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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349505/embracing-your-emotions-affective-state-impacts-lateralisation-of-human-embraces
#1
Julian Packheiser, Noemi Rook, Zeynep Dursun, Janne Mesenhöller, Alrescha Wenglorz, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333343/resounding-failure-to-replicate-links-between-developmental-language-disorder-and-cerebral-lateralisation
#2
Alexander C Wilson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Background: It has been suggested that failure to establish cerebral lateralisation may be related to developmental language disorder (DLD). There has been weak support for any link with handedness, but more consistent reports of associations with functional brain lateralisation for language. The consistency of lateralisation across different functions may also be important. We aimed to replicate previous findings of an association between DLD and reduced laterality on a quantitative measure of hand preference (reaching across the midline) and on language laterality assessed using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317322/flashbulb-memories-is-the-amygdala-central-an-investigation-of-patients-with-amygdalar-damage
#3
Kerstin Spanhel, Kathrin Wagner, Maximilian J Geiger, Isabell Ofer, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Birgitta Metternich
Flashbulb memories (FM) are a subgroup of autobiographical memories referring to the circumstances in which a person first heard of a surprising, emotionally arousing event. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been reported to be impaired in FM recall. As emotional arousal is central to FM, various authors have suggested a crucial role of the amygdala. However, to date, no studies have directly addressed this hypothesis. In this study, 33 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were tested on an FM task twice with a minimum interval of two months...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311603/attentional-gain-is-modulated-by-probabilistic-feature-expectations-in-a-spatial-cueing-task-erp-evidence
#4
Anna Marzecová, Antonio Schettino, Andreas Widmann, Iria SanMiguel, Sonja A Kotz, Erich Schröger
Several theoretical and empirical studies suggest that attention and perceptual expectations influence perception in an interactive manner, whereby attentional gain is enhanced for predicted stimuli. The current study assessed whether attention and perceptual expectations interface when they are fully orthogonal, i.e., each of them relates to different stimulus features. We used a spatial cueing task with block-wise spatial attention cues that directed attention to either left or right visual field, in which Gabor gratings of either predicted (more likely) or unpredicted (less likely) orientation were presented...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216477/human-laterality-for-manipulation-and-gestural-communication-related-to-60-everyday-activities-impact-of-multiple-individual-related-factors
#5
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
Literature on laterality emphasises the importance of implementing a comprehensive investigation of humans' and non-humans' laterality for both non-communication and communication functions. Adopting a global approach should enhance our understanding of the mechanistic drivers of human brain functional lateralisation and help to explore further the nature of the left-hemispheric systems for both functions. This study investigated human laterality for both functions by taking, for the first time, numerous behaviours and multiple potential influential factors into consideration...
November 11, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194989/contralateral-neck-metastases-in-lateralised-resectable-advanced-stage-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-results-of-57-patients-undergoing-bilateral-selective-neck-dissection
#6
LETTER
H R Fox, A Robson, H Cocks, D Meikle, C Kelly, R Goranova, J Kovarik, G Shaikh, V Paleri, J O'Hara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194625/laryngeal-chondronecrosis-after-radiation-therapy-in-a-dog
#7
J Bertran, M Martinez, M Breit, M A McLoughlin, K L Ham, E Warry, V Wavreille
A 5-year-old pug presented with a soft tissue swelling on the ventral neck and moderate stridor with associated respiratory effort. This patient received hypofractionated radiotherapy for metastatic upper lip mast cell tumour and to the submandibular lymph nodes 6 months before presentation. Oral examination showed moderate elongation of the soft palate, stage III laryngeal collapse with only the right laryngeal saccule mildly everted and exuberant pale epiglottal and left pharyngeal mucosa. Staphylectomy, resection of the epiglottal mucosa and left arytenoid lateralisation were performed...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183684/age-related-changes-in-the-neural-networks-supporting-semantic-cognition-a-meta-analysis-of-47-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#8
REVIEW
Paul Hoffman, Alexa M Morcom
Semantic cognition is central to understanding of language and the world and, unlike many cognitive domains, is thought to show little age-related decline. We investigated age-related differences in the neural basis of this critical cognitive domain by performing an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies comparing young and older people. On average, young people outperformed their older counterparts during semantic tasks. Overall, both age groups activated similar left-lateralised regions...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176875/the-orientation-of-homing-pigeons-columba-livia-f-d-with-and-without-navigational-experience-in-a-two-dimensional-environment
