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Nadja F Bednarczuk, Marta Casanovas Ortega, Anne-Sophie Fluri, Qadeer Arshad
Vestibular processing and anxiety networks are functionally intertwined, as demonstrated by reports of reciprocal influences upon each other. Yet whether there is an underlying link between these two systems remains unknown Previous findings have highlighted the involvement of hemispheric lateralisation in processing of both anxiety and vestibular signals. Accordingly, we explored the interaction between vestibular cortical processing and anxiety by assessing the relationship between anxiety levels and the degree of hemispheric lateralisation of vestibulo-cortical processing in 64 right-handed, healthy individuals...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Masafumi Sanefuji, Hiroshi Yamashita, Michiko Torio, Daisuke Katsuki, Satoshi Akamine, Yoshito Ishizaki, Junji Kishimoto, Yasunari Sakai, Hidetoshi Takada, Keiko Yoshida, Shouichi Ohga
The human brain is lateralised to the right for visuospatial attention, particularly when reorienting attention to unexpected stimuli. However, the developmental characteristics of lateralisation remain unclear. To address this question, we devised a saccade task applicable for both adults and children. To assess the utility of this system, we investigated the correlation between line bisection test performance and the saccade task for 54 healthy adult volunteers. Participants followed a visual target that jumped 10 times, alternating between two fixed positions across the midline with a constant pace...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simone G Heideman, Gustavo Rohenkohl, Joshua J Chauvin, Clare E Palmer, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Spatial and temporal expectations act synergistically to facilitate visual perception. In the current study, we sought to investigate the anticipatory oscillatory markers of combined spatial-temporal orienting and to test whether these decline with ageing. We examined anticipatory neural dynamics associated with joint spatial-temporal orienting of attention using magnetoencephalography (MEG) in both younger and older adults. Participants performed a cued covert spatial-temporal orienting task requiring the discrimination of a visual target...
May 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Jeremy E Niven, Adrian T A Bell
The behavioural lateralisation of a species is thought to be influenced by social organisation. However, recent studies of insect species with different social structures suggest that traits showing both population-level and individual-level lateralisation can be found in single species. This has broad implications for our understanding of how lateralisation and handedness evolves.
April 28, 2018: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
L Campoy, T Morris, N Ducharme, R Gleed, M Martin-Flores
BACKGROUND: Locoregional anaesthetic techniques can facilitate certain surgeries being performed under standing procedural sedation. The second and third spinal cervical nerves (C2, C3) are part of the cervical plexus and provide sensory innervation to the peri-laryngeal structures in people; block of these nerves might permit laryngeal lateralisation surgery in horses. OBJECTIVES: To describe the anatomical basis for an ultrasound-guided cervical plexus block in horses...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
Malte Wöstmann, Johannes Vosskuhl, Jonas Obleser, Christoph S Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Spatial attention relatively increases the power of neural 10-Hz alpha oscillations in the hemisphere ipsilateral to attention, and decreases alpha power in the contralateral hemisphere. For gamma oscillations (>40 Hz), the opposite effect has been observed. The functional roles of lateralised oscillations for attention are currently unclear. HYPOTHESIS: If lateralised oscillations are functionally relevant for attention, transcranial stimulation of alpha versus gamma oscillations in one hemisphere should differentially modulate the accuracy of spatial attention to the ipsi-versus contralateral side...
April 6, 2018: Brain Stimulation
P Riederer, K A Jellinger, P Kolber, G Hipp, J Sian-Hülsmann, R Krüger
Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson's disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific susceptibilities of neuronal subpopulations within the substantia nigra...
April 14, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Tomás McDowell, Nicholas P Holmes, Alan Sunderland, Martin Schürmann
Tool use, a ubiquitous part of human behaviour, requires manipulation control and knowledge of tool purpose. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological research posit that these two processes are supported by separate brain regions, ventral premotor and inferior parietal for manipulation control, and posterior middle temporal cortex for tool knowledge, lateralised to the left hemisphere. Action plans for tool use need to integrate these two separate processes, which is likely supported by the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG)...
March 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Victoria Jones, Dominic Thompson
PURPOSE: Rotation of the lipoma-neural placode has been noted in transitional lumbosacral lipomas. The purpose of this study was to confirm this rotation; that this rotation occurs with a preference to the left, and correlates with clinical symptoms. In addition, this study tests the hypothesis that this rotation occurs through local mechanical forces rather than intrinsic congenital malformation. METHODS: Lipomas were classified as per the Chapman classification...
March 29, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Latifah Alazmi, Grace E Gadsby, Nicola R Heneghan, T David Punt
BACKGROUND: Left/right judgment tasks (LRJTs) are used in the management of chronic pain. This use is predicated on their ability to elicit the simulation of movements (i.e. motor imagery), including those where the execution of the same movements induces pain. While established for limb-based LRJTs, the ability of trunk-based LRJTs to elicit motor imagery of trunk movements has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether data from a trunk-based LRJT are indicative of motor imagery being elicited for the specific lateralised trunk postures presented...
