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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228248/comparison-of-the-intestinal-mucosal-microbiota-in-dogs-diagnosed-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-dogs-with-food-responsive-diarrhea-before-and-after-treatment
#1
K Kalenyak, A Isaiah, R M Heilmann, J S Suchodolski, I A Burgener
We report the first study to evaluate the intestinal mucosal microbiota of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD) before and after treatment. It was hypothesized that differences in the microbial composition exist between both disease groups and within groups pre- vs. post-treatment. Duodenal and colonic biopsies were obtained endoscopically from 24 dogs (15 FRD, 9 IBD) before and after treatment. The intestinal microbiota was evaluated by Illumina sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228127/antibiotic-resistance-and-the-risk-of-recurrent-bacteremia
#2
Sjoukje H S Woudt, Sabine C de Greeff, Annelot F Schoffelen, Anne L M Vlek, Marc J M Bonten
Background: Direct health effects of antibiotic resistance are difficult to assess. We quantified the risk of recurrent bacteremia associated with antibiotic resistance. Methods: We extracted antimicrobial susceptibility testing data on blood isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp. and Staphylococcus aureus from the Dutch surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance between 2008 and 2017. First and first recurrent (4-30days) bacteremia episodes were categorized as susceptible, single non-susceptible or co-non-susceptible (I/R), to 3rd generation cephalosporins -/+ carbapenems (Enterobacteriaceae), ceftazidime -/+ carbapenems (Pseudomonas spp...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227931/synthesis-and-antibacterial-evaluation-of-novel-cationic-chalcone-derivatives-possessing-broad-spectrum-antibacterial-activity
#3
Wen-Chao Chu, Peng-Yan Bai, Zhao-Qing Yang, De-Yun Cui, Yong-Gang Hua, Yi Yang, Qian-Qian Yang, En Zhang, Shangshang Qin
There is an urgent need to identify new antibiotics with novel mechanisms that combat antibiotic resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of chalcone derivatives that mimic the essential properties of cationic antimicrobial peptides were designed and synthesized. Antibacterial activities against drug-sensitive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, as well as clinical multiple drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), KPC-2-producing and NDM-1-producing Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were evaluated...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227922/evolution-of-virulence-in-enterococcus-faecium-a-hospital-adapted-opportunistic-pathogen
#4
REVIEW
Wei Gao, Benjamin P Howden, Timothy P Stinear
Enterococci are long-standing members of the human microbiome and they are also widely distributed in nature. However, with the surge of antibiotic-resistance in recent decades, two enterococcal species (Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium) have emerged to become significant nosocomial pathogens, acquiring extensive antibiotic resistance. In this review, we summarize what is known about the evolution of virulence in E. faecium, highlighting a specific clone of E. faecium called ST796 that has emerged recently and spread globally...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227528/the-impact-of-long-term-intake-of-phenolic-compounds-rich-grape-pomace-on-rat-gut-microbiota
#5
Stéphanie Chacar, Tarek Itani, Joelle Hajal, Youakim Saliba, Nicolas Louka, Jean-François Faivre, Richard Maroun, Nassim Fares
The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact on the rat microbiota of long-term feeding with phenolic compounds (PC) rich grape pomace extracts. Thirty, 2-mo-old rats, were divided into 5 groups. Four groups were treated with different concentrations of PC (2.5, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/d diluted in 0.1% DMSO), and 1 group received 0.1% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) alone (control group). The daily treatment lasted 14 mo. Major phenolic compounds constituents were characterized by the high-performance liquid chromatography and free radical scavenging capacity was measured by means of the DPPH assay...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225645/the-effects-of-different-ionic-liquid-coatings-and-the-length-of-alkyl-chain-on-antimicrobial-and-cytotoxic-properties-of-silver-nanoparticles
#6
Abbas Abbaszadegan, Ahmad Gholami, Sara Abbaszadegan, Zeynab Sadat Aleyasin, Yasamin Ghahramani, Samira Dorostkar, Bahram Hemmateenejad, Younes Ghasemi, Hashem Sharghi
Introduction: The antibacterial efficacy and toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) depends on their physicochemical properties including size, shape, surface charge and surface coatings. The Objectives of this study were: i) To synthesize and characterize positively charged AgNPs coated by different ionic-liquids with different alkyl chain lengths, ii) To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis compared to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine (CHX), iii) To compare the cytocompatibility of these solutions against L929 mouse fibroblasts...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225595/characteristics-of-and-virulence-factors-associated-with-biofilm-formation-in-clinical-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-in-china
#7
Jin-Xin Zheng, Yang Wu, Zhi-Wei Lin, Zhang-Ya Pu, Wei-Ming Yao, Zhong Chen, Duo-Yun Li, Qi-Wen Deng, Di Qu, Zhi-Jian Yu
Enterococcus faecalis biofilm traits and distribution characteristics in China have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of E. faecalis biofilm formation in a sample of clinical isolates and to explore the virulence factors associated with biofilm formation in those isolates. A total of 265 E. faecalis isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen, China. Virulence genes were detected within the genomes of the microbes by polymerase chain reaction. The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on housekeeping genes...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224997/in-vitro-assessment-of-the-anti-biofilm-activity-of-ethanol-alone-and-in-combination-with-enoxaparin-60iu
#8
María Jesús Pérez-Granda, Beatriz Alonso, Ana Rodríguez-Huerta, Carmen Rodríguez, María Guembe
INTRODUCTION: Catheter-related bloodstream infection (C-RBSI) can sometimes be managed without catheter removal by combining systemic therapy with catheter lock therapy. Most antiseptic lock solutions are made up of ethanol combined with an anticoagulant. However, data regarding the anti-biofilm activity of ethanol combined with enoxaparin are scarce. We aimed to assess the efficacy of ethanol at different concentrations combined with enoxaparin 60IU as a lock solution for eradication of the biofilm of different microorganisms...
