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Opiod dependence

George E Woody, Evgeny Krupitsky, Edwin Zvartau
Naltrexone is an antagonist that binds tightly to μ-opioid receptors and blocks the subjective and analgesic effects of opioids. It does not produce physiologic dependence and precipitates withdrawal if administered to an opioid dependent person, thus starting it must begin with detoxification. It was first available in the mid-1970s as a 50 mg tablet that blocked opioids for 24-36 h if taken daily, or every 2-3 days at higher doses - for example: 100 mg Monday and Wednesday, 150 mg on Friday. From a pharmacological perspective it worked very well and was hoped to be an effective treatment but results were disappointing due to low patient interest and high dropout followed by relapse...
September 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Amanda S Mota, Anderson B de Lima, Thayana Lucy F Albuquerque, Tiago S Silveira, José Luiz M do Nascimento, Joyce Kelly R da Silva, Alcy F Ribeiro, José Guilherme S Maia, Gilmara N T Bastos
Seed oil (Pp-oil) of Plukenetia polyadenia is used by native people of the Brazilian Amazon against arthritis and rheumatism, spreading it on the arms and legs to reduce the pain and inflammation. Pp-oil was obtained by pressing dried seeds at room temperature to give a 47.0% yield of oil. It was then subjected to fatty acid composition analysis. The principal fatty acids were linoleic acid (46.5%), α-linolenic acid (34.4%) and oleic acid (13.9%). Then, it was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in mice, using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, hot plate and formalin test models...
2015: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, O P Singh, Amit Bhattacharyya, Subrata Sen, Paromita Roy, Sharmistha Debnath
UNLABELLED: Opiod dependence is one of the leading psychiatric morbidities in India. The deaddiction centres are meager in number; stigma attached to admission in deaddiction centre is high and most addicts want outpatient treatment so that they do not miss daily wages. Several recent reports stated effectiveness of tramadol in treating opioid withdrawal. This study attempts to compare effectiveness of tramadol with clonidine in opioid withdrawal. METHODOLOGY: A total of 60 patients having heroin dependence were selected and out of them 30 got clonidine treatment and the other 30 got tramadol treatment...
December 2010: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Jose Martinez-Raga, Francisco Gonzalez-Saiz, Julian Oñate, Itziar Oyagüez, Eliazar Sabater, Miguel A Casado
BACKGROUND: Opioid addiction is a worldwide problem. Agonist opioid treatment (AOT) is the most widespread and frequent pharmacotherapeutic approach. Methadone has been the most widely used AOT, but buprenorphine, a partial μ-opiod agonist and a κ-opiod antagonist, is fast gaining acceptance. The objective was to assess the budgetary impact in Spain of the introduction of buprenorphine-naloxone (B/N) combination. METHODS: A budgetary impact model was developed to estimate healthcare costs of the addition of B/N combination to the therapeutic arsenal for treating opioid dependent patients, during a 3-year period under the National Health System perspective...
2012: Health Economics Review
Jongserl Chun, Joseph R Guydish, James L Sorensen, Nancy A Haug, Siara Andrews, Larry Nelson
This study evaluated treatment outcomes for the reduction of criminal justice involvement and substance use among opioid dependent clients in a therapeutic community setting under California's Proposition 36. We compared treatment outcomes between those mandated to treatment under Proposition 36 (n = 24) and those on probation but not involved in Proposition 36 (n = 61) over 12 months. Over time, both groups showed significant improvement on drug use and employment measures, were more likely to be involved in job training and less likely to be engaged in work activity, and had similar retention in treatment...
July 1, 2007: Journal of Drug Issues
Paolo Di Patrizio, Sophie Houille, Raymund Schwan, Jean-Marc Boivin
BACKGROUND: The buprenorphine (BHD) is an effective maintenance treatment for opioid dependence, used in France until 1996. From 1996 to 2001, it is involved in 137 deaths by respiratory depression including 91 attributable to the benzodiazepines (BDZ) association. The number of deaths caused by the BHD and BDZ, when they are taken jointly, is probably underestimated. The reasons for this association are the misuse, the self-medication and the co-prescription. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the co-prescription of these two drugs by the general practitioners (GPs) of Nancy (France)...
