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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918394/apolipoprotein-l1-confers-ph-switchable-ion-permeability-to-phospholipid-vesicles
#1
Jonathan Bruno, Nicola Pozzi, Jonathan Oliva, John C Edwards
Apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) is a human serum protein conferring resistance to African trypanosomes, and certain ApoL1 variants increase susceptibility to some progressive kidney diseases. ApoL1 has been hypothesized to function like a pore-forming colicin and been reported to have permeability effects on both intracellular and plasma membranes. Here, to gain insight into how ApoL1 may function in vivo, we used vesicle-based ion-permeability, direct membrane-association, and intrinsic fluorescence to study the activities of purified recombinant ApoL1...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913390/dataset-on-continuous-passages-of-trypanosoma-brucei-in-different-laboratory-animals
#2
Paul O Odeniran, Isaiah O Ademola
Scientist in developing countries maintain trypanosomes in laboratory animals for in vivo experiments. We generated data on the adaptation of Trypanosoma brucei (NITR201 strain) in balb/c mice (forty-five, 18-23 g), wistar rats (fifteen, 180-220 g) and New Zealand white and chinchilla rabbits (fifteen, 2.8-3.0 kg) in a controlled experimental system. The weight, haematological parameters, course of parasitaemia, temperature, mean survival time and survival proportions of laboratory animals in groups A-E were collected and analysed for differences in response to the same challenge of quantity, strain and species of T...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905716/lack-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-urban-roof-rats-rattus-rattus-at-a-texas-facility-housing-naturally-infected-nonhuman-primates
#3
Carolyn L Hodo, Nicole R Bertolini, John C Bernal, John L VandeBerg, Sarah A Hamer
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, uses kissing bugs as a vector, and is maintained in nature by a variety of wildlife reservoirs. Many natural cases of Chagas disease have been reported in NHP at facilities across the southern United States, where infected vectors and wildlife occur. Infection of NHP with T. cruzi can diminish their value as research models and lead to health problems and death. Identifying the modes of transmission and role of wildlife reservoirs in these facilities is therefore critical to guide interventions to reduce transmission...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903536/an-alternative-strategy-for-trypanosome-survival-in-the-mammalian-bloodstream-revealed-through-genome-and-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-ubiquitous-bovine-parasite-trypanosoma-megatrypanum-theileri
#4
Steven Kelly, Alasdair Ivens, G Adam Mott, Ellis O'Neill, David Emms, Olivia Macleod, Paul Voorheis, Kevin Tyler, Matthew Clark, Jacqueline Matthews, Keith Matthews, Mark Carrington
There are hundreds of Trypanosoma species that live in the blood and tissue spaces of their vertebrate hosts. The vast majority of these do not have the ornate system of antigenic variation that has evolved in the small number of African trypanosome species, but can still maintain long-term infections in the face of the vertebrate adaptive immune system. Trypanosoma theileri is a typical example, has a restricted host range of cattle and other Bovinae, and is only occasionally reported to cause patent disease although no systematic survey of the effect of infection on agricultural productivity has been performed...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894098/structural-basis-for-the-shielding-function-of-the-dynamic-trypanosome-variant-surface-glycoprotein-coat
#5
Thomas Bartossek, Nicola G Jones, Christin Schäfer, Mislav Cvitković, Marius Glogger, Helen R Mott, Jochen Kuper, Martha Brennich, Mark Carrington, Ana-Sunčana Smith, Susanne Fenz, Caroline Kisker, Markus Engstler
The most prominent defence of the unicellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei against the host immune system is a dense coat that comprises a variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Despite the importance of the VSG family, no complete structure of a VSG has been reported. Making use of high-resolution structures of individual VSG domains, we employed small-angle X-ray scattering to elucidate the first two complete VSG structures. The resulting models imply that the linker regions confer great flexibility between domains, which suggests that VSGs can adopt two main conformations to respond to obstacles and changes of protein density, while maintaining a protective barrier at all times...
September 11, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893322/bovine-trypanosomosis-changes-in-parasitemia-and-packed-cell-volume-in-dry-and-wet-seasons-at-gidami-district-oromia-regional-state-western-ethiopia
#6
Efrem Degneh, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Kaleab Asres, Hagos Ashenafi
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is one of the major disease problems affecting agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The impact of the disease is believed to vary with season and agro-ecologies in line with fly vector distribution. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis was conducted from November 2015 to June 2016, in seven selected villages of Gidami district, Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia. A total of 930 blood samples were collected and subjected to parasitological and hematological analysis...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#7
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882512/epidemiology-of-babesia-anaplasma-and-trypanosoma-species-using-a-new-expanded-reverse-line-blot-hybridization-assay
#8
Martina Soledad Paoletta, Ludmila López Arias, Sofía de la Fournière, Eliana Carolina Guillemi, Carlos Luciani, Néstor Fabián Sarmiento, Juan Mosqueda, Marisa Diana Farber, Silvina Elizabeth Wilkowsky
Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB...
