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M A Garcia-Pallero, C V Torres, R Manzanares-Soler, E Camara, R G Sola
INTRODUCTION: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a non-invasive technique that can be used to assess the integrity of the white matter in the brain. AIMS: To investigate the usefulness of DTI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to observe its relationship with lateralisation of the epileptogenic focus in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed 11 patients diagnosed with TLE in accordance with the pre-surgical protocol of our epilepsy unit, and who were seizure-free two years after performing a temporal lobectomy plus amygdalohippocampectomy (Spencer technique)...
December 16, 2016: Revista de Neurologia
Robert Luke, Astrid De Vos, Jan Wouters
Speech is a complex signal containing a broad variety of acoustic information. For accurate speech reception, the listener must perceive modulations over a range of envelope frequencies. Perception of these modulations is particularly important for cochlear implant (CI) users, as all commercial devices use envelope coding strategies. Prolonged deafness affects the auditory pathway. However, little is known of how cochlear implantation affects the neural processing of modulated stimuli. This study investigates and contrasts the neural processing of envelope rate modulated signals in acoustic and CI listeners...
November 25, 2016: NeuroImage
Iosif A Mendichovszky, Andrew S Powlson, Roido Manavaki, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Heok Cheow, John R Buscombe, Mark Gurnell, Fiona J Gilbert
Adrenal lesions present a significant diagnostic burden for both radiologists and endocrinologists, especially with the increasing number of adrenal 'incidentalomas' detected on modern computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A key objective is the reliable distinction of benign disease from either primary adrenal malignancy (e.g., adrenocortical carcinoma or malignant forms of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPGL)) or metastases (e.g., bronchial, renal). Benign lesions may still be associated with adverse sequelae through autonomous hormone hypersecretion (e...
November 18, 2016: Diagnostics
Gloria G Gonzálvez, Karin Trimmel, Anja Haag, Louis A van Graan, Matthias J Koepp, Pamela J Thompson, John S Duncan
OBJECTIVE: Verbal fluency functional MRI (fMRI) is used for predicting language deficits after anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but primarily engages frontal lobe areas. In this observational study we investigated fMRI paradigms using visual and auditory stimuli, which predominately involve language areas resected during ATLR. METHODS: Twenty-three controls and 33 patients (20 left (LTLE), 13 right (RTLE)) were assessed using three fMRI paradigms: verbal fluency, auditory naming with a contrast of auditory reversed speech; picture naming with a contrast of scrambled pictures and blurred faces...
December 2016: Epilepsy Research
Nicolas Gueugneau, Sidney Grosprêtre, Paul J Stapley, Romuald Lepers
High frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (HF NMES) induces muscular contractions through neural mechanisms that partially match physiological motor control. Indeed, a portion of the contraction arises from central mechanisms, whereby spinal motoneurons are recruited through the evoked sensory volley. However, the involvement of supraspinal centers of motor control during such a stimulation remained poorly understood. Therefore, we tested whether a single HF NMES session applied to the upper limb influences interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) from left to right motor cortex (M1)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Martin Wolley, Ashraf Ahmed, Richard Gordon, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is vital for determining treatment options for primary aldosteronism (PA), but is a difficult procedure. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion or bolus has been reported to improve AVS success rates by increasing cortisol secretion, but effects on aldosterone and thus lateralisation are controversial. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of ACTH on AVS in regard to success rates and lateralization. DESIGN AND METHOD: AVS was performed in the morning after overnight recumbency in patients with PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Jessica C Hodgson, Rebecca J Hirst, John M Hudson
Commonly displayed functional asymmetries such as hand dominance and hemispheric speech lateralisation are well researched in adults. However there is debate about when such functions become lateralised in the typically developing brain. This study examined whether patterns of speech laterality and hand dominance were related and whether they varied with age in typically developing children. 148 children aged 3-10 years performed an electronic pegboard task to determine hand dominance; a subset of 38 of these children also underwent functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD) imaging to derive a lateralisation index (LI) for hemispheric activation during speech production using an animation description paradigm...
December 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
J Ganjei, A Langenbach, G Watrous, J Hodgson
OBJECTIVE: To document the most common types of bacteria isolated from the canine larynx and to compare isolates, degree of growth and susceptibility patterns between dogs with laryngeal paralysis and dogs with normal laryngeal function. METHODS: Laryngeal swabs were collected from each patient and submitted for bacterial culture and susceptibility testing. Dogs with laryngeal paralysis (n=23) underwent a unilateral arytenoid lateralisation and control dogs (n=24) underwent an elective orthopaedic procedure...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Martin Wolley, Ashraf Ahmed, Richard Gordon, Michael Stowasser
OBJECTIVE: Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is vital for determining treatment options for primary aldosteronism (PA), but is a difficult procedure. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion or bolus has been reported to improve AVS success rates by increasing cortisol secretion, but effects on aldosterone and thus lateralisation are controversial. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of ACTH on AVS in regard to success rates and lateralization. DESIGN AND METHOD: AVS was performed in the morning after overnight recumbency in patients with PA confirmed by fludrocortisone suppression testing...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Davor Lessel, Tariq Muhammad, Teresa Casar Tena, Barbara Moepps, Martin D Burkhalter, Marc-Phillip Hitz, Okan Toka, Axel Rentzsch, Stephan Schubert, Adelheid Schalinski, Ulrike M M Bauer, Christian Kubisch, Stephanie M Ware, Melanie Philipp
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) is a regulator of cardiac performance and a potential therapeutic target in heart failure in the adult. Additionally, we have previously classified GRK5 as a determinant of left-right asymmetry and proper heart development using zebrafish. We thus aimed to identify GRK5 variants of functional significance by analysing 187 individuals with laterality defects (heterotaxy) that were associated with a congenital heart defect (CHD). Using Sanger sequencing we identified two moderately frequent variants in GRK5 with minor allele frequencies <10%, and seven very rare polymorphisms with minor allele frequencies <1%, two of which are novel variants...
