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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138476/visuospatial-attention-in-the-lateralised-brain-of-pigeons-a-matter-of-ontogenetic-light-experiences
#1
Sara Letzner, Onur Güntürkün, Stephanie Lor, Robert Jan Pawlik, Martina Manns
The ontogenetic mechanisms leading to complementary hemispheric specialisations of the two brain halves are poorly understood. In pigeons, asymmetrical light stimulation during development triggers the left-hemispheric dominance for visuomotor control but light effects on right-hemispheric specialisations are largely unknown. We therefore tested adult pigeons with and without embryonic light experience in a visual search task in which the birds pecked peas regularly scattered on an area in front of them. Comparing the pecking pattern of both groups indicates that the embryonic light conditions differentially influence biased visuospatial attention under mono- and binocular seeing conditions...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109037/lateralised-sleep-spindles-relate-to-false-memory-generation
#2
John J Shaw, Padraic Monaghan
Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH...
November 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072554/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-is-in-moderate-accordance-with-functional-mri-in-determining-lateralisation-of-frontal-language-areas
#3
K M Arun, K A Smitha, P G Rajesh, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Purpose Understanding language dominance is crucial in pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy and in patients having a tumour close to the language area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are well established in evaluating language dominance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that offers a convenient and affordable technique to image language-related cortical areas. This study investigates the agreement between results from task-based fMRI and fNIRS in determining language lateralisation...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057543/cortical-responses-before-six-months-of-life-associate-with-later-autism
#4
S Lloyd-Fox, A Blasi, G Pasco, T Gliga, E J Jones, D G Murphy, C E Elwell, T Charman, M H Johnson
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common, highly heritable, developmental disorder, and later-born siblings of diagnosed children are at higher risk for developing ASD than the general population. Although the emergence of behavioural symptoms of ASD in toddlerhood is well characterised, far less is known about development during the first months of life of infants at familial risk. In a prospective longitudinal study of infants at familial risk followed to 36 months, we measured functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain responses to social videos of people (i...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055867/pre-surgical-mapping-of-eloquent-cortex-for-paediatric-epilepsy-surgery-candidates-evidence-from-a-review-of-advanced-functional-neuroimaging
#5
REVIEW
Sarah Collinge, Garreth Prendergast, Steven T Mayers, David Marshall, Poppy Siddell, Elizabeth Neilly, Colin D Ferrie, Gayatri Vadlamani, Jeremy Macmullen-Price, Daniel J Warren, Arshad Zaman, Paul Chumas, John Goodden, Matthew C H J Morrall
PURPOSE: A review of all published evidence for mapping eloquent (motor, language and memory) cortex using advanced functional neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and magnetoencephalography [MEG]) for paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates has not been conducted previously. Research in this area has predominantly been in adult populations and applicability of these techniques to paediatric populations is less established. METHODS: A review was performed using an advanced systematic search and retrieval of all published papers examining the use of functional neuroimaging for paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027903/functional-dichotomy-in-spinal-vs-prefrontal-projecting-locus-coeruleus-modules-splits-descending-noradrenergic-analgesia-from-ascending-aversion-and-anxiety-in-rats
#6
Stefan Hirschberg, Yong Li, Andrew Randall, Eric J Kremer, Anthony E Pickering
The locus coeruleus (LC) projects throughout the brain and spinal cord and is the major source of central noradrenaline. It remains unclear whether the LC acts functionally as a single global effector or as discrete modules. Specifically, while spinal-projections from LC neurons can exert analgesic actions, it is not known whether they can act independently of ascending LC projections. Using viral vectors taken up at axon terminals, we expressed chemogenetic actuators selectively in LC neurons with spinal (LC(:SC)) or prefrontal cortex (LC(:PFC)) projections...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986862/beyond-the-embolus-do-not-miss-diffusion-abnormalities-of-ischaemic-and-non-ischaemic-neurological-disease
#7
REVIEW
Vivek Yedavalli, Eric M Nyberg, Daniel S Chow, Ashesh A Thaker
Given the rapid evolution and technological advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), including the proliferation of comprehensive stroke centres and increasing emphasis on interventional stroke therapies, the need for prompt recognition of stroke due to acute large vessel occlusion has received significant attention in the recent literature. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke, as images appear positive within minutes of ischaemic injury, and a high signal-to-noise ratio enables even punctate infarcts to be readily detected...