#9
Julia Mehlhorn, Gerd Rehkaemper
Homing pigeons are known for their excellent homing ability, and their brains seem to be functionally adapted to homing. It is known that pigeons with navigational experience show a larger hippocampus and also a more lateralised brain than pigeons without navigational experience. So we hypothesized that experience may have an influence also on orientation ability. We examined two groups of pigeons (11 with navigational experience and 17 without) in a standard operant chamber with a touch screen monitor showing a 2-D schematic of a rectangular environment (as "geometric" information) and one uniquely shaped and colored feature in each corner (as "landmark" information)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170537/hippocampal-mrs-and-subfield-volumetry-at-7t-detects-dysfunction-not-specific-to-seizure-focus
#10
Natalie L Voets, Carl J Hodgetts, Arjune Sen, Jane E Adcock, Uzay Emir
Ultra high-field 7T MRI offers sensitivity to localize hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but has rarely been evaluated in patients with normal-appearing clinical MRI. We applied multimodal 7T MRI to assess if focal subfield atrophy and deviations in brain metabolites characterize epileptic hippocampi. Twelve pre-surgical TLE patients (7 MRI-negative) and age-matched healthy volunteers were scanned at 7T. Hippocampal subfields were manually segmented from 600μm isotropic resolution susceptibility-weighted images...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145029/captive-gorillas-manual-laterality-the-impact-of-gestures-manipulators-and-interaction-specificity
#11
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Simone Pika
Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types...
November 13, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138476/visuospatial-attention-in-the-lateralised-brain-of-pigeons-a-matter-of-ontogenetic-light-experiences
#12
Sara Letzner, Onur Güntürkün, Stephanie Lor, Robert Jan Pawlik, Martina Manns
The ontogenetic mechanisms leading to complementary hemispheric specialisations of the two brain halves are poorly understood. In pigeons, asymmetrical light stimulation during development triggers the left-hemispheric dominance for visuomotor control but light effects on right-hemispheric specialisations are largely unknown. We therefore tested adult pigeons with and without embryonic light experience in a visual search task in which the birds pecked peas regularly scattered on an area in front of them. Comparing the pecking pattern of both groups indicates that the embryonic light conditions differentially influence biased visuospatial attention under mono- and binocular seeing conditions...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109037/lateralised-sleep-spindles-relate-to-false-memory-generation
#13
John J Shaw, Padraic Monaghan
Sleep is known to enhance false memories: After presenting participants with lists of semantically related words, sleeping before recalling these words results in a greater acceptance of unseen "lure" words related in theme to previously seen words. Furthermore, the right hemisphere (RH) seems to be more prone to false memories than the left hemisphere (LH). In the current study, we investigated the sleep architecture associated with these false memory and lateralisation effects in a nap study. Participants viewed lists of related words, then stayed awake or slept for approximately 90min, and were then tested for recognition of previously seen-old, unseen-new, or unseen-lure words presented either to the LH or RH...
November 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072554/functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-is-in-moderate-accordance-with-functional-mri-in-determining-lateralisation-of-frontal-language-areas
#14
K M Arun, K A Smitha, P G Rajesh, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas
Purpose Understanding language dominance is crucial in pre-surgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy and in patients having a tumour close to the language area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are well established in evaluating language dominance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that offers a convenient and affordable technique to image language-related cortical areas. This study investigates the agreement between results from task-based fMRI and fNIRS in determining language lateralisation...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057543/cortical-responses-before-six-months-of-life-associate-with-later-autism
#15
S Lloyd-Fox, A Blasi, G Pasco, T Gliga, E J Jones, D G Murphy, C E Elwell, T Charman, M H Johnson
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a common, highly heritable, developmental disorder, and later-born siblings of diagnosed children are at higher risk for developing ASD than the general population. Although the emergence of behavioural symptoms of ASD in toddlerhood is well characterised, far less is known about development during the first months of life of infants at familial risk. In a prospective longitudinal study of infants at familial risk followed to 36 months, we measured functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) brain responses to social videos of people (i...
