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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912300/-18-f-av-1451-binding-in-vivo-mirrors-the-expected-distribution-of-tdp-43-pathology-in-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#1
W R Bevan-Jones, Thomas E Cope, P Simon Jones, Luca Passamonti, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Robert Arnold, Kieren S J Allinson, Jonathan P Coles, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Karalyn Patterson, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
INTRODUCTION: Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [(18)F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients (five with svPPA and two with 'right' semantic dementia) and 12 healthy controls underwent positron emission tomography brain imaging with [(18)F]AV-1451...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899757/segmentation-of-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-in-the-human-brain-a-white-matter-dissection-and-diffusion-tensor-tractography-study
#2
Francesco Latini, Johanna Mårtensson, Elna-Marie Larsson, Mats Fredrikson, Fredrik Åhs, Mats Hjortberg, Håkan Aldskogius, Mats Ryttlefors
The inferior longitudinal fascicle (ILF) is one of the major occipital-temporal association pathways. Several studies have mapped its hierarchical segmentation to specific functions. There is, however, no consensus regarding a detailed description of ILF fibre organisation. The aim of this study was to establish whether the ILF has a constant number of subcomponents. A secondary aim was to determine the quantitative diffusion proprieties of each subcomponent and assess their anatomical trajectories and connectivity patterns...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893526/neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-children-and-adolescents-with-agenesis-of-the-corpus-callosum-an-fmri-study
#3
V Siffredi, M M Spencer-Smith, P Barrouillet, M J Vaessen, R J Leventer, V Anderson, P Vuilleumier
The ability to temporarily maintain relevant information in mind in the presence of interference or distracting information, also called working memory (WM), is critical for higher cognitive functions and cognitive development. In typically developing (TD) children, WM is underpinned by a fronto-parietal network of interacting left and right brain regions. Developmental absence (agenesis) of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation resulting from disruption of corpus callosum formation...
September 9, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887064/top-down-modulation-of-alpha-power-and-pattern-similarity-for-threatening-representations-in-visual-short-term-memory
#4
Bo-Cheng Kuo, Chun-Hui Li, Szu-Hung Lin, Sheng-Hung Hu, Yei-Yu Yeh
Recent studies have shown that top-down attention biases task-relevant representations in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Accumulating evidence has also revealed the modulatory effects of emotional arousal on attentional processing. However, it remains unclear how top-down attention interacts with emotional memoranda in VSTM. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of alpha oscillations and their spatiotemporal characteristics that underlie top-down attention to threatening representations during VSTM maintenance with electroencephalography...
September 5, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883847/effects-of-aspiration-pneumonia-on-the-intensive-care-requirements-and-in-hospital-mortality-of-hospitalised-patients-with-acute-cerebrovascular-disease
#5
Adil Can Güngen, Yusuf Aydemir, Belma Dogan Güngen, Esra Ertan Yazar, Orhan Yağız, Yeşim Güzey Aras, Hatice Gümüş, Ünal Erkorkmaz
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the development of aspiration pneumonia (AP) on the intensive care unit (ICU) requirements and in-hospital mortality of patients hospitalised in the neurology ward due to an acute cerebrovascular accident (CVA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five hundred and three patients hospitalised in the neurology ward following an acute CVA were retrospectively analysed. The patients were divided into two groups: those with AP (group 1) and those without AP (group 2)...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829982/pre-movement-planning-processes-in-people-with-congenital-mirror-movements
#6
E A Franz, Y Fu
OBJECTIVE: Pre-movement processes were investigated in people with Congenital mirrormovement (CMM), a rare disorder in which bilateral movement (mirroring) occurs in the upper distal extremities (primarily the hands and fingers) during intended unilateral movements. Abnormal density of ipsilateral corticospinal projections is an established hallmark of CMM. This study tested whether the Lateralised Readiness Potential (LRP), which reflects movement planning and readiness, is also abnormal in people with CMM...
