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Margaret L Griffin, Katherine A McDermott, R Kathryn McHugh, Garrett M Fitzmaurice, Roger D Weiss
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Grit is an emerging concept in positive psychology, defined as the ability to be persistent and focused in pursuit of long-term goals. This concept has received a great deal of interest recently because of its robust ability to predict success and well-being across a wide variety of domains. The study aim was to examine the clinical relevance of the construct of grit among patients with substance use disorders. METHODS: Inpatients on a detoxification unit were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015 (N = 673)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal on Addictions
K L Ostrow, A L Bergner, J Blakeley, D G Evans, R Ferner, J M Friedman, G J Harris, J T Jordan, B Korf, S Langmead, G Leschziner, V Mautner, V L Merker, L Papi, S R Plotkin, J M Slopis, M J Smith, A Stemmer-Rachamimov, K Yohay, A J Belzberg
Schwannomatosis is a tumor suppressor syndrome that causes multiple tumors along peripheral nerves. Formal diagnostic criteria were first published in 2005. Variability in clinical presentation and a relative lack of awareness of the syndrome have contributed to difficulty recognizing affected individuals and accurately describing the natural history of the disorder. Many critical questions such as the mutations underlying schwannomatosis, genotype-phenotype correlations, inheritance patterns, pathologic diagnosis of schwannomatosis-associated schwannomas, tumor burden in schwannomatosis, the incidence of malignancy, and the effectiveness of current, or new treatments remain unanswered...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Andressa S Pinto, Marcio F Chedid, Léa T Guerra, Mario R Álvares-DA-Silva, Alexandre de Araújo, Luciano S Guimarães, Ian Leipnitz, Aljamir D Chedid, Cleber R P Kruel, Tomaz J M Grezzana-Filho, Cleber D P Kruel
Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. Aim: To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients...
July 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
William J Readdy, Rajiv Saigal, William D Whetstone, Anthony N Mefford, Adam R Ferguson, Jason F Talbott, Tomoo Inoue, Jacqueline C Bresnahan, Michael S Beattie, Jonathan Pan, Geoffrey T Manley, Sanjay S Dhall
BACKGROUND: Increased spinal cord perfusion and blood pressure goals have been recommended for spinal cord injury (SCI). Penetrating SCI is associated with poor prognosis, but there is a paucity of literature examining the role of vasopressor administration for the maintenance of mean arterial pressure (MAP) goals in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate this topic and to determine the efficacy of vasopressor administration in penetrating SCI by examining a case series of consecutive penetrating SCIs...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
David A Etzioni, Cynthia L Lessow, Heather D Lucas, Amit Merchea, James A Madura, Raman Mahabir, Nitin Mishra, Nabil Wasif, Amit K Mathur, Yu-Hui H Chang, Robert R Cima, Elizabeth B Habermann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize reasons for discordance between administrative data and registry data in the determination of postoperative infectious complications. BACKGROUND: Data regarding the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications are identified through either administrative or registry data. Rates of complications vary significantly between these two types of data; the reasons for this are not well-understood. METHODS: The occurrence of 30-day inpatient infectious complications (pneumonia, sepsis, surgical site infection, and urinary tract infection) was compared between the NSQIP and administrative mechanisms at 4 academic hospitals between 2012 and 2014...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Raffaella Sordella, Nitin H Shirole, Debjani Pal, Edward R Kastenhuber, Serif Senturk, Joseph Boroda, Paola Pisterzi, Madison Miller, Gustavo Munoz, Marko Anderluh, Marc Ladanyi, Scott W Lowe
TP53 truncating mutations are common in human tumors and are thought to give rise to p53-null alleles. Here, we show that TP53 exon-6 truncating mutations occur at higher than expected frequencies and produce proteins that lack canonical p53 tumor suppressor activities but promote cancer cell proliferation, survival, and metastasis. Functionally and molecularly, these p53 mutants resemble the naturally occurring alternative p53 splice variant, p53-psi. Accordingly, these mutants can localize to mitochondria where they promote tumor phenotypes by binding and activating the mitochondria inner pore permeability regulator, Cyclophilin D (CypD)...