September 1, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881710/experimental-african-trypanosome-infection-suppresses-the-development-of-multiple-myeloma-in-mice-by-inducing-intrinsic-apoptosis-of-malignant-plasma-cells
#9
Nathan De Beule, Eline Menu, Mathieu J M Bertrand, Mérédis Favreau, Elke De Bruyne, Ken Maes, Kim De Veirman, Magdalena Radwanska, Afshin Samali, Stefan Magez, Karin Vanderkerken, Carl De Trez
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Recently, several studies have highlighted the role of pathogens in either promoting or dampening malignancies of unrelated origin. Trypanosoma brucei is an extracellular protozoan parasite which causes sleeping sickness. Our group has previously demonstrated that trypanosome infection affects effector plasma B cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that T. brucei infection could have an impact on MM development...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880965/multiple-evolutionary-origins-of-trypanosoma-evansi-in-kenya
#10
Christine M Kamidi, Norah P Saarman, Kirstin Dion, Paul O Mireji, Collins Ouma, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Achim Schnaufer, Adalgisa Caccone
Trypanosoma evansi is the parasite causing surra, a form of trypanosomiasis in camels and other livestock, and a serious economic burden in Kenya and many other parts of the world. Trypanosoma evansi transmission can be sustained mechanically by tabanid and Stomoxys biting flies, whereas the closely related African trypanosomes T. brucei brucei and T. b. rhodesiense require cyclical development in tsetse flies (genus Glossina) for transmission. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary origins of T. evansi...
September 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871083/interspecies-quorum-sensing-in-co-infections-can-manipulate-trypanosome-transmission-potential
#11
Eleanor Silvester, Julie Young, Alasdair Ivens, Keith R Matthews
Quorum sensing (QS) is commonly used in microbial communities and some unicellular parasites to coordinate group behaviours (1,2) . An example is Trypanosoma brucei, which causes human African trypanosomiasis, as well as the livestock disease, nagana. Trypanosomes are spread by tsetse flies, their transmission being enabled by cell-cycle arrested 'stumpy forms' that are generated in a density-dependent manner in mammalian blood. QS is mediated through a small (<500 Da), non-proteinaceous, stable but unidentified 'stumpy induction factor' (3) , whose signal response pathway has been identified...
September 4, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866983/patterns-of-tsetse-abundance-and-trypanosome-infection-rates-among-habitats-of-surveyed-villages-in-maasai-steppe-of-northern-tanzania
#12
Anibariki Ngonyoka, Paul S Gwakisa, Anna B Estes, Linda P Salekwa, Happiness J Nnko, Peter J Hudson, Isabella M Cattadori
BACKGROUND: Changes of land cover modify the characteristics of habitat, host-vector interaction and consequently infection rates of disease causing agents. In this paper, we report variations in tsetse distribution patterns, abundance and infection rates in relation to habitat types and age in the Maasai Steppe of northern Tanzania. In Africa, Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis negatively impacted human life where about 40 million people are at risk of contracting the disease with dramatic socio-economical consequences, for instance, loss of livestock, animal productivity, and manpower...
September 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856450/the-incrimination-of-three-trypanosome-species-in-clinically-affected-german-shepherd-dogs-in-sudan
#13
Ehab Mossaad, Rawan A Satti, Abdeen Fadul, Keisuke Suganuma, Bashir Salim, E A Elamin, Simon Peter Musinguzi, Xuenan Xuan, Noboru Inoue
Canine trypanosomosisis (CT) is a common disease caused by tsetse- and non-tsetse-transmitted trypanosomes worldwide. The severity of the disease varies from acute, sub-acute to chronic with non-specific clinical signs. Here, we attempt in a cross-sectional study to assess the current situation of CT and the role of dogs in transmitting trypanosomes to other domesticated animals. The study was carried out during July 2016 on 50 caged German shepherd dogs in Khartoum State to investigate the prevalence of dog trypanosomosis using both serological (CATT/Trypanosoma evansi) and molecular (KIN-PCR, RoTat1...
August 30, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845468/evolutionary-nephrology
#14
Robert L Chevalier
Progressive kidney disease follows nephron loss, hyperfiltration, and incomplete repair, a process described as "maladaptive." In the past 20 years, a new discipline has emerged that expands research horizons: evolutionary medicine. In contrast to physiologic (homeostatic) adaptation, evolutionary adaptation is the result of reproductive success that reflects natural selection. Evolutionary explanations for physiologically maladaptive responses can emerge from mismatch of the phenotype with environment or evolutionary tradeoffs...