December 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224317/-a-multicenter-retrospective-study-of-pathogenic-bacteria-distribution-and-drug-resistance-in-febrile-neutropenic-patients-with-hematological-diseases-in-shanghai
#9
J Zhu, J Hu, Y F Mao, F Y Chen, J Y Zhu, J M Shi, D D Yu, S G Hao, R Tao, P Liu, S Y Gu, J Hou, H Y He, A B Liang, Y Ding, L G Liu, Y H Xie, Q Zhu, Y H Yu, Y H Yao, W Chen, H L Xu, X H Han, C Wang
Objective: To investigate the pathogen spectrum distribution and drug resistance of febrile neutropenic patients with hematological diseases in Shanghai. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on the clinical isolates from the febrile neutropenic patients hospitalized in the departments of hematology in 12 general hospitals in Shanghai from January 2012 to December 2014. The drug susceptibility test was carried out by Kirby-Bauer method. WHONET 5.6 software was used to analyze pathogenic bacteria and drug susceptibility data...
November 14, 2017: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224205/healthcare-acquired-infections-prevention-strategies
#10
Shelanah A Fernando, Timothy J Gray, Thomas Gottlieb
Healthcare-acquired infections (HAI) impact on patient care and have cost implications for the Australian healthcare system. The management of HAI is exacerbated by rising rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Health-care workers and a contaminated hospital environment are increasingly implicated in the transmission and persistence of multi-resistant organisms (MRO), as well as other pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. This has resulted in a timely focus on a range of HAI prevention actions. Core components include antimicrobial stewardship, to reduce overuse and ensure evidence-based antimicrobial use; infection prevention strategies, to control MRO - particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp...
December 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223533/atomic-structure-and-enzymatic-insights-into-the-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-v583-alkylhydroperoxide-reductase-subunit-c
#11
Ankita Pan, Asha Manikkoth Balakrishna, Wilson Nartey, Andreas Kohlmeier, Phat Vinh Dip, Shashi Bhushan, Gerhard Grüber
The Enterococcus faecalis alkyl hydroperoxide reductase complex (AhpR) with its subunits AhpC (EfAhpC) and AhpF (EfAhpF) are of paramount importance to restore redox homeostasis. Recently, the novel phenomenon of swapping of the catalytic domains of EfAhpF was uncovered. Here, we visualized its counterpart EfAhpC (187 residues) from the vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis (V583) bacterium by electron microscopy and demonstrate, that in contrast to other bacterial AhpCs, EfAhpC forms a stable decamer-ring irrespective of the redox state...
December 6, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#12
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218505/antibacterial-and-antibiofilm-activity-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-traditional-artisanal-milk-cheese-from-northeast-china-against-enteropathogenic-bacteria
#13
Xingyang Cui, Yunjia Shi, Shanshan Gu, Xin Yan, Hongyan Chen, Junwei Ge
The present study aims to investigate the probiotic properties of novel strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional artisanal milk cheese from Northeast China and to explore their antibacterial activity against enteropathogenic bacteria. Of the 321 isolates, 86 exhibited survival in low pH, resistance to pancreatin, and tolerance to bile salts; of these, 12 inhibited the growth of more than seven enteropathogenic bacteria and exhibited antibiofilm activities against Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003 and/or Escherichia coli CVCC230...