October 19, 2016: ELife
E G Deryabina, G V Yakornova, L A Pestryaeva, N D Sandyreva
Preterm birth is defined as all births before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth can be further sub-divided based on gestational age: extremely preterm (<28 weeks), very preterm (28 to <32 weeks) and moderate preterm (32 to <37 weeks). Retrospective observational case-control study review (1 year i.e., 2015) is to assess pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) delivering very preterm (28 + 0/7 to 31 + 6/7 weeks of gestation). The study group included all women diagnosed with GDM and were compared to a control group of women delivering at the same gestational age period but without GDM...
October 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
V R Badhwar, S Ganapathy, P P Prabhudesai, N K Tulara, A Y Varaiya, D Vyas
In community and family practice, infections are a common OPD presentation. In the management of common bacterial infections seen in community especially RTI, UTI, SSTI; cefuroxime a second generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of activity can be used for empirical treatment. To know current place of cefuroxime in the management of infections, physicians, surgeons, microbiologist, chest physician, gynecologist and pediatrician came together to discuss and debate their experience with cefuroxime and its place in today's world...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Aashish Kumar Sharma, R P Agrawal, J K Sharma, Ritvik Agrawal, Surendra Kumar, Kunal Thackar, Kailash Chandra Saini
OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for endothelial dysfunction which in turn affects the onset and progression of vascular disease including coronary artery disease and its risk factor, directly or indirectly through various mechanisms. This study was undertaken to find out association between vitamin D and endothelial dilatation of brachial artery, which may help to suggest possible underlying mechanisms and may be of clinical importance in planning preventive and therapeutic strategies...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Amanda R Tarullo, Joseph R Isler, Carmen Condon, Kimon Violaris, Peter D Balsam, William P Fifer
Using an eyelid conditioning paradigm modeled after that developed by Little, Lipsitt, and Rovee-Collier (1984), Fifer et al. (2010) demonstrated that newborn infants learn during sleep. This study examined the role of sleep state in neonatal learning. We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG), respiratory, and cardiovascular activity from sleeping full term newborn infants during delay eyelid conditioning. In the experimental group (n = 21), a tone was paired with an air puff to the eye. Consistent with Fifer et al...
November 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
Luis R Domingo, Mar Ríos-Gutiérrez, Patricia Pérez
The molecular mechanism of the carbenoid-type [3 + 2] cycloaddition (32CA) reactions of a nitrile ylide (NY) with a non-chiral and a chiral oxazolidinone has been studied within Molecular Electron Density Theory (MEDT) at the MPWB1K/6-31G(d) computational level. Topological analysis of the Electron Localisation Function (ELF) of the NY shows that it presents a carbenoid structure. The high nucleophilic character of the NY together with the electrophilic character of the non-chiral oxazolidinone favour a polar 32CA reaction with a very low activation energy, the reaction being completely meta/endo selective...
October 18, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Sarah M Hatcher, Sarah M Rhodes, Jill R Stewart, Ellen Silbergeld, Nora Pisanic, Jesper Larsen, Sharon Jiang, Amanda Krosche, Devon Hall, Karen C Carroll, Christopher D Heaney
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households. METHODS: In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Health Perspectives
C M Mariaselvam, C Fortier, D Charron, R Krishnamoorthy, R Tamouza, V S Negi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex multifactorial autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory arthritis. The precise etiology and pathogenesis of RA remains elusive but evidence points towards stochastic interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study investigated the distribution of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1/DQB1 alleles in South Indian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their influence on RA susceptibility and clinical phenotype. Low resolution HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 typing was performed in 271 RA patients and 233 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using sequence-specific primers (SSP)...
November 2016: HLA
E Nelson Kankaka, G Kigozi, D Kayiwa, N Kighoma, F Makumbi, T Murungi, D Nabukalu, R Nampijja, S Watya, D Namuguzi, F Nalugoda, G Nakigozi, D Sserwadda, M Wawer, R H Gray
Early infant circumcision (EIC) is the most common neonatal surgical procedure in males.(1) It has also been incorporated as a component in combination HIV prevention in 14 of Sub-Saharan African countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision coverage.(2,3) EIC has advantages over adult circumcision due to lower adverse events, no risk of early resumption of sex and potentially lower cost(4-6) . Sub-Saharan African countries have low physician coverage, but comparatively higher coverage of non-physicians who could facilitate roll out of circumcision for HIV prevention...