May 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837104/the-lipid-raft-proteome-of-african-trypanosomes-contains-many-flagellar-proteins
#15
Aabha I Sharma, Cheryl L Olson, David M Engman
Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered membrane microdomains that form by preferential association of 3-β-hydroxysterols, sphingolipids and raft-associated proteins often having acyl modifications. We isolated lipid rafts of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and determined the protein composition of lipid rafts in the cell. This analysis revealed a striking enrichment of flagellar proteins and several putative signaling proteins in the lipid raft proteome. Calpains and intraflagellar transport proteins, in particular, were found to be abundant in the lipid raft proteome...
August 24, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834291/lipophilic-conformationally-constrained-spiro-carbocyclic-2-6-diketopiperazine-1-acetohydroxamic-acid-analogues-as-trypanocidal-and-leishmanicidal-agents-an-extended-sar-study
#16
Grigoris Zoidis, Andrew Tsotinis, Alexandra Tsatsaroni, Martin C Taylor, John M Kelly, Antonia Efstathiou, Despina Smirlis, George Fytas
We have previously described a number of lipophilic conformationally constrained spiro carbocyclic 2,6-diketopiperazine (2,6-DKP)-1-acetohydroxamic acids as potent anti-trypanosomal agents. In this report, we extend the SAR analysis in this class of compounds with respect to in vitro growth inhibition of Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites. Introduction of bulky hydrophobic substituents at the vicinal position of the basic nitrogen atom in the spiro carbocyclic 2,6-DKP ring system can provide analogues which are potently active against bloodstream-form T...
August 21, 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833608/cherchez-l-electron
#17
Pascal Mäser
Who wouldn't want to have a drug that is activated only in the target cell? Prodrugs that are metabolically triggered inside the pathogen but not in the host are an attractive concept in antimicrobial chemotherapy. Of particular interest are bioreductive prodrugs such as nitro compounds or quinones that can initiate cytotoxic redox cascades and release active metabolites. The critical points for the selectivity of such molecules are, what is the source of the electrons that activate the prodrug, and which are the enzymes that catalyze the reduction? In this issue, Meredith et al...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831063/sterol-targeting-drugs-reveal-life-cycle-stage-specific-differences-in-trypanosome-lipid-rafts
#18
Aabha I Sharma, Cheryl L Olson, João I Mamede, Felipe Gazos-Lopes, Conrad L Epting, Igor C Almeida, David M Engman
Cilia play important roles in cell signaling, facilitated by the unique lipid environment of a ciliary membrane containing high concentrations of sterol-rich lipid rafts. The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is a single-celled eukaryote with a single cilium/flagellum. We tested whether flagellar sterol enrichment results from selective flagellar partitioning of specific sterol species or from general enrichment of all sterols. While all sterols are enriched in the flagellum, cholesterol is especially enriched...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827831/a-trypanosomal-orthologue-of-an-intermembrane-space-chaperone-has-a-non-canonical-function-in-biogenesis-of-the-single-mitochondrial-inner-membrane-protein-translocase
#19
Christoph Wenger, Silke Oeljeklaus, Bettina Warscheid, André Schneider, Anke Harsman
Mitochondrial protein import is essential for Trypanosoma brucei across its life cycle and mediated by membrane-embedded heterooligomeric protein complexes, which mainly consist of trypanosomatid-specific subunits. However, trypanosomes contain orthologues of small Tim chaperones that escort hydrophobic proteins across the intermembrane space. Here we have experimentally analyzed three novel trypanosomal small Tim proteins, one of which contains only an incomplete Cx3C motif. RNAi-mediated ablation of TbERV1 shows that their import, as in other organisms, depends on the MIA pathway...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822909/variation-in-basal-body-localisation-and-targeting-of-trypanosome-rp2-and-for20-proteins
#20
Jane Harmer, Xin Qi, Gabriella Toniolo, Aysha Patel, Hannah Shaw, Fiona E Benson, Michael L Ginger, Paul G McKean
TOF-LisH-PLL motifs define FOP family proteins; some members are involved in flagellum assembly. The critical role of FOP family protein FOR20 is poorly understood. Here, we report relative localisations of the four FOP family proteins in parasitic Trypanosoma brucei: TbRP2, TbOFD1 and TbFOP/FOP1-like are mature basal body proteins whereas TbFOR20 is present on pro- and mature basal bodies - on the latter it localises distal to TbRP2. We discuss how the data, together with published work for another protist Giardia intestinalis, informs on likely FOR20 function...
July 13, 2017: Protist
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