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Bacterial vaginosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443070/crystal-structure-of-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase-from-the-gram-positive-bacterial-pathogen-a-vaginae-an-immunoevasive-factor-that-interacts-with-the-human-c5a-anaphylatoxin
#1
Javier Querol-García, Francisco J Fernández, Ana V Marin, Sara Gómez, Daniel Fullà, Cecilia Melchor-Tafur, Virginia Franco-Hidalgo, Sebastián Albertí, Jordi Juanhuix, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, José R Regueiro, M Cristina Vega
The Gram-positive anaerobic human pathogenic bacterium Atopobium vaginae causes most diagnosed cases of bacterial vaginosis as well as opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. In addition to its well-established role in carbohydrate metabolism, D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from Streptococcus pyogenes and S. pneumoniae have been reported to act as extracellular virulence factors during streptococcal infections. Here, we report the crystal structure of GAPDH from A. vaginae (AvGAPDH) at 2...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442807/epidemiology-and-clinico-investigative-study-of-organisms-causing-vaginal-discharge
#2
Swetha Venugopal, Kannan Gopalan, Asha Devi, A Kavitha
BACKGROUND: Abnormal vaginal discharge is a common clinical problem in reproductive age group. It is the second most common problem after abnormal uterine bleeding. It is a neglected health problem, most commonly caused due to vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis (BV). OBJECTIVES: The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of common organisms causing vaginal discharge and also to know the variety of clinical presentation...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442799/study-of-pruritus-vulvae-in-geriatric-age-group-in-tertiary-hospital
#3
Jasleen Kaur, Jyotika Kalsy
BACKGROUND: According to the World Health Organization criteria, geriatric population is people above 60 years of age. In this phase of life, a woman has already gone through menopause and its associated emotional, physical, and hormonal changes. These changes are due to gradual loss of estrogen that comes with menopause which results in dramatic changes in the appearance of vulva and vagina. With age, skin of vulva becomes thin, loses elasticity, and moisture so that the patient starts feeling burning and itchy sensation...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435139/the-role-of-lactic-acid-production-by-probiotic-lactobacillus-species-in-vaginal-health
#4
Gilda Tachedjian, Muriel Aldunate, Catronia S Bradshaw, Richard A Cone
Vaginal eubiosis is characterised by beneficial lactobacillus-dominated microbiota. In contrast, vaginal dysbiosis (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, BV), characterised by an overgrowth of multiple anaerobes, is associated with an increased risk of adverse urogenital and reproductive health outcomes. A major distinguishing feature between the vaginal environment in states of eubiosis and dysbiosis is a high concentration of lactic acid, produced by lactobacilli, that acidifies the vagina in eubiosis versus a sharp drop in lactic acid and an increase in pH in dysbiosis...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433607/transfer-of-vaginal-chloramphenicol-to-circulating-blood-in-pregnant-women-and-its-relationship-with-their-maternal-background-and-neonatal-health
#5
Satoe Harauchi, Takashi Osawa, Naoko Kubono, Hiroaki Itoh, Takafumi Naito, Junichi Kawakami
Few clinical studies have determined the quantitative transfer of vaginal chloramphenicol to circulating blood in pregnant women. This study aimed to evaluate the plasma concentration of chloramphenicol in pregnant women treated with trans-vaginal tablets and its relationship with maternal background and neonatal health. Thirty-seven pregnant women treated with 100 mg of trans-vaginal chloramphenicol once daily for bacterial vaginosis and its suspected case were enrolled. The plasma concentration of chloramphenicol was determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry at day 2 or later after starting the medication...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399595/can-the-pessary-use-modify-the-vaginal-microbiological-flora-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Suelene Costa de Albuquerque Coelho, Paulo César Giraldo, Juliana Oquendo Florentino, Edilson Benedito de Castro, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito, Cássia Raquel Teatin Juliato
Introduction Vaginal pessary is used as a conservative treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Some studies have shown that common complaints of its use may include vaginal discomfort and increased vaginal discharge. Scant information is available about the microflora status after using this device. Objective To determine if the usage of vaginal pessary can interfere with the vaginal environment. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from March of 2014 to July of 2015 including 90 women with POP...
April 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392921/-anaerococcus-mediterraneensis-sp-nov-a-new-species-isolated-from-human-female-genital-tract
#7
K Diop, F Bretelle, P-E Fournier, F Fenollar
We report the principal characteristics of 'Anaerococcus mediterraneensis' strain Marseille P2765, a new member of the Anaerococcus genus. Strain Marseille P2765 was isolated in a vaginal sample of a 26-year-old patient with bacterial vaginosis.