August 2, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827740/lateralized-scale-eating-behaviour-of-cichlid-is-acquired-by-learning-to-use-the-naturally-stronger-side
#7
Yuichi Takeuchi, Yoichi Oda
The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis exhibits significant lateralised predation behaviour using an asymmetric mouth. But how the acquisition of the behavioural laterality depends, if at all, on experience during development remains obscure. Here, naïve juveniles were tested in a series of predation sessions. Initially, they attacked both sides of the prey, but during subsequent sessions, attack direction gradually lateralised to the skewed mouth (dominant) side. Attack side preference of juveniles that had accumulated scale-eating experience during successive sessions was significantly higher than that of naïve juveniles at the same age and naïve adults...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821674/how-auditory-experience-differentially-influences-the-function-of-left-and-right-superior-temporal-cortices
#8
Tae Twomey, Dafydd Waters, Cathy J Price, Samuel Evans, Mairéad MacSweeney
To investigate how hearing status, sign language experience and task demands influence functional responses in the human superior temporal cortices (STC) we collected fMRI data from deaf and hearing participants (male and female), who either acquired sign language early or late in life. Our stimuli in all tasks were pictures of objects. We varied the linguistic and visuospatial processing demands in three different tasks that involved decisions about (1) the sublexical (phonological) structure of the British Sign Language (BSL) signs for the objects; (2) the semantic category of the objects; and (3) the physical features of the objects...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807326/the-end-of-the-line-antagonistic-attentional-weightings-in-unilateral-neglect
#9
Robert D McIntosh
The line bisection task is widely used in the study of neglect. Some years ago, McIntosh, Schindler, Birchall, & Milner (2005) proposed a radical reframing of this ubiquitous task. Rather than using the traditional measure of directional bisection error, they quantified the sensitivities of the response to the changing locations of the left and right endpoints of the line, expressing these as 'endpoint weightings'. A novel prediction generated from their analysis was that manipulations increasing attention to the left end of the line should cause an increase in the left endpoint weighting and a corresponding reduction in the right endpoint weighting...
July 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756485/laterality-of-anterior-temporal-lobe-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-determines-the-degree-of-disruption-in-picture-naming
#10
Anna M Woollams, Lee J Lindley, Gorana Pobric, Paul Hoffman
The bilateral anterior temporal lobes play a key role in semantic representation. This is clearly demonstrated by the performance of patients with semantic dementia, a disorder characterised by a progressive and selective decline in semantic memory over all modalities as a result of anterior temporal atrophy. Although all patients exhibit a progressive decline in both single-word production and comprehension, those with greater atrophy to the left anterior temporal lobe show a stronger decline in word production than comprehension...
July 29, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741714/abnormal-fronto-parietal-white-matter-organisation-in-the-superior-longitudinal-fasciculus-branches-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Jacqueline Fitzgerald, Alexander Leemans, Elizabeth Kehoe, Erik O'Hanlon, Louise Gallagher, Jane McGrath
Core features of ASD may be underpinned by disrupted functional and structural neural connectivity. Abnormal fronto-parietal functional connectivity has been widely reported in the literature; this may be underpinned by disrupted microstructural organisation of white matter. The Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF) is a major fronto-parietal white matter tract, the structure of which has been little studied in ASD. The fronto-parietal projections of this tract (SLF I, II and III) are thought to play an important role in a number of cognitive functions including attention and visuospatial processing...
July 25, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732759/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-the-processing-of-body-sides-a-study-with-ambiguous-human-silhouettes
#12
Daniele Marzoli, Alessandra Pagliara, Giulia Prete, Gianluca Malatesta, Chiara Lucafò, Caterina Padulo, Alfredo Brancucci, Luca Tommasi
When required to indicate the perceived orientation of pictures of human silhouettes with ambiguous front/back orientation and handedness, both right- and left-handed participants perceive the figures more frequently as right-handed than as left-handed, which seems to indicate an attentional bias towards the right arm of human bodies. Given that past research exploiting the divided visual field paradigm indicated a processing advantage for contralateral body parts in both hemispheres, we tested whether human silhouettes with ambiguous handedness presented in the right visual field would be interpreted more frequently as right-handed compared with those presented in the left visual field...