October 6, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921756/temporal-alignment-of-anticipatory-motor-cortical-beta-lateralisation-in-hidden-visual-motor-sequences
#8
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Performance improves when participants respond to events that are structured in repeating sequences, suggesting that learning can lead to proactive anticipatory preparation. Whereas most sequence-learning studies have emphasized spatial structure, most sequences also contain a prominent temporal structure. We used MEG to investigate spatial and temporal anticipatory neural dynamics in a modified serial reaction-time (SRT) task. Performance and brain activity were compared between blocks with learned spatial-temporal sequences and blocks with new sequences...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912300/-18-f-av-1451-binding-in-vivo-mirrors-the-expected-distribution-of-tdp-43-pathology-in-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#9
W R Bevan-Jones, Thomas E Cope, P Simon Jones, Luca Passamonti, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Robert Arnold, Kieren S J Allinson, Jonathan P Coles, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Karalyn Patterson, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
INTRODUCTION: Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [(18)F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients (five with svPPA and two with 'right' semantic dementia) and 12 healthy controls underwent positron emission tomography brain imaging with [(18)F]AV-1451...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899757/segmentation-of-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-the-human-brain-a-white-matter-dissection-and-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#10
Francesco Latini, Johanna Mårtensson, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Fredrik Åhs, Mats Hjortberg, Håkan Aldskogius, Mats Ryttlefors
The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns...
November 15, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893526/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-children-and-adolescents-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-fmri-study
#11
V Siffredi, M M Spencer-Smith, P Barrouillet, M J Vaessen, R J Leventer, V Anderson, P Vuilleumier
The ability to temporarily maintain relevant information in mind in the presence of interference or distracting information, also called working memory (WM), is critical for higher cognitive functions and cognitive development. In typically developing (TD) children, WM is underpinned by a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain regions. Developmental absence (agenesis) of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation resulting from disruption of corpus callosum formation...
September 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887064/top-down-modulation-of-alpha-power-and-pattern-similarity-for-threatening-representations-in-visual-short-term-memory
#12
Bo-Cheng Kuo, Chun-Hui Li, Szu-Hung Lin, Sheng-Hung Hu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Recent studies have shown that top-down attention biases task-relevant representations in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Accumulating evidence has also revealed the modulatory effects of emotional arousal on attentional processing. However, it remains unclear how top-down attention interacts with emotional memoranda in VSTM. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alpha oscillations and their spatiotemporal characteristics that underlie top-down attention to threatening representations during VSTM maintenance with electroencephalography...
September 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883847/effects-of-aspiration-pneumonia-on-the-intensive-care-requirements-and-in-hospital-mortality-of-hospitalised-patients-with-acute-cerebrovascular-disease
#13
Adil Can Güngen, Yusuf Aydemir, Belma Dogan Güngen, Esra Ertan Yazar, Orhan Yağız, Yeşim Güzey Aras, Hatice Gümüş, Ünal Erkorkmaz
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the development of aspiration pneumonia (AP) on the intensive care unit (ICU) requirements and in-hospital mortality of patients hospitalised in the neurology ward due to an acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred and three patients hospitalised in the neurology ward following an acute CVA were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into two groups: those with AP (group 1) and those without AP (group 2)...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829982/pre-movement-planning-processes-in-people-with-congenital-mirror-movements
#14
E A Franz, Y Fu
OBJECTIVE: Pre-movement processes were investigated in people with Congenital mirrormovement (CMM), a rare disorder in which bilateral movement (mirroring) occurs in the upper distal extremities (primarily the hands and fingers) during intended unilateral movements. Abnormal density of ipsilateral corticospinal projections is an established hallmark of CMM. This study tested whether the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP), which reflects movement planning and readiness, is also abnormal in people with CMM...