May 2017: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386675/effects-of-metronidazole-combined-probiotics-over-metronidazole-alone-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#8
REVIEW
Hongying Tan, Yunque Fu, Chunlin Yang, Jianting Ma
OBJECT: To evaluate the curative effect of metronidazole combined probiotics over metronidazole alone in the treatment of BV. METHODS: We are searching randomized controlled trials on major online databases including PubMed, Science Direct, and Cochrane Database between 1990 and 2015. The primary outcome measure was the cure rate of BV. Cochran's Chi-square test (Q test) was used to test for heterogeneity among trials, and the I (2) index. We used mixed-effects modeling for parameters of the summary hazard ratios (HRs), odds ratios (ORs), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377421/a-cross-sectional-analysis-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-infection-among-heterosexual-hiv-1-serodiscordant-african-couples
#9
Aaron F Bochner, Jared M Baeten, Alison S Rustagi, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Jairam R Lingappa, Nelly R Mugo, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Saidi Kapiga, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Connie Celum, Ruanne V Barnabas
OBJECTIVES: Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. METHODS: African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials...
April 4, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362869/high-prevalence-of-curable-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-pregnant-women-in-a-rural-county-hospital-in-kilifi-kenya
#10
Simon Chengo Masha, Elizabeth Wahome, Mario Vaneechoutte, Piet Cools, Tania Crucitti, Eduard J Sanders
BACKGROUND: Women attending antenatal care (ANC) in resource-limited countries are frequently screened for syphilis and HIV, but rarely for other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed the prevalence of curable STIs, defined as infection with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis, from July to September 2015. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, women attending ANC at the Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya, had a urine sample tested for C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358585/etiology-of-bacterial-vaginosis-and-polymicrobial-biofilm-formation
#11
Hyun-Sul Jung, Marthie M Ehlers, Hennie Lombaard, Mathys J Redelinghuys, Marleen M Kock
Microorganisms in nature rarely exist in a planktonic form, but in the form of biofilms. Biofilms have been identified as the cause of many chronic and persistent infections and have been implicated in the etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV). Bacterial vaginosis is the most common form of vaginal infection in women of reproductive age. Similar to other biofilm infections, BV biofilms protect the BV-related bacteria against antibiotics and cause recurrent BV. In this review, an overview of BV-related bacteria, conceptual models and the stages involved in the polymicrobial BV biofilm formation will be discussed...
March 30, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350843/high-hiv-prevalence-and-incidence-among-women-in-southern-mozambique-evidence-from-the-mdp-microbicide-feasibility-study
#12
Sibone Mocumbi, Mitzy Gafos, Khatia Munguambe, Ruth Goodall, Sheena McCormack
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting large scale HIV prevention clinical trials in Mozambique by measuring HIV prevalence and incidence among women of reproductive age. This paper describes the baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the Mozambique Microbicides Development Programme (MDP) feasibility cohort, baseline prevalence of HIV and other STIs, and HIV incidence. METHODS: The Mozambique MDP feasibility study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 in urban Mavalane and rural Manhiça, in Southern Mozambique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348968/a-comparison-of-the-efficacy-of-metronidazole-vaginal-gel-and-myrtus-myrtus-communis-extract-combination-and-metronidazole-vaginal-gel-alone-in-the-treatment-of-recurrent-bacterial-vaginosis
#13
Mansoureh Masoudi, Mahmoud Rafieian Kopaei, Sepideh Miraj
OBJECTIVE: Due to the high incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and its resistance to chemical medications and considering the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects of Myrtus communis, the present study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of M. communis 2% (in metronidazole base) with metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% alone on BV. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This research was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted on 80 women of 18-40 years old with BV...
March 2017: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293099/a-comparison-of-colorimetric-assessment-of-vaginal-ph-with-nugent-score-for-the-detection-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#14
Matthew K Hoffman, Mrutyunjaya B Bellad, Umesh S Charantimath, Avinash Kavi, Jyoti M Nagmoti, Mahantesh B Nagmoti, Ashalata A Mallapur, Geetanjali M Katageri, Umesh Y Ramadurg, Sheshidhar G Bannale, Amit P Revankar, M S Ganachari, Richard J Derman, Shivaprasad S Goudar
Background. A Nugent score > 7 has been defined as the gold standard for the diagnosis for bacterial vaginosis (BV), though it is resource intensive and impractical as point of care testing. We sought to determine if colorimetric assessment of vaginal pH can accurately predict the occurrence of BV. Methods. We performed a planned subanalysis of 1,216 pregnant women between 13 0/7 and 19 6/7 weeks who underwent vaginal examination as part of a randomized controlled trial. Using a standardized technique, specimens were obtained for colorimetric assessment and two separate slides for Gram staining...
