truncated-error-backpropagation-in-binary-state-networks
#9
Hesham Mostafa, Bruno Pedroni, Sadique Sheik, Gert Cauwenberghs
Artificial neural networks (ANNs) trained using backpropagation are powerful learning architectures that have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various benchmarks. Significant effort has been devoted to developing custom silicon devices to accelerate inference in ANNs. Accelerating the training phase, however, has attracted relatively little attention. In this paper, we describe a hardware-efficient on-line learning technique for feedforward multi-layer ANNs that is based on pipelined backpropagation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931651/region-specific-rna-m-6-a-methylation-represents-a-new-layer-of-control-in-the-gene-regulatory-network-in-the-mouse-brain
#10
Mengqi Chang, Hongyi Lv, Weilong Zhang, Chunhui Ma, Xue He, Shunli Zhao, Zhi-Wei Zhang, Yi-Xin Zeng, Shuhui Song, Yamei Niu, Wei-Min Tong
N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most abundant epitranscriptomic mark found on mRNA and has important roles in various physiological processes. Despite the relatively high m(6)A levels in the brain, its potential functions in the brain remain largely unexplored. We performed a transcriptome-wide methylation analysis using the mouse brain to depict its region-specific methylation profile. RNA methylation levels in mouse cerebellum are generally higher than those in the cerebral cortex. Heterogeneity of RNA methylation exists across different brain regions and different types of neural cells including the mRNAs to be methylated, their methylation levels and methylation site selection...
September 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931613/interacting-networks-of-brain-regions-underlie-human-spatial-navigation-a-review-and-novel-synthesis-of-the-literature
#11
Arne D Ekstrom, Derek J Huffman, Michael Starrett
Navigation is an inherently dynamic and multimodal process, making isolation of the unique cognitive components underlying it challenging. The assumptions of much of the literature on human spatial navigation are that: 1) spatial navigation involves modality independent, discrete metric representations (i.e., egocentric vs. allocentric) 2) such representations can be further distilled to elemental cognitive processes 3) these cognitive processes can be ascribed to unique brain regions. Here, we argue that modality independent spatial representations, instead of providing exact metrics about our surrounding environment, more often involve heuristics for estimating spatial topology useful to the current task at hand...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931066/finite-time-synchronization-of-memristor-based-cohen-grossberg-neural-networks-with-mixed-delays
#12
Chuan Chen, Lixiang Li, Haipeng Peng, Yixian Yang
Finite time synchronization, which means synchronization can be achieved in a settling time, is desirable in some practical applications. However, most of the published results on finite time synchronization don't include delays or only include discrete delays. In view of the fact that distributed delays inevitably exist in neural networks, this paper aims to investigate the finite time synchronization of memristor-based Cohen-Grossberg neural networks (MCGNNs) with both discrete delay and distributed delay (mixed delays)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931014/phonological-memory-in-sign-language-relies-on-the-visuomotor-neural-system-outside-the-left-hemisphere-language-network
#13
Yuji Kanazawa, Kimihiro Nakamura, Toru Ishii, Toshihiko Aso, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Koichi Omori
Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930562/alzheimer-s-disease-diagnostics-by-a-3d-deeply-supervised-adaptable-convolutional-network
#14
Ehsan Hosseini-Asl, Mohammed Ghazal, Ali Mahmoud, Ali Aslantas, Ahmed M Shalaby, Manual F Casanova, Gregory N Barnes, Georgy Gimel'farb, Robert Keynton, Ayman El-Baz
Early diagnosis is playing an important role in preventing progress of the Alzheimer's disease (AD). This paper proposes to improve the prediction of AD with a deep 3D Convolutional Neural Network (3D-CNN), which can show generic features capturing AD biomarkers extracted from brain images, adapt to different domain datasets, and accurately classify subjects with improved fine-tuning method. The 3D-CNN is built upon a convolutional autoencoder, which is pre-trained to capture anatomical shape variations in structural brain MRI scans for source domain...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930540/electrophysiological-evidence-for-long-axis-intrinsic-diversification-of-the-hippocampus
#15
Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The elongated structure of the hippocampus is critically involved in brain functions of profound importance. The segregation of functions along the longitudinal (septotemporal or dorsoventral) axis of the hippocampus is a slowly developed concept and currently is a widely accepted idea. The segregation of neuroanatomical connections along the hippocampal long axis can provide a basis for the interpretation of the functional segregation. However, an emerging and growing body of data strongly suggests the existence of endogenous diversification in the properties of the local neural network along the long axis of the hippocampus...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929797/automated-early-detection-of-drops-in-commercial-egg-production-using-neural-networks
#16
I Ramírez-Morales, E Fernández-Blanco, D Rivero, A Pazos
1. The purpose of this work was to support decision making in poultry farms by performing automatic early detection of anomalies in egg production. 2. Unprocessed data were collected from a commercial egg farm on a daily basis over 7 years. Records from a total of 24 flocks, each with approximately 20 000 laying hens, were studied. 3. Other similar works have required a prior feature extraction by a poultry expert, and this method is dependent on time and expert knowledge. 4. The present approach reduces the dependency on time and expert knowledge because of the automatic selection of relevant features and the use of artificial neural networks capable of cost-sensitive learning...
September 20, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929510/laminar-specific-encoding-of-texture-elements-in-rat-barrel-cortex
#17
Benjamin J Allitt, Dasuni S Alwis, Ramesh Rajan
Texture discrimination by rats is exquisitely guided by fine-grain mechanical stick-slip motions of the face whiskers as they encounter, stick to, and slip past successive texture-defining surface features like bumps and grooves. Neural encoding of successive stick-slip texture events will be shaped by adaptation, common to all sensory systems, whereby receptor and neural responses to a stimulus are affected by responses to preceding stimuli, allowing resetting to signal novel information. Additionally, when a whisker is actively moved to contact and brush over surfaces, that motion itself generates neural responses that could cause adaptation of responses to subsequent stick-slip events...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928651/a-velocity-level-bi-criteria-optimization-scheme-for-coordinated-path-tracking-of-dual-robot-manipulators-using-recurrent-neural-network
#18
Lin Xiao, Yongsheng Zhang, Bolin Liao, Zhijun Zhang, Lei Ding, Long Jin
A dual-robot system is a robotic device composed of two robot arms. To eliminate the joint-angle drift and prevent the occurrence of high joint velocity, a velocity-level bi-criteria optimization scheme, which includes two criteria (i.e., the minimum velocity norm and the repetitive motion), is proposed and investigated for coordinated path tracking of dual robot manipulators. Specifically, to realize the coordinated path tracking of dual robot manipulators, two subschemes are first presented for the left and right robot manipulators...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927833/modulation-of-hippocampal-activity-with-fornix-deep-brain-stimulation
#19
Paul H Stypulkowski, Scott R Stanslaski, Jonathon E Giftakis
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) within the Papez circuit is under investigation as a treatment for epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported the effects of stimulation at nodes within this network (anterior thalamic nucleus and hippocampus) on hippocampal activity in a large animal model, using a chronic implantable, clinical-grade system that permits concurrent stimulation and recording. OBJECTIVE: In this study we extended earlier work to compare the effects of fornix DBS on evoked potentials (EPs) and local field potential (LFP) activity within the hippocampus, and to assess closed-loop stimulation...
September 6, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927746/-proposal-of-screening-for-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas-in-the-population-from-20-to-40years
#20
Emmanuel Mandonnet, Luc Taillandier, Hugues Duffau
Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are cerebral tumors occurring in young adults, with an inescapable progression to higher grade of malignancy, resulting in functional impairment and death. DLGG evolve in several phases: an asymptomatic period despite a slow radiological growth; a period in which inaugural symptoms occur, usually epilepsy with possible mild cognitive disorders; then a phase with malignant transformation generating disabling neurological deficits; and ultimately the terminal stage. Early maximal surgical resection significantly increases overall survival while preserving quality of life...
September 15, 2017: La Presse Médicale
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