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Fever in baby

E E Idih, B U Ezem, E A Nzeribe, A O Onyegbule, B C Duru, C C Amajoyi
BACKGROUND: Despite the global efforts made to eradicate malaria, it continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both neonates and the parturients. This study was done to determine the relationship between placental parasitemia, average neonatal birth weight and the relationship between the use of malaria preventive measures and the occurrence of placental parasitemia with the aim to improving maternal and neonatal outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done at the labor ward unit of the Federal Medical Center, Owerri, from December 2013 to May 2014...
July 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
Simon Pius, Mustapha Bello, Gadzama Balla Galadima, Halima A Ibrahim, Samuel Timothy Yerima, Jose Pwavimbo Ambe
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of the study was to determine the incidence, bacterial isolates and the antibiogram sensitivity of the isolates in neonates with septicaemia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The neonates with clinical diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia (NNS) were consecutively enrolled into our special care baby unit. The patients were investigated including blood cultures, cerebrospinal fluid cultures and urine among others. Data were analysed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 16...
July 2016: Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal
Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Baby Abirami Shankar, Elakkiya Munusamy, Shalini Anandan, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Enteric fever is a major cause of concern in developing countries across the globe. The primary choice of antibiotics remains fluoroquinolones, followed by cephalosporins. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporins is rarely reported in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. This study reports the whole genome sequence of an S. Typhi isolate resistant to cefixime [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=512μg/mL] by microbroth dilution. Interestingly, the isolate was negative for the cephalosporin resistance gene blaCTX-M by PCR, which is a known mechanism for higher cephalosporin resistance...
July 12, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
J K Thapa, P Manandhar, R K Subedi, S Dahal, N B Mahotra, A Pandey
BACKGROUND: Assessing health status is crucial to understand the level of health in the community. Maternal health, child health and behavioral practice on diseases are key issues to assess health status of a community in Nepal. Nationwide surveys and literature suggest that there is improvement in health status of Nepalese community. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess general health status of Khanigaun VDC of Nepal and compare it with regional and national status. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken using semi-structured questionnaire, interview and observation methods...
January 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
Prabhas Prasun Giri, Nirmoy Biswas, Swati Chakravarty
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) are basically a heterogenous group of clinical syndromes, characterised by activation and non-malignant proliferation of benign histiocytes i.e. lymphocytes and macrophages, leading to a cytokine storm that accounts for the fever, organomegaly and multi-organ dysfunction. Two types of HLH are described, either due to known genetic defect (familial HLH/FHL) or due to some acquired cause either infection or rheumatological diseases. Here we present a case of a 3 months old baby, admitted with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenia and ultimately was diagnosed to be a case of Familial HLH type 3 due to defect in UNC13D gene as a result of compound heterozygous for two nonsense mutation resulting in the Munc13-4 protein defect...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
Roosecelis Brasil Martines, Julu Bhatnagar, Ana Maria de Oliveira Ramos, Helaine Pompeia Freire Davi, Silvia D'Andretta Iglezias, Cristina Takami Kanamura, M Kelly Keating, Gillian Hale, Luciana Silva-Flannery, Atis Muehlenbachs, Jana Ritter, Joy Gary, Dominique Rollin, Cynthia S Goldsmith, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Yokabed Ermias, Tadaki Suzuki, Kleber G Luz, Wanderson Kleber de Oliveira, Robert Lanciotti, Amy Lambert, Wun-Ju Shieh, Sherif R Zaki
BACKGROUND: Zika virus is an arthropod-borne virus that is a member of the family Flaviviridae transmitted mainly by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Although usually asymptomatic, infection can result in a mild and self-limiting illness characterised by fever, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. An increase in the number of children born with microcephaly was noted in 2015 in regions of Brazil with high transmission of Zika virus. More recently, evidence has been accumulating supporting a link between Zika virus and microcephaly...
August 27, 2016: Lancet
Sandrine Kemeze, Béatrice Moudze, Andreas Chiabi, Charlotte Eposse, Alexis Kaya, Madeleine Mbangue, Odette Guifo, Innocent Kago
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization has estimated that the global incidence of neonatal deaths was 2,8 million in 2015, of which 47,6% were due to infections. These infections can affect newborns babies ages 0-1 month through 3 months. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted from 1 March to 30 June 2015 in the Neonatology service of the Laquintinie Hospital at Douala. All symptomatic newborns with or without anamnestic criteria and all asymptomatic newborns, with at least an infectious risk and a positive blood culture or an abnormal blood count or positive C-reactive protein were included in the study...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Mi Seon Jang, Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Cheol-Heui Yun, Seung Hyun Han, Jae Seung Yang
Typhoid fever, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a life-threatening disease, mostly in developing countries. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used to quantify antibodies against S. Typhi in serum but does not provide information about functional antibody titers. Although the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) using an agar plate is often used to measure functional antibody titers against various bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens, it has rarely been used for typhoid vaccines because it is time-consuming and labor-intensive...
August 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Narayan Gyawali, Richard S Bradbury, Andrew W Taylor-Robinson
BACKGROUND: Zika virus, an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus, is fast becoming a worldwide public health concern following its suspected association with over 4000 recent cases of microcephaly among newborn infants in Brazil. DISCUSSION: Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015-2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A...
April 19, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hui-Lan Chen, Ren-Bin Tang
Prior to 2015, Zika Virus (ZIKV) outbreaks had occurred in areas of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Although a causal relationship between Zika infection during pregnancy and microcephaly is strongly suspected, such a connection has not yet been scientifically proven. In May 2015, the outbreak of ZIKV infection in Brazil led to reports of syndrome and pregnant women giving birth to babies with birth defects and poor pregnancy outcomes; the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed ZIKV infection in Brazil...