December 20, 2010: La Revue du Praticien
Fatih Balaban, Seyhan Yağar, Ayşegül Özgök, Mihrican Koç, Hayriye Güllapoğlu
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of two different doses (150 mg and 300 mg) of preoperative pregabalin on pain relief and total opioid consumption after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING: Training and research hospital. PATIENTS: 90 adult, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to three groups to receive orally one hour before surgery, a placebo (Group 1), pregabalin 150 mg (Group 2), or pregabalin 300 mg (Group 3)...
May 2012: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Kazuo Nakamoto, Takashi Nishinaka, Mitsumasa Mankura, Wakako Fujita-Hamabe, Shogo Tokuyama
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFAs), is an essential polyunsaturated fatty acid in the central nervous system, and possesses many physiological functions in neurodegenerative diseases. Previously, there are some reports that n-3 PUFAs contribute to pain relief. As the antinociceptive effect of DHA alone has not been reported, this study examined the antinociceptive effect of DHA on various pain stimuli. To evaluate the antinociceptive effect of DHA on thermal and chemical nociception, we employed the tail flick test, acetic acid writhing test and formalin test in mice...
2010: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Ingrid Rundshagen
Drug addicts need special anesthesiological care due to their co-morbidities, their modified need for analgesics and anesthetics and/or their specific substitution therapies. In spite of the high incidence of addiction worldwide controlled studies and evidence based recommendations for the anaesthesiological management of the patients are missing. The perioperative care is not the treatment of addiction, on the contrary the specific aspects of a chronic disease have to be accepted. Equally important perioperative treatment strategies for the management of drug addicts include: 1...
May 2010: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
Eva Kosek, Karin B Jensen, Tina B Lonsdorf, Martin Schalling, Martin Ingvar
BACKGROUND: There is evidence from animal studies that serotonin (5-HT) can influence the antinociceptive effects of opioids at the spinal cord level. Therefore, there could be an influence of genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin system on individual variability in response to opioid treatment of pain. The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key regulator of serotonin metabolism and availability and its gene harbors several known polymorphisms that are known to affect 5-HTT expression (e...
2009: Molecular Pain
Cindy L Ehlers, Penelope A Lind, Kirk C Wilhelmsen
BACKGROUND: Variation in response to the hedonic and adverse effects of a substance is in part an inherited factor that may influence its use, abuse and dependence. The mu opioid receptor is the primary site of action for opiates and individuals with polymorphisms in this receptor appear to have variation in the CNS effects of opiates. Several studies have suggested that this receptor may also mediate some of the effects of non-opioid drugs, such as alcohol. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the mu opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) with self-reported responses to alcohol, an endophenotype associated with the development of alcohol dependence, in American Indians living on eight contiguous reservations...
2008: BMC Medical Genetics
T Iu Rebrova, L N Maslov, Iu B Lishmanov
The six hour stress in rats was modeled by the method of O. Desiderato. Cardiac damage was estimated by myocardial uptace of radioactive 99Tc-pyrophosphate. Intravenous administration of mixed mu and delta opioid receptor agonist, D- Ala2, Leu5, Arg6-enkephalin (dalargin), (non-penetrating through the blood brain barrier) at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg before stress decreased stress-induced 99Tc-pyroposphate uptake. Pretreatment with dalargin completely abolished the stress-induced increase in conjugated dienes and malondialdehyde levels in myocardium and prevented a decrease in total lipid soluble antioxidant levels in the heart after stress exposure...
March 2005: Biomedit︠s︡inskai︠a︡ Khimii︠a︡
David A Fiellin
Substance use of disorders--including alcohol, cocaine, and opiod dependencies--are common in HIV-infected patients. Untreated substance use disorders result in poor HIV disease treatment outcomes; however, several new treatment strategies have emerged in recent years. Combined medication and counseling therapies are effective for alcohol and opioid dependencies, and counseling treatments are effective for cocaine dependence. Office-based treatment with buprenorphine offers the opportunity for coordinated treatment of HIV disease and opioid dependence...