2016: Scientific Reports
Carol Naughton, Daniel O'Toole, Deniz Kirik, Eilís Dowd
In most patients, Parkinson's disease is thought to emerge after a lifetime of exposure to, and interaction between, various genetic and environmental risk factors. One of the key genetic factors linked to this condition is α-synuclein, and the α-synuclein protein is pathologically associated with idiopathic cases. However, α-synuclein pathology is also present in presymptomatic, clinically "normal" individuals suggesting that environmental factors, such as Parkinson's disease-linked agricultural pesticides, may be required to precipitate Parkinson's disease in these individuals...
January 1, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
Leah T Johnstone, David P Carey
Asymmetries in hand movements have routinely been attributed to properties of the two cerebral hemispheres. In right-handed participants, the non-dominant left hand tends to have shorter reaction times, with the dominant right hand achieving shorter movement durations as well as higher peak velocities. The root cause of the surprising left hand RT effect has been debated, largely in the context of right hemisphere specialisation in attention, visuospatial abilities, or "premotor" processes. Mieschke et al. (Brain Cognit 45:1, 2001) and Barthélémy and Boulinguez ( Behav Brain Res 133:1, 2002) both tried to dissociate "premotor" processes explaining the left hand RT advantage, using reaching paradigms where at least one condition required target detection, but no visually guided aiming movement...
August 22, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Peter Neal Taylor, Rob Forsyth
BACKGROUND: The corpus callosum (CC) is the primary structure supporting interhemispheric connectivity in the brain. Partial or complete surgical callosotomy may be performed for the palliation of intractable epilepsy. A variety of disconnection syndromes are recognised after injury to or division of the CC however their mechanisms are poorly understood and their occurrence difficult to predict. We use novel high resolution structural connectivity analyses to demonstrate reasons for this poor predictability...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Simone Cutini, Dénes Szűcs, Natasha Mead, Martina Huss, Usha Goswami
Phase entrainment of neuronal oscillations is thought to play a central role in encoding speech. Children with developmental dyslexia show impaired phonological processing of speech, proposed theoretically to be related to atypical phase entrainment to slower temporal modulations in speech (<10Hz). While studies of children with dyslexia have found atypical phase entrainment in the delta band (~2Hz), some studies of adults with developmental dyslexia have shown impaired entrainment in the low gamma band (~35-50Hz)...
December 2016: NeuroImage
Deborah J Serrien, Michiel M Sovijärvi-Spapé
Manual tasks are an important goal-directed ability. In this EEG work, we studied how handedness affects the hemispheric lateralisation patterns during performance of visually-driven movements with either hand. The neural correlates were assessed by means of EEG coherence whereas behavioural output was measured by motor error. The EEG data indicated that left- and right-handers showed distinct recruitment patterns. These involved local interactions between brain regions as well as more widespread associations between brain systems...
October 2016: Brain and Cognition
A P Key, E M Dykens
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit hypersociability and may respond atypically to emotional information in social and nonsocial stimuli. It is not yet clear whether these difficulties are specific to emotional content or stimulus type. This study examined the neural processes supporting social and emotional information processing in WS. METHOD: Visual event-related potentials were recorded in 19 adults with WS and 10 typical peers during a picture-viewing task requiring detection of smiling faces among other social and nonsocial images with positive and negative emotional content...
October 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
U Scherer, M Buck, W Schuett
In this study, population level lateralisation and the suitability of mirror tests as a test of natural aggressive behaviour in male rainbow kribs Pelvicachromis pulcher was investigated. Aggressive behaviour in live agonistic trials correlated positively with behaviours towards a mirror image and no visual lateralisation was detected.
September 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
M N Cabrera-Martín, J A Matías-Guiu, M Yus-Fuertes, M Valles-Salgado, T Moreno-Ramos, J Matías-Guiu, J L Carreras Delgado
Primary progressive aphasia is a clinical syndrome caused by a neurodegeneration of areas and neural networks involved in language, usually in the left hemisphere. The term "crossed aphasia" denotes an acquired language dysfunction caused by a lesion in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the dominant hand. A case is presented on a 75-year-old right-handed woman with a logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia with word-finding difficulties of 2 years onset. The (18)F-FDG PET-CT showed right temporoparietal hypometabolism...
June 16, 2016: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
Olga Kepinska, Mischa de Rover, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
We examine the role of language analytical ability, one of the components of language aptitude - a specific ability for learning languages - during acquisition of a novel grammar. We investigated whether the neural basis of Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL) differs between populations of highly and moderately skilled learners. Participants performed an AGL task during an fMRI scan and data from task's test phases were analysed. Highly skilled learners performed better than moderately skilled ones and engaged during the task more neural resources in the right hemisphere, i...
June 12, 2016: Neuropsychologia
D McQuaid, A Dunlop, S Nill, C Franzese, C M Nutting, K J Harrington, K L Newbold, S A Bhide
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate potential advantages and disadvantages of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), multiple fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in terms of dose to the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk (OARs) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for delivering ipsilateral radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3DCRT, IMRT and VMAT were compared in patients with well-lateralised primary tonsillar cancers who underwent primary radical ipsilateral radiotherapy...
August 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
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