2017: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280394/addressing-intravaginal-practices-in-women-with-hiv-and-at-risk-for-hiv-infection-a-mixed-methods-pilot-study
#15
Maria L Alcaide, Violeta J Rodriguez, Margaret A Fischl, Deborah L Jones, Stephen M Weiss
Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280032/complete-genome-sequence-of-lactobacillus-jensenii-strain-snuv360-a-probiotic-for-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-isolated-from-the-vagina-of-a-healthy-korean-woman
#16
Sunghee Lee, Hyun Ju You, Bomi Kwon, GwangPyo Ko
Lactobacillus jensenii SNUV360 is a potential probiotic strain that shows antimicrobial activity for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Here, we present the complete genomic sequence of L. jensenii SNUV360, isolated from a vaginal sample from a healthy Korean woman. Analysis of the sequence may provide insight into its functional activity.
March 9, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278277/women-view-key-sexual-behaviours-as-the-trigger-for-the-onset-and-recurrence-of-bacterial-vaginosis
#17
Jade E Bilardi, Sandra M Walker, Meredith J Temple-Smith, Ruth P McNair, Julie Mooney-Somers, Lenka A Vodstrcil, Clare E Bellhouse, Christopher K Fairley, Catriona S Bradshaw
BACKGROUND: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) affects a third of women of reproductive age in the US and there is increasing evidence to suggest it may be sexually transmitted. This study aimed to extend and validate the findings of our earlier smaller qualitative study by exploring in detail women's views and experiences of the triggering factors associated with BV onset and recurrence. METHODS: Women aged 20-49, who had experienced one or more symptomatic episode of BV within 6 months, were opportunistically recruited to complete a 38-item questionnaire on their experience of BV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267861/periodic-screening-pelvic-examination-evidence-report-and-systematic-review-for-the-us-preventive-services-task-force
#18
REVIEW
Janelle M Guirguis-Blake, Jillian T Henderson, Leslie A Perdue
Importance: Recent changes in the periodicity of cervical cancer screening have led to questions about the role of screening pelvic examinations among asymptomatic women. Objective: To systematically review literature on health benefits, accuracy, and harms of the screening pelvic examination for gynecologic conditions for the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Data Sources: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for relevant English-language studies published through January 13, 2016, with surveillance through August 3, 2016...
March 7, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264668/implementing-and-sustaining-a-mobile-medical-clinic-for-prenatal-care-and-sexually-transmitted-infection-prevention-in-rural-mysore-india
#19
Noah Kojima, Karl Krupp, Kavitha Ravi, Savitha Gowda, Poornima Jaykrishna, Caitlyn Leonardson-Placek, Anand Siddhaiah, Claire C Bristow, Anjali Arun, Jeffrey D Klausner, Purnima Madhivanan
BACKGROUND: In rural India, mobile medical clinics are useful models for delivering health promotion, education, and care. Mobile medical clinics use fewer providers for larger catchment areas compared to traditional clinic models in resource limited settings, which is especially useful in areas with shortages of healthcare providers and a wide geographical distribution of patients. METHODS: From 2008 to 2011, we built infrastructure to implement a mobile clinic system to educate rural communities about maternal child health, train community health workers in common safe birthing procedures, and provide comprehensive antenatal care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and testing for specific infections in a large rural catchment area of pregnant women in rural Mysore...
March 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263902/mollicutes-in-vaginal-microbiology-mycoplasma-hominis-ureaplasma-urealyticum-ureaplasma-parvum-and-mycoplasma-genitalium
#20
David Taylor-Robinson
Mycoplasma hominis was isolated in 1937 from the human genital tract, followed 17 years later by Ureaplasma urealyticum and 27 years after that by Mycoplasma genitalium. The first two proved relatively easy to culture but the latter required a polymerase chain reaction assay for further studies. In sexually mature women, M. hominis may be found in the vagina/cervix of about 20-50%, ureaplasmas in 40-80% and M. genitalium in 0-5%. Some heterogeneity has been found among strains of all these species, sufficient to divide ureaplasmas into two species, namely U...
March 2, 2017: Research in Microbiology
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