July 2004: Topics in HIV Medicine: a Publication of the International AIDS Society, USA
V. Dolezal, S. Tucek, S. Hynie
(1) Longitudinal muscle preparations of the rat ileum with the attached myenteric plexuses (LMMPs) were preloaded with (3H)choline and the effects of drugs on the depolarization-evoked release of radioactivity corresponding to (3H) acetylcholine ((3H)ACh) were measured. The release of (3H)ACh was inhibited by morphine and the effect of morphine was blocked by naloxone. Morphine had no effect on the release of (3H)ACh in LMMPs from rats that had been injected with pertussis toxin (PTX) 7 days before experiments...
March 1989: European Journal of Neuroscience
M T Fernández-Sánchez, R Díaz-Trelles, A Groppetti, B Manfredi, A T Brini, G Biella, M L Sotgiu, A Novelli
Nefopam hydrochloride is a potent analgesic compound that possesses a profile distinct from that of opiods or anti-inflammatory drugs. Previous evidence suggested a central action of nefopam but the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here we have used cultured cerebellar neurons to test the hypothesis that nefopam may modulate voltage sensitive sodium channel (VSSC) activity. Nefopam (100 microM) effectively prevented NMDA receptor-mediated early appearance (30 min) of toxicity signs induced by the VSSC activator veratridine...
December 2001: Neuropharmacology
W Glatt
The purpose of the study was to investigate a new method for detoxifying opioid-dependent patients. Butorphanol is an opiod with mixed agonist-antagonist properties, and is marketed as a nasal spray. Undiluted, it will cause significant physical withdrawal symptoms in a population dependent on opioids. Forty patients dependent on opioids were detoxified using dilute butorphanol spray. The initial concentration was 40% and gradually reduced. This technique was highly successful in keeping this difficult group of patients engaged in the treatment process for a longer period...
October 1999: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
G Fanciulli, O Oliva, P A Tomasi, A Pala, A Bertoncelli, A Dettori, G Delitala
Exogenous growth hormone (hGH) administration in humans attenuates the endogenous growth hormone (GH) response to some pharmacological stimuli; in particular, pretreatment with hGH completely blocks the serum GH response to growth hormone-releasing hormone. In order to evaluate the mechanism(s) whereby opiods induce GH secretion in man, we gave the following treatments to six healthy male volunteers: (a) IV saline; (b) a met-enkephalin analog G-DAMME 250 micrograms IV as a bolus at time 0'; (c) hGH 2 IU as an IV bolus at time -180'; (d) G-DAMME as above, preceded by hGH as above...
January 1996: European Journal of Endocrinology
S F Pu, J S Han
CCK-8 administered bilaterally to the amygdala at 0.1-1.0 ng dose-dependently antagonized the analgesia induced by morphine (4 mg/kg, s. c.) as measured by the changes in tail flick latency (TFL). This effect of CCK-8 could be reversed by Devazepide, a CCK-A receptor antagonist dose-dependently at 50 ng and 200 ng, and by L-365, 260, a CCK-B receptor antagonist at 5 ng and 8 ng administered to the same site. The effect of morphine analgesia was potentiated by 200 ng Devazepide or 8 ng L-365, 260 administered bilaterally to amygdala...
October 1993: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
C S Wong, Y F Su, W D Watkins, K J Chang
Opioid receptors exist in multiple affinity states for agonists. Cations and guanine nucleotides affect mu-agonist affinity by modulating the interaction between receptor molecule and G-protein. In this study, we systematically examined the effects of cations and guanine nucleotides on the binding of mu-agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Met-(O)5-ol]enkephalin in rat spinal cord and brain membranes. A homogeneous class of low-affinity receptors was obtained by conducting binding assays in the presence of Na+ (100 mM) + guanosine diphosphate (100 microM)...
February 1994: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
M J Lewis, J L Costa, D M Jacobowitz, D L Margules
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 30, 1976: Brain Research
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