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Martin Wolley, Ashraf Ahmed, Richard Gordon, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is vital for determining treatment options for primary aldosteronism (PA), but is a difficult procedure. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion or bolus has been reported to improve AVS success rates by increasing cortisol secretion, but effects on aldosterone and thus lateralisation are controversial. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of ACTH on AVS in regard to success rates and lateralization. DESIGN AND METHOD: AVS was performed in the morning after overnight recumbency in patients with PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jessica C Hodgson, Rebecca J Hirst, John M Hudson
Commonly displayed functional asymmetries such as hand dominance and hemispheric speech lateralisation are well researched in adults. However there is debate about when such functions become lateralised in the typically developing brain. This study examined whether patterns of speech laterality and hand dominance were related and whether they varied with age in typically developing children. 148 children aged 3-10 years performed an electronic pegboard task to determine hand dominance; a subset of 38 of these children also underwent functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) imaging to derive a lateralisation index (LI) for hemispheric activation during speech production using an animation description paradigm...
September 29, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
J Ganjei, A Langenbach, G Watrous, J Hodgson
OBJECTIVE: To document the most common types of bacteria isolated from the canine larynx and to compare isolates, degree of growth and susceptibility patterns between dogs with laryngeal paralysis and dogs with normal laryngeal function. METHODS: Laryngeal swabs were collected from each patient and submitted for bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Dogs with laryngeal paralysis (n=23) underwent a unilateral arytenoid lateralisation and control dogs (n=24) underwent an elective orthopaedic procedure...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Martin Wolley, Ashraf Ahmed, Richard Gordon, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is vital for determining treatment options for primary aldosteronism (PA), but is a difficult procedure. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion or bolus has been reported to improve AVS success rates by increasing cortisol secretion, but effects on aldosterone and thus lateralisation are controversial. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of ACTH on AVS in regard to success rates and lateralization. DESIGN AND METHOD: AVS was performed in the morning after overnight recumbency in patients with PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Davor Lessel, Tariq Muhammad, Teresa Casar Tena, Barbara Moepps, Martin D Burkhalter, Marc-Phillip Hitz, Okan Toka, Axel Rentzsch, Stephan Schubert, Adelheid Schalinski, Ulrike M M Bauer, Christian Kubisch, Stephanie M Ware, Melanie Philipp
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is a regulator of cardiac performance and a potential therapeutic target in heart failure in the adult. Additionally, we have previously classified GRK5 as a determinant of left-right asymmetry and proper heart development using zebrafish. We thus aimed to identify GRK5 variants of functional significance by analysing 187 individuals with laterality defects (heterotaxy) that were associated with a congenital heart defect (CHD). Using Sanger sequencing we identified two moderately frequent variants in GRK5 with minor allele frequencies <10%, and seven very rare polymorphisms with minor allele frequencies <1%, two of which are novel variants...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carol Naughton, Daniel O'Toole, Deniz Kirik, Eilís Dowd
In most patients, Parkinson's disease is thought to emerge after a lifetime of exposure to, and interaction between, various genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the key genetic factors linked to this condition is α-synuclein, and the α-synuclein protein is pathologically associated with idiopathic cases. However, α-synuclein pathology is also present in presymptomatic, clinically "normal" individuals suggesting that environmental factors, such as Parkinson's disease-linked agricultural pesticides, may be required to precipitate Parkinson's disease in these individuals...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Leah T Johnstone, David P Carey
Asymmetries in hand movements have routinely been attributed to properties of the two cerebral hemispheres. In right-handed participants, the non-dominant left hand tends to have shorter reaction times, with the dominant right hand achieving shorter movement durations as well as higher peak velocities. The root cause of the surprising left hand RT effect has been debated, largely in the context of right hemisphere specialisation in attention, visuospatial abilities, or "premotor" processes. Mieschke et al. (Brain Cognit 45:1, 2001) and Barthélémy and Boulinguez ( Behav Brain Res 133:1, 2002) both tried to dissociate "premotor" processes explaining the left hand RT advantage, using reaching paradigms where at least one condition required target detection, but no visually guided aiming movement...
August 22, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Peter Neal Taylor, Rob Forsyth
BACKGROUND: The corpus callosum (CC) is the primary structure supporting interhemispheric connectivity in the brain. Partial or complete surgical callosotomy may be performed for the palliation of intractable epilepsy. A variety of disconnection syndromes are recognised after injury to or division of the CC however their mechanisms are poorly understood and their occurrence difficult to predict. We use novel high resolution structural connectivity analyses to demonstrate reasons for this poor predictability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Simone Cutini, Dénes Szűcs, Natasha Mead, Martina Huss, Usha Goswami
Phase entrainment of neuronal oscillations is thought to play a central role in encoding speech. Children with developmental dyslexia show impaired phonological processing of speech, proposed theoretically to be related to atypical phase entrainment to slower temporal modulations in speech (<10Hz). While studies of children with dyslexia have found atypical phase entrainment in the delta band (~2Hz), some studies of adults with developmental dyslexia have shown impaired entrainment in the low gamma band (~35-50Hz)...