April 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Ahmed Ali Al-Qahtani, Nyla Nazir, Mashael R Al-Anazi, Salvatore Rubino, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family and is related to dengue, Chikungunya, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. ZIKV was first discovered in Uganda in 1947. Different species of mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly A. aegypti and A. albopictus are the vectors responsible for ZIKV infection in humans. It is also reported that ZIKV is transmitted congenitally, sexually, and through blood donation. Until recently, ZIKV outbreaks were sporadic and self-limiting...
March 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
M Goeijenbier, L Slobbe, A van der Eijk, M de Mendonça Melo, M P G Koopmans, C B E M Reusken
Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus closely related to yellow fever virus and dengue virus, is currently causing a large outbreak in the Americas. Historically, ZIKV infection was considered a sporadic, relatively mild disease characterised by fever, maculopapular rash, conjunctivitis and often arthralgia. However, current observational studies suggest that ZIKV may cause more severe neurological sequelae such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, and birth defects, mainly microcephaly, in babies of whom the mother was infected with ZIKV during pregnancy...
March 2016: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Ákos Boros, Margit Raáb, Éva Károly, Adrienn Karai, Andrea Kátai, Nóra Bolba, Péter Pankovics, Gábor Reuter
Salivirus (family Picornaviridae) may be associated with acute gastroenteritis in humans, but there have been no reports of salivirus outbreaks. Salivirus A1 infection with faecal virus concentrations of 2.1-2.6 × 10(9)/g were identified retrospectively in newborn babies, between the ages of 1.5 and 5 days, with apparent clinical symptoms of diarrhea (100 %), fever (40 %), vomiting (40 %), and loss of appetite (40 %) in a neonatal hospital unit in Hungary in July 2013. The complete genome sequence of the salivirus (including the 5'-terminal end) was determined...
June 2016: Archives of Virology
Patrícia Brasil, Jose P Pereira, Claudia Raja Gabaglia, Luana Damasceno, Mayumi Wakimoto, Rita M Ribeiro Nogueira, Patrícia Carvalho de Sequeira, André Machado Siqueira, Liege M Abreu de Carvalho, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Guilherme A Calvet, Elizabeth S Neves, Maria E Moreira, Ana E Rodrigues Baião, Paulo R Nassar de Carvalho, Carla Janzen, Stephanie G Valderramos, James D Cherry, Ana M Bispo de Filippis, Karin Nielsen-Saines
Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data...
March 4, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Erin Ward, Patrick Duff
BACKGROUND: Prophylactic antibiotics are of proven value in decreasing the frequency of postcesarean endometritis. The beneficial effect of prophylaxis is enhanced when the antibiotics are administered before the surgical incision as opposed to after the clamping of the umbilical cord. However, the optimal antibiotic regimen for prophylaxis has not been established firmly. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare 3 different antibiotic regimens for the prevention of postcesarean endometritis...
June 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Callistus O A Enyuma, Emmanuel E Ekanem, Jacob J Udo, Asindi A Asindi
BACKGROUND: Normal hematological indices has been determined in Nigerian newborns and found to be lower compared to their Caucasian counterparts. This was attributed to genetic factors. Malaria is endemic in Nigeria and is one of the major causes of ill health and death. Anemia is an important manifestation of malaria. Resistance by malaria parasites to antimalarial drug exacerbates the situation by continuous hemolysis. AIM: To determine the hematological indices in febrile newborn with malaria parasitemia...
September 2015: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
K Anastaze Stelle, E Gonzalez, A Wilhelm-Bals, P-R Michelet, C M Korff, P Parvex
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is rare in neonates. We report the case of atypical HUS (aHUS) revealed by neonatal seizures. This 18-day-old baby presented with repeated clonus of the left arm and eye deviation. Four days earlier, she had suffered from gastroenteritis (non-bloody diarrhea and vomiting without fever). Her work-up revealed hemolytic anemia (120 g/L), thrombocytopenia (78 g/L), and impaired renal function (serum creatinine=102 μmol/L) compatible with the diagnosis of HUS. Levels of C3 and C4 in the serum were normal...
March 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Bishnu P Choulagai, Umesh Raj Aryal, Binjwala Shrestha, Abhinav Vaidya, Sharad Onta, Max Petzold, Alexandra Krettek
BACKGROUND: Estimates of disease burden in Nepal are based on cross-sectional studies that provide inadequate epidemiological information to support public health decisions. This study compares the health and demographic indicators at the end of 2012 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) with the baseline conducted at the end of 2010. We also report on the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and associated factors in the JD-HDSS at the follow-up point...
2015: Global Health Action
Meabh Cullinane, Lisa H Amir, Susan M Donath, Suzanne M Garland, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Matthew S Payne, Catherine M Bennett
BACKGROUND: Mastitis is an acute, debilitating condition that occurs in approximately 20 % of breastfeeding women who experience a red, painful breast with fever. This paper describes the factors correlated with mastitis and investigates the presence of Staphylococcus aureus in women who participated in the CASTLE (Candida and Staphylococcus Transmission: Longitudinal Evaluation) study. The CASTLE study was a prospective cohort study which recruited nulliparous women in late pregnancy in two maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia in 2009-2011...
2015: BMC Family Practice
Rajeev Z Kompithra, Rajiv Sarkar, Leni G Mathew, Jayaprakash Muliyil, Gagandeep Kang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the proportion of children who developed a specified illness in the 7 day post-vaccination window, with the background rate of the same event in the 7 day pre-vaccination window. STUDY DESIGN: Risk interval approach (Self-controlled case-series). SETTING: Well Baby Clinic of Christian Medical College, Vellore. PARTICIPANTS: 1602 healthy infants and under-six children presenting for routine vaccination...
November 2015: Indian Pediatrics
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