October 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055867/pre-surgical-mapping-of-eloquent-cortex-for-paediatric-epilepsy-surgery-candidates-evidence-from-a-review-of-advanced-functional-neuroimaging
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Collinge, Garreth Prendergast, Steven T Mayers, David Marshall, Poppy Siddell, Elizabeth Neilly, Colin D Ferrie, Gayatri Vadlamani, Jeremy Macmullen-Price, Daniel J Warren, Arshad Zaman, Paul Chumas, John Goodden, Matthew C H J Morrall
PURPOSE: A review of all published evidence for mapping eloquent (motor, language and memory) cortex using advanced functional neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI] and magnetoencephalography [MEG]) for paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates has not been conducted previously. Research in this area has predominantly been in adult populations and applicability of these techniques to paediatric populations is less established. METHODS: A review was performed using an advanced systematic search and retrieval of all published papers examining the use of functional neuroimaging for paediatric epilepsy surgery candidates...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027903/functional-dichotomy-in-spinal-vs-prefrontal-projecting-locus-coeruleus-modules-splits-descending-noradrenergic-analgesia-from-ascending-aversion-and-anxiety-in-rats
#17
Stefan Hirschberg, Yong Li, Andrew Randall, Eric J Kremer, Anthony E Pickering
The locus coeruleus (LC) projects throughout the brain and spinal cord and is the major source of central noradrenaline. It remains unclear whether the LC acts functionally as a single global effector or as discrete modules. Specifically, while spinal-projections from LC neurons can exert analgesic actions, it is not known whether they can act independently of ascending LC projections. Using viral vectors taken up at axon terminals, we expressed chemogenetic actuators selectively in LC neurons with spinal (LC(:SC)) or prefrontal cortex (LC(:PFC)) projections...
October 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986862/beyond-the-embolus-do-not-miss-diffusion-abnormalities-of-ischaemic-and-non-ischaemic-neurological-disease
#18
REVIEW
Vivek Yedavalli, Eric M Nyberg, Daniel S Chow, Ashesh A Thaker
Given the rapid evolution and technological advances in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), including the proliferation of comprehensive stroke centres and increasing emphasis on interventional stroke therapies, the need for prompt recognition of stroke due to acute large vessel occlusion has received significant attention in the recent literature. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute ischaemic stroke, as images appear positive within minutes of ischaemic injury, and a high signal-to-noise ratio enables even punctate infarcts to be readily detected...
October 6, 2017: Insights Into Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921756/temporal-alignment-of-anticipatory-motor-cortical-beta-lateralisation-in-hidden-visual-motor-sequences
#19
Simone G Heideman, Freek van Ede, Anna C Nobre
Performance improves when participants respond to events that are structured in repeating sequences, suggesting that learning can lead to proactive anticipatory preparation. Whereas most sequence-learning studies have emphasized spatial structure, most sequences also contain a prominent temporal structure. We used MEG to investigate spatial and temporal anticipatory neural dynamics in a modified serial reaction-time (SRT) task. Performance and brain activity were compared between blocks with learned spatial-temporal sequences and blocks with new sequences...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912300/-18-f-av-1451-binding-in-vivo-mirrors-the-expected-distribution-of-tdp-43-pathology-in-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#20
W R Bevan-Jones, Thomas E Cope, P Simon Jones, Luca Passamonti, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Robert Arnold, Kieren S J Allinson, Jonathan P Coles, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Karalyn Patterson, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
INTRODUCTION: Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [(18)F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients (five with svPPA and two with 'right' semantic dementia) and 12 healthy controls underwent positron emission tomography brain imaging with [(18)F]AV-1451...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
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