August 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Deborah J Serrien, Michiel M Sovijärvi-Spapé
Manual tasks are an important goal-directed ability. In this EEG work, we studied how handedness affects the hemispheric lateralisation patterns during performance of visually-driven movements with either hand. The neural correlates were assessed by means of EEG coherence whereas behavioural output was measured by motor error. The EEG data indicated that left- and right-handers showed distinct recruitment patterns. These involved local interactions between brain regions as well as more widespread associations between brain systems...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
A P Key, E M Dykens
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit hypersociability and may respond atypically to emotional information in social and nonsocial stimuli. It is not yet clear whether these difficulties are specific to emotional content or stimulus type. This study examined the neural processes supporting social and emotional information processing in WS. METHOD: Visual event-related potentials were recorded in 19 adults with WS and 10 typical peers during a picture-viewing task requiring detection of smiling faces among other social and nonsocial images with positive and negative emotional content...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
U Scherer, M Buck, W Schuett
In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected.
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
M N Cabrera-Martín, J A Matías-Guiu, M Yus-Fuertes, M Valles-Salgado, T Moreno-Ramos, J Matías-Guiu, J L Carreras Delgado
Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome caused by a neurodegeneration of areas and neural networks involved in language, usually in the left hemisphere. The term "crossed aphasia" denotes an acquired language dysfunction caused by a lesion in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand. A case is presented on a 75-year-old right-handed woman with a logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia with word-finding difficulties of 2 years onset. The (18)F-FDG PET-CT showed right temporoparietal hypometabolism...
June 16, 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Olga Kepinska, Mischa de Rover, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
We examine the role of language analytical ability, one of the components of language aptitude - a specific ability for learning languages - during acquisition of a novel grammar. We investigated whether the neural basis of artificial grammar learning (AGL) differs between populations of highly and moderately skilled learners. Participants performed an AGL task during an fMRI scan and data from task's test phases were analysed. Highly skilled learners performed better than moderately skilled ones and engaged during the task more neural resources in the right hemisphere, i...
June 12, 2016: Neuropsychologia
D McQuaid, A Dunlop, S Nill, C Franzese, C M Nutting, K J Harrington, K L Newbold, S A Bhide
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate potential advantages and disadvantages of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), multiple fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of dose to the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for delivering ipsilateral radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT were compared in patients with well-lateralised primary tonsillar cancers who underwent primary radical ipsilateral radiotherapy...
August 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
HeeSeung Lee, Grace Y Wang, Louise E Curley, Rob R Kydd, Ian J Kirk, Bruce R Russell
BACKGROUND: 'Piperazine-containing party pills' were marketed and sold as legal alternatives to methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. The major constituents of these 'pills' were benzylphenylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). Despite their popularity, there is a paucity of knowledge about their central effects in humans. This study investigated their effects on human neural processing using electroencephalographic techniques...
August 2016: Psychopharmacology
Ya-Wun Guo, Chii-Min Hwu, Justin Ging-Shing Won, Chia-Huei Chu, Liang-Yu Lin
UNLABELLED: A functional lesion in corticotrophin (ACTH)-independent Cushing's syndrome is difficult to distinguish from lesions of bilateral adrenal masses. Methods for distinguishing these lesions include adrenal venous sampling and (131)I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol ((131)I-NP-59) scintigraphy. We present a case of a 29-year-old Han Chinese female patient with a history of hypercholesterolaemia and polycystic ovary syndrome. She presented with a 6month history of an 8kg body weight gain and gradual rounding of the face...
2016: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Ilaria Boscolo Galazzo, Maria Vittoria Mattoli, Francesca Benedetta Pizzini, Enrico De Vita, Anna Barnes, John S Duncan, Hans Rolf Jäger, Xavier Golay, Jamshed B Bomanji, Matthias Koepp, Ashley M Groves, Francesco Fraioli
The major challenge in pre-surgical epileptic patient evaluation is the correct identification of the seizure onset area, especially in MR-negative patients. In this study, we aimed to: (1) assess the concordance between perfusion, from ASL, and metabolism, from (18)F-FDG, acquired simultaneously on PET/MR; (2) verify the utility of a statistical approach as supportive diagnostic tool for clinical readers. Secondarily, we compared (18)F-FDG PET data from the hybrid PET/MR system with those acquired with PET/CT, with the purpose of validate the reliability of (18)F-FDG PET/MR data...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Padraic Monaghan, John J Shaw, Anneliese Ashworth-Lord, Chloe R Newbury
Sleep is known to affect learning and memory, but the extent to which it influences behavioural processing in the left and right hemispheres of the brain is as yet unknown. We tested two hypotheses about lateralised effects of sleep on recognition memory for words: whether sleep reactivated recent experiences of words promoting access to the long-term store in the left hemisphere (LH), and whether sleep enhanced spreading activation differentially in semantic networks in the hemispheres. In Experiment 1, participants viewed lists of semantically related words, then slept or stayed awake for 12h before being tested on seen, unseen but related, or unrelated words presented to the left or the right hemisphere...
May 21, 2016: Brain and Language
Owen T Skinner, Sarah E Boston, Carlos H de M Souza
Variable pathways of lymphatic drainage have been described in the dog head and neck. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the patterns of lymph node metastasis in dogs with malignancies of the head following bilateral mandibular and medial retropharyngeal lymphadenectomy. Thirty-one dogs were included. Median age at surgery was 10 years (range: 5 months to 14 years) and mean bodyweight was 21.4 ± 11.9 kg. Lymph node metastasis occurred in 14 dogs (45%), with spread to mandibular lymph nodes in 14 dogs and medial retropharyngeal metastasis in 11 dogs...
May 16, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
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