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Thibault Verhoeven, Ana Coito, Gijs Plomp, Aljoscha Thomschewski, Francesca Pittau, Eugen Trinka, Roland Wiest, Karl Schaller, Christoph Michel, Margitta Seeck, Joni Dambre, Serge Vulliemoz, Pieter van Mierlo
Objective: To diagnose and lateralise temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by building a classification system that uses directed functional connectivity patterns estimated during EEG periods without visible pathological activity. Methods: Resting-state high-density EEG recording data from 20 left TLE patients, 20 right TLE patients and 35 healthy controls was used. Epochs without interictal spikes were selected. The cortical source activity was obtained for 82 regions of interest and whole-brain directed functional connectivity was estimated in the theta, alpha and beta frequency bands...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Brandi Lee Drisdelle, Pierre Jolicoeur
To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of target selection, we examined how the spatial separation of salient items and their similarity to a pre-defined target interact using lateralised electrophysiological correlates of visual spatial attention (N2pc component) and visual-short term memory (VSTM; SPCN component). Using these features of target selection, we sought to expand on previous work proposing a model of early and late selection, where the N2pc is suggested to reflect the selection probability of visual stimuli (Aubin and Jolicoeur, 2016)...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Billy L K Wong, Yuhan Peng, Eamon Shamil, Paul Leong
BACKGROUND: There are a variety of surgical techniques which can be used to treat structural nasal obstruction. Airwayplasty is a procedure, combining septoplasty, turbinate surgery, and nasal wall lateralization. The article reports the long-term result of this novel approach. METHODOLOGY: Patients who have evidence of structural nasal obstruction were offered the option to have airwayplasty under the senior surgeon. Patients were asked to quantify the severity and the impact of their nasal obstruction using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the validated Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) pre-operatively and post-operatively...
February 24, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Sandra Tolnai, Rainer Beutelmann, Georg M Klump
The main sound localisation cues in the horizontal plane are interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs, respectively). ITDs are thought to be the dominant cue in the low-frequency range, ILDs the dominant cue in the high-frequency range. ITDs and ILDs co-occur. Their interaction and contribution to the lateralisation of pure tones by Mongolian gerbils was investigated behaviourally using cross-talk cancellation techniques for presenting ITDs and ILDs independently. First, ITDs were applied to pure tones with frequencies ≤ 2 kHz to the ongoing waveform, at the onsets and offsets, or in both the ongoing waveform and at the onsets and offsets...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The left and right ventral anterior temporal lobes (vATL) have been implicated as key regions for the representation of conceptual knowledge. However, the nature and degree of hemispheric specialisation in their function is unclear. To address this issue, we investigated hemispheric specialisation in the ventral temporal lobes using a distortion-corrected spin-echo fMRI protocol that enhanced signal in vATL. We employed an orthogonal manipulation of stimulus (written words vs pictured objects) and task (naming vs recognition)...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Eva-Maria Reuter, Welber Marinovic, Jesse Beikoff, Timothy J Carroll
Alternative motor responses can be prepared in parallel. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the parallel preparation of alternative response options is modulated by their relative value. Participants performed a choice response task with three potential actions: isometric contraction of the left, the right, or both wrists. An imperative stimulus (IS) appeared after a warning cue, such that the initiation time of a required action was predictable, but the specific action was not. To encourage advanced preparation, the target was presented 200 ms prior to the IS, and only correct responses initiated within ±100 ms of the IS were rewarded...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Karen L Clunies-Ross, Catherine Campbell, Jeneva L Ohan, Mike Anderson, Corinne Reid, Allison M Fox
The asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis (AST) suggests that the left and right secondary auditory areas process auditory stimuli according to different sampling rates (Poeppel, 2003). We investigated whether asymmetries consistent with the AST are observable in children at age 7 and whether they become more pronounced at age 9. Data were collected from 50 children who attended a 2-day research program at age 7 and were followed up 2 years later. At both time points, children were presented with tone-pairs, each composed of two 50 ms, 1000Hz, sinusoidal tones separated by inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) of 25, 50, 100, or 200 ms...
February 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Sanjeev Mohanty, Vinoth Manimaran, Preethi Umamaheswaran, Shivapriya Jeyabalakrishnan, Sreenivas Chelladurai
OBJECTIVE: Management of anterior perforations of tympanic membrane is a surgical challenge. The objective of this study is to analyse and compare the results of composite cartilage perichondrium island (CCPI) graft and temporalis fascia graft by endoscopic technique in anterior quadrant perforations. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care centre from 2012-16. A total of 187 ear drums(n) in 168 patients with perforations involving anterior quadrant were included in the study...
January 31, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
W-F Su, M-C Lan, S-C Liu
A suture lateralisation (SL) instead of an endolaryngeal tissue ablation procedure under endoscopy has been utilised to treat bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) since 1980. However, mechanical fixation (MF) of the cricoarytenoid joint (CAJ) has continually challenged the effectiveness of glottic dilatation both in the SL procedure and the tissue ablation procedure. From 2007 to 2015, a total of 38 patients with BVFI underwent 40 exo-endolaryngeal suture lateralisation (exoeSL) procedures and three were diagnosed with MF in our hospital...