July 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713656/methodological-considerations-in-assessment-of-language-lateralisation-with-fmri-a-systematic-review
#13
Abigail R Bradshaw, Dorothy V M Bishop, Zoe V J Woodhead
The involvement of the right and left hemispheres in mediating language functions has been measured in a variety of ways over the centuries since the relative dominance of the left hemisphere was first known. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) presents a useful non-invasive method of assessing lateralisation that is being increasingly used in clinical practice and research. However, the methods used in the fMRI laterality literature currently are highly variable, making systematic comparisons across studies difficult...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699372/hemispheric-asymmetries-in-dorsal-language-pathway-white-matter-tracts-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-tractography-and-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Guilherme Silva, Alberto Citterio
Introduction Previous studies have shown that the arcuate fasciculus has a leftward asymmetry in right-handers that could be correlated with the language lateralisation defined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, information about the asymmetry of the other fibres that constitute the dorsal language pathway is scarce. Objectives This study investigated the asymmetry of the white-matter tracts involved in the dorsal language pathway through the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique, in relation to language hemispheric dominance determined by task-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633075/elective-unilateral-nodal-irradiation-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-paradigm-shift
#15
REVIEW
A Al-Mamgani, M Verheij, M W M van den Brekel
There is a long-standing convention to irradiate the great majority of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) electively to both sides of the neck, to reduce the theoretically increased risk of contralateral regional failure (cRF). With the currently available diagnostic imaging techniques this treatment paradigm means, in our opinion, an overtreatment in considerable proportion of these patients. From all the published studies (n = 11, with 1116 patients treated in total), the incidence of cRF in patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated to one side of the neck is 2...
September 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626863/prolactin-correction-for-adequacy-of-petrosal-sinus-cannulation-may-diminish-diagnostic-accuracy-in-cushing-s-disease
#16
Sunita M C De Sousa, Ann I McCormack, Shaun McGrath, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: Petrosal venous prolactin concentrations have been promoted to improve the diagnostic accuracy of inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS), beyond that achieved with ACTH measurement alone, in diagnosing a pituitary ACTH source and determining corticotrophinoma side (L/R). Our objective was to assess the effect of using prolactin to confirm adequacy of petrosal cannulation in a cohort of patients with ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626411/dissociated-crossed-speech-areas-in-a-tumour-patient
#17
Jörg Mauler, Irene Neuner, Georg Neuloh, Bruno Fimm, Frank Boers, Martin Wiesmann, Hans Clusmann, Karl-Josef Langen, N Jon Shah
In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca's area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere...
May 2017: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603610/does-additional-reconstruction-of-the-anterolateral-ligament-during-a-primary-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-affect-tibial-rotational-laxity-a-case-series
#18
Rohi Shah, Runveer Singh, Clodagh Dugdale, Guido Geutjens
BACKGROUND: The current evidence suggests that rotational stability in not restored in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures, despite reconstructive surgery. The graded pivot-shift is a useful clinical test to delineate extent of ligamentous laxity within the knee. Given its lateralised position, we hypothesized that reconstruction of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) would provide restraint to excessive internal rotation, restoring rotational stability. METHODS: 10 patients with MRI confirmed diagnosis of an isolated ACL rupture were included...
July 2017: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567347/effect-of-lengthening-along-the-anatomical-axis-of-the-femur-and-its-clinical-impact
#19
Khaled M Emara, Ahmed Nageeb Mahmoud, Ahmed K Emara, Mariam K Emara
AIM: To review and study the effect of lengthening along the anatomical axis of long bones and its relation to the mechanical axis deviation. METHODS: We try in this review to calculate and discuss the exact clinical impact of lengthening along the anatomical axis of the femur on affecting the limb alignment. Also we used a trigonometric formula to predict the change of the femoral distal anatomical mechanical angle (AMA) after lengthening along the anatomical axis...
May 18, 2017: World Journal of Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566349/lateralisation-helps-sailfish-snatch-sardines
#20
C Ruth Archer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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