June 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
Thibault Verhoeven, Ana Coito, Gijs Plomp, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Francesca Pittau, Eugen Trinka, Roland Wiest, Karl Schaller, Christoph Michel, Margitta Seeck, Joni Dambre, Serge Vulliemoz, Pieter van Mierlo
Objective: To diagnose and lateralise temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by building a classification system that uses directed functional connectivity patterns estimated during EEG periods without visible pathological activity. Methods: Resting-state high-density EEG recording data from 20 left TLE patients, 20 right TLE patients and 35 healthy controls was used. Epochs without interictal spikes were selected. The cortical source activity was obtained for 82 regions of interest and whole-brain directed functional connectivity was estimated in the theta, alpha and beta frequency bands...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Pierre Jolicoeur
To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual short-term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016)...
May 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Billy L K Wong, Yuhan Peng, Eamon Shamil, Paul Leong
BACKGROUND: There are a variety of surgical techniques which can be used to treat structural nasal obstruction. Airwayplasty is a procedure, combining septoplasty, turbinate surgery, and nasal wall lateralization. The article reports the long-term result of this novel approach. METHODOLOGY: Patients who have evidence of structural nasal obstruction were offered the option to have airwayplasty under the senior surgeon. Patients were asked to quantify the severity and the impact of their nasal obstruction using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the validated Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) pre-operatively and post-operatively...
May 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Sandra Tolnai, Rainer Beutelmann, Georg M Klump
The main sound localisation cues in the horizontal plane are interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs, respectively). ITDs are thought to be the dominant cue in the low-frequency range, ILDs the dominant cue in the high-frequency range. ITDs and ILDs co-occur. Their interaction and contribution to the lateralisation of pure tones by Mongolian gerbils was investigated behaviourally using cross-talk cancellation techniques for presenting ITDs and ILDs independently. First, ITDs were applied to pure tones with frequencies ≤ 2 kHz to the ongoing waveform, at the onsets and offsets, or in both the ongoing waveform and at the onsets and offsets...
May 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The left and right ventral anterior temporal lobes (vATL) have been implicated as key regions for the representation of conceptual knowledge. However, the nature and degree of hemispheric specialisation in their function is unclear. To address this issue, we investigated hemispheric specialisation in the ventral temporal lobes using a distortion-corrected spin-echo fMRI protocol that enhanced signal in vATL. We employed an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus (written words vs pictured objects) and task (naming vs recognition)...
April 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Eva-Maria Reuter, Welber Marinovic, Jesse Beikoff, Timothy J Carroll
Alternative motor responses can be prepared in parallel. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the parallel preparation of alternative response options is modulated by their relative value. Participants performed a choice response task with three potential actions: isometric contraction of the left, the right, or both wrists. An imperative stimulus (IS) appeared after a warning cue, such that the initiation time of a required action was predictable, but the specific action was not. To encourage advanced preparation, the target was presented 200 ms prior to the IS, and only correct responses initiated within ±100 ms of the IS were rewarded...
March 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Karen L Clunies-Ross, Catherine Campbell, Jeneva L Ohan, Mike Anderson, Corinne Reid, Allison M Fox
The asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis (AST) suggests that the left and right secondary auditory areas process auditory stimuli according to different sampling rates (Poeppel, 2003). We investigated whether asymmetries consistent with the AST are observable in children at age 7 and whether they become more pronounced at age 9. Data were collected from 50 children who attended a 2-day research program at age 7 and were followed up 2 years later. At both time points, children were presented with tone-pairs, each composed of two 50 ms, 1000 Hz, sinusoidal tones separated by inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 25, 50, 100, or 200 ms...
March 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sanjeev Mohanty, Vinoth Manimaran, Preethi Umamaheswaran, Shivapriya Jeyabalakrishnan, Sreenivas Chelladurai
OBJECTIVE: Management of anterior perforations of tympanic membrane is a surgical challenge. The objective of this study is to analyse and compare the results of composite cartilage perichondrium island (CCPI) graft and temporalis fascia graft by endoscopic technique in anterior quadrant perforations. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care centre from 2012-16. A total of 187 ear drums(n) in 168 patients with perforations involving anterior quadrant were included in the study...
January 31, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
W-F Su, M-C Lan, S-C Liu
A suture lateralisation (SL) instead of an endolaryngeal tissue ablation procedure under endoscopy has been utilised to treat bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) since 1980. However, mechanical fixation (MF) of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) has continually challenged the effectiveness of glottic dilatation both in the SL procedure and the tissue ablation procedure. From 2007 to 2015, a total of 38 patients with BVFI underwent 40 exo-endolaryngeal suture lateralisation (exoeSL) procedures and three were diagnosed with MF in our hospital...
January 31, 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Julian Packheiser, Noemi Rook, Zeynep Dursun, Janne Mesenhöller, Alrescha Wenglorz, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
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