January 31, 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Julian Packheiser, Noemi Rook, Zeynep Dursun, Janne Mesenhöller, Alrescha Wenglorz, Onur Güntürkün, Sebastian Ocklenburg
Humans are highly social animals that show a wide variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviours to communicate social intent. One of the most frequently used non-verbal social behaviours is embracing, commonly used as an expression of love and affection. However, it can also occur in a large variety of social situations entailing negative (fear or sadness) or neutral emotionality (formal greetings). Embracing is also experienced from birth onwards in mother-infant interactions and is thus accompanying human social interaction across the whole lifespan...
January 18, 2018: Psychological Research
Alexander C Wilson, Dorothy V M Bishop
Background: It has been suggested that failure to establish cerebral lateralisation may be related to developmental language disorder (DLD). There has been weak support for any link with handedness, but more consistent reports of associations with functional brain lateralisation for language. The consistency of lateralisation across different functions may also be important. We aimed to replicate previous findings of an association between DLD and reduced laterality on a quantitative measure of hand preference (reaching across the midline) and on language laterality assessed using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD)...
2018: PeerJ
Kerstin Spanhel, Kathrin Wagner, Maximilian J Geiger, Isabell Ofer, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Birgitta Metternich
Flashbulb memories (FM) are a subgroup of autobiographical memories referring to the circumstances in which a person first heard of a surprising, emotionally arousing event. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) have been reported to be impaired in FM recall. As emotional arousal is central to FM, various authors have suggested a crucial role of the amygdala. However, to date, no studies have directly addressed this hypothesis. In this study, 33 TLE patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were tested on an FM task twice with a minimum interval of two months...
January 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Anna Marzecová, Antonio Schettino, Andreas Widmann, Iria SanMiguel, Sonja A Kotz, Erich Schröger
Several theoretical and empirical studies suggest that attention and perceptual expectations influence perception in an interactive manner, whereby attentional gain is enhanced for predicted stimuli. The current study assessed whether attention and perceptual expectations interface when they are fully orthogonal, i.e., each of them relates to different stimulus features. We used a spatial cueing task with block-wise spatial attention cues that directed attention to either left or right visual field, in which Gabor gratings of either predicted (more likely) or unpredicted (less likely) orientation were presented...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin
Literature on laterality emphasises the importance of implementing a comprehensive investigation of humans' and non-humans' laterality for both non-communication and communication functions. Adopting a global approach should enhance our understanding of the mechanistic drivers of human brain functional lateralisation and help to explore further the nature of the left-hemispheric systems for both functions. This study investigated human laterality for both functions by taking, for the first time, numerous behaviours and multiple potential influential factors into consideration...
February 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
H R Fox, A Robson, H Cocks, D Meikle, C Kelly, R Goranova, J Kovarik, G Shaikh, V Paleri, J O'Hara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
J Bertran, M Martinez, M Breit, M A McLoughlin, K L Ham, E Warry, V Wavreille
A 5-year-old pug presented with a soft tissue swelling on the ventral neck and moderate stridor with associated respiratory effort. This patient received hypofractionated radiotherapy for metastatic upper lip mast cell tumour and to the submandibular lymph nodes 6 months before presentation. Oral examination showed moderate elongation of the soft palate, stage III laryngeal collapse with only the right laryngeal saccule mildly everted and exuberant pale epiglottal and left pharyngeal mucosa. Staphylectomy, resection of the epiglottal mucosa and left arytenoid lateralisation were performed...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Paul Hoffman, Alexa M Morcom
Semantic cognition is central to understanding of language and the world and, unlike many cognitive domains, is thought to show little age-related decline. We investigated age-related differences in the neural basis of this critical cognitive domain by performing an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies comparing young and older people. On average, young people outperformed their older counterparts during semantic tasks. Overall, both age groups activated similar left-lateralised regions...
January 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Julia Mehlhorn, Gerd Rehkaemper
Homing pigeons are known for their excellent homing ability, and their brains seem to be functionally adapted to homing. It is known that pigeons with navigational experience show a larger hippocampus and also a more lateralised brain than pigeons without navigational experience. So we hypothesized that experience may have an influence also on orientation ability. We examined two groups of pigeons (11 with navigational experience and 17 without) in a standard operant chamber with a touch screen monitor showing a 2-D schematic of a rectangular environment (as "geometric" information) and one uniquely shaped and colored feature in each corner (as "landmark" information)...
2017: PloS One
Natalie L Voets, Carl J Hodgetts, Arjune Sen, Jane E Adcock, Uzay Emir
Ultra high-field 7T MRI offers sensitivity to localize hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but has rarely been evaluated in patients with normal-appearing clinical MRI. We applied multimodal 7T MRI to assess if focal subfield atrophy and deviations in brain metabolites characterize epileptic hippocampi. Twelve pre-surgical TLE patients (7 MRI-negative) and age-matched healthy volunteers were scanned at 7T. Hippocampal subfields were manually segmented from 600μm isotropic resolution susceptibility-weighted images...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jacques Prieur, Stéphanie Barbu, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Simone Pika
Relationships between humans' manual laterality in non-communicative and communicative functions are still poorly understood. Recently, studies showed that chimpanzees' manual laterality is influenced by functional, interactional and individual factors and their mutual intertwinement. However, what about manual laterality in species living in stable social groups? We tackled this question by studying three groups of captive gorillas (N=35) and analysed their most frequent manual signals: three manipulators and 16 gesture types...
November 13, 2017: Brain and Language
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