October 18, 2016: BJU International
Carola Borries, Aaron A Sandel, Andreas Koenig, Eduardo Fernandez-Duque, Jason M Kamilar, Caroline R Amoroso, Robert A Barton, Joel Bray, Anthony Di Fiore, Ian C Gilby, Adam D Gordon, Roger Mundry, Markus Port, Lauren E Powell, Anne E Pusey, Amanda Spriggs, Charles L Nunn
Recent decades have seen rapid development of new analytical methods to investigate patterns of interspecific variation. Yet these cutting-edge statistical analyses often rely on data of questionable origin, varying accuracy, and weak comparability, which seem to have reduced the reproducibility of studies. It is time to improve the transparency of comparative data while also making these improved data more widely available. We, the authors, met to discuss how transparency, usability, and reproducibility of comparative data can best be achieved...
September 2016: Evolutionary Anthropology
Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Signe Rosenlund, Peter Hovind, Jens Faber, Tine Willum Hansen, Peter Rossing
AIMS: Patients with type 2 diabetes and albuminuria have high cardiorenal morbidity and mortality despite multifactorial treatment. Short-term reduction in albuminuria is considered suggestive of long-term renoprotective effects. We evaluated the renal effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist liraglutide on top of multifactorial care, including renin-angiotensin-system (RAS)-inhibition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial including patients with type 2 diabetes and persistent albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥30 mL/min/1...
October 17, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Scott A Norris, H A Jinnah, Alberto J Espay, Christine Klein, Norbert Brüggemann, Richard L Barbano, Irene Andonia C Malaty, Ramon L Rodriguez, Marie Vidailhet, Emmanuel Roze, Stephen G Reich, Brian D Berman, Mark S LeDoux, Sarah Pirio Richardson, Pinky Agarwal, Zoltan Mari, William G Ondo, Ludy C Shih, Susan H Fox, Alfredo Berardelli, Claudia M Testa, Florence Ching-Fen Cheng, Daniel Truong, Fatta B Nahab, Tao Xie, Mark Hallett, Ami R Rosen, Laura J Wright, Joel S Perlmutter
BACKGROUND: Clinical characteristics of isolated idiopathic cervical dystonia such as onset site and spread to and from additional body regions have been addressed in single-site studies with limited data and incomplete or variable dissociation of focal and segmental subtypes. The objectives of this study were to characterize the clinical characteristics and demographics of isolated idiopathic cervical dystonia in the largest standardized multicenter cohort. METHODS: The Dystonia Coalition, through a consortium of 37 recruiting sites in North America, Europe, and Australia, recruited 1477 participants with focal (60...
October 18, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Liming Yu, Chongxi Fan, Zhi Li, Jian Zhang, Xiaodong Xue, Yinli Xu, Guolong Zhao, Yang Yang, Huishan Wang
Stress hyperglycemia is commonly observed in patients suffering from ischemic heart disease. It not only worsens cardiovascular prognosis but also attenuates the efficacies of various cardioprotective agents. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of melatonin against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury in acute hyperglycemic state with a focus on Notch1/Hes1/Akt signaling and intracellular thioredoxin (Trx) system. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R surgery and high glucose (HG, 500 g/L) infusion (4 ml/kg/h) to induce temporary hyperglycemia...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pineal Research
Monika M K Stojek, Marian Tanofsky-Kraff, Lauren B Shomaker, Nichole R Kelly, Katherine A Thompson, Rim D Mehari, Shannon E Marwitz, Andrew P Demidowich, Ovidiu A Galescu, Sheila M Brady, Susan Z Yanovski, Jack A Yanovski
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent emotional-eating, referring to eating in response to negative affective states, is frequently reported by those with loss of control (LOC) eating. Although LOC eating has been shown to predict exacerbated disordered eating and excess weight/adiposity gain, the extent to which emotional-eating, either alone or in combination with LOC, predicts adverse outcomes has not been determined. Thus, we examined associations of baseline emotional-eating with changes in disordered eating, BMI, and adiposity over 1-year, and to what degree the presence or absence of baseline LOC moderated these associations...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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