October 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827740/lateralized-scale-eating-behaviour-of-cichlid-is-acquired-by-learning-to-use-the-naturally-stronger-side
#15
Yuichi Takeuchi, Yoichi Oda
The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis exhibits significant lateralised predation behaviour using an asymmetric mouth. But how the acquisition of the behavioural laterality depends, if at all, on experience during development remains obscure. Here, naïve juveniles were tested in a series of predation sessions. Initially, they attacked both sides of the prey, but during subsequent sessions, attack direction gradually lateralised to the skewed mouth (dominant) side. Attack side preference of juveniles that had accumulated scale-eating experience during successive sessions was significantly higher than that of naïve juveniles at the same age and naïve adults...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821674/how-auditory-experience-differentially-influences-the-function-of-left-and-right-superior-temporal-cortices
#16
Tae Twomey, Dafydd Waters, Cathy J Price, Samuel Evans, Mairéad MacSweeney
To investigate how hearing status, sign language experience, and task demands influence functional responses in the human superior temporal cortices (STC) we collected fMRI data from deaf and hearing participants (male and female), who either acquired sign language early or late in life. Our stimuli in all tasks were pictures of objects. We varied the linguistic and visuospatial processing demands in three different tasks that involved decisions about (1) the sublexical (phonological) structure of the British Sign Language (BSL) signs for the objects, (2) the semantic category of the objects, and (3) the physical features of the objects...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807326/the-end-of-the-line-antagonistic-attentional-weightings-in-unilateral-neglect
#17
Robert D McIntosh
The line bisection task is widely used in the study of neglect. Some years ago, McIntosh, Schindler, Birchall, & Milner (2005) proposed a radical reframing of this ubiquitous task. Rather than using the traditional measure of directional bisection error, they quantified the sensitivities of the response to the changing locations of the left and right endpoints of the line, expressing these as 'endpoint weightings'. A novel prediction generated from their analysis was that manipulations increasing attention to the left end of the line should cause an increase in the left endpoint weighting and a corresponding reduction in the right endpoint weighting...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756485/laterality-of-anterior-temporal-lobe-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-determines-the-degree-of-disruption-in-picture-naming
#18
Anna M Woollams, Lee J Lindley, Gorana Pobric, Paul Hoffman
The bilateral anterior temporal lobes play a key role in semantic representation. This is clearly demonstrated by the performance of patients with semantic dementia, a disorder characterised by a progressive and selective decline in semantic memory over all modalities as a result of anterior temporal atrophy. Although all patients exhibit a progressive decline in both single-word production and comprehension, those with greater atrophy to the left anterior temporal lobe show a stronger decline in word production than comprehension...
July 29, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741714/abnormal-fronto-parietal-white-matter-organisation-in-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-branches-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#19
Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Alexander Leemans, Elizabeth Kehoe, Erik O'Hanlon, Louise Gallagher, Jane McGrath
Core features of ASD may be underpinned by disrupted functional and structural neural connectivity. Abnormal fronto-parietal functional connectivity has been widely reported in the literature; this may be underpinned by disrupted microstructural organisation of white matter. The Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) is a major fronto-parietal white matter tract, the structure of which has been little studied in ASD. The fronto-parietal projections of this tract (SLF I, II and III) are thought to play an important role in a number of cognitive functions including attention and visuospatial processing...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732759/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-processing-of-body-sides-a-study-with-ambiguous-human-silhouettes
#20
Daniele Marzoli, Alessandra Pagliara, Giulia Prete, Gianluca Malatesta, Chiara Lucafò, Caterina Padulo, Alfredo Brancucci, Luca Tommasi
When required to indicate the perceived orientation of pictures of human silhouettes with ambiguous front/back orientation and handedness, both right- and left-handed participants perceive the figures more frequently as right-handed than as left-handed, which seems to indicate an attentional bias towards the right arm of human bodies. Given that past research exploiting the divided visual field paradigm indicated a processing advantage for contralateral body parts in both hemispheres, we tested whether human silhouettes with ambiguous handedness presented in the right visual field would be interpreted more frequently as right-handed compared with those presented in the left visual field...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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