December 7, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217187/epidemiologic-surveillance-of-multidrug-resistant-bacteria-in-a-teaching-hospital-a-3-year-experience
#14
Mirian Nicéa Zarpellon, Giselle Fukita Viana, Cecília Saori Mitsugui, Bruno Buranello Costa, Nathalie Kira Tamura, Elisabeth Eyko Aoki, Cesar Helbel, Sheila Alexandra Belini Nishiyama, Silvia Maria Dos Santos Saalfeld, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim
BACKGROUND: The objective of this prospective study was to verify the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary surveillance program that was implemented in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil, to prevent and control the spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. METHODS: The program implemented involved establishment of prevention guidelines, hand-hygiene promotion, isolation of patients colonized or infected by such organisms, enforced contact precautions, and terminal cleaning and disinfection of isolation rooms...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216824/use-of-a-mixed-culture-strategy-to-isolate-halophilic-bacteria-with-antibacterial-and-cytotoxic-activity-from-the-manaure-solar-saltern-in-colombia
#15
Natalia Conde-Martínez, Alejandro Acosta-González, Luis E Díaz, Edisson Tello
BACKGROUND: Water evaporation in solar salterns creates salinity gradients that promote the adaptation of microbial species to different salinities. This competitive habitat challenges the metabolic capabilities of microorganisms and promotes alterations in their production of secondary metabolites. Thus, solar salterns are a potentially important source of new natural products. In Colombia, the most important and representative solar saltern is located in Manaure (La Guajira) in the north of Colombia...
December 8, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216305/inhibition-effect-of-bifidobacterium-longum-lactobacillus-acidophilus-streptococcus-thermophilus-and-enterococcus-faecalis-and-their-related-products-on-human-colonic-smooth-muscle-in-vitro
#16
Jing Gong, Tao Bai, Lei Zhang, Wei Qian, Jun Song, Xiaohua Hou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of four strains, generally used in clinic, including Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis, and their related products on human colonic smooth muscle in vitro. METHODS: Human colonic circular muscle strips obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments from 25 patients with colorectal cancer were isometrically examined in a constant-temperature organ bath and exposed to different concentrations of living bacteria, sonicated cell fractions and cell-free supernatant (CFS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215683/instrument-design-may-influence-bacterial-reduction-during-root-canal-preparation
#17
Manoel Eduardo de Lima Machado, Cleber Keiti Nabeshima, Hector Caballero-Flores, Moyzés Elmadjian-Filho, Marco Antônio Húngaro Duarte, Ronald Odinola-Zapata, Silvana Cai
The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial reduction promoted by ProTaper Next and Twisted File by comparing to ProTaper Universal and manual technique. Sixty distobuccal root canals of maxillary molars sterilized with ethylene oxide were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis broth culture. After incubation for 21 days, bacterial samples were collected and cultured on m-Enterococcus agar plates. The root canals were divided into 4 groups, according to the system used for instrumentation: ProTaper Next, Twisted File, ProTaper Universal, and crown down manual technique...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215682/physicochemical-and-biological-evaluation-of-endodontic-filling-materials-for-primary-teeth
#18
Katerine Jahnecke Pilownic, Ana Paula Neutzling Gomes, Zhe Jun Wang, Luiza Helena Silva Almeida, Ana Regina Romano, Ya Shen, Anelize de Oliveira Campello Felix, Markus Haapasalo, Fernanda Geraldo Pappen
This study assessed the pH, radiopacity, antimicrobial effect, cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of endodontic filling materials for primary teeth. Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), Vitapex and Calen paste thickened with zinc oxide (ZO) were evaluated in comparison to an experimental MTA-based material. Radiopacity was tested using a graduated aluminum stepwedge with a digital sensor (n=5). The materials pH was recorded at 1, 4, 12 h; 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days (n=5). Direct contact test was used to assess the antimicrobial efficacy against Enterococcus faecalis after 1, 4, 12, 24 h (n=5)...
September 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215338/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-durability-and-anti-biofilm-effects-in-urinary-catheters-against-enterococcus-faecalis-clinical-isolates-and-reference-strains
#19
Didem Kart, Ayşe Semra Kustimur, Meral Sağıroğlu, Ayşe Kalkancı
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans biofilms are major causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Antimicrobial-coated or impregnated urinary catheters are seen as a possible way to prevent these infections. AIMS: To determine the biofilm-forming ability of 89 E. faecalis isolates from urinary tract infections and to compare several urinary catheters for antimicrobial durability and the inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of different laboratory strains and clinical isolates of E...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214224/mutation-network-based-understanding-of-pleiotropic-and-epistatic-mutational-behavior-of-enterococcus-faecalis-fmn-dependent-azoreductase
#20
Jinyan Sun, Ohgew Kweon, Jinshan Jin, Gui-Xin He, Xiyu Li, Carl E Cerniglia, Huizhong Chen
We previously identified a highly active homodimeric FMN-dependent NADH-preferred azoreductase (AzoA) from Enterococcus faecalis, which cleaves the azo bonds (R-N˭N-R) of diverse azo dyes, and determined its crystal structure. The preliminary network-based mutational analysis suggested that the two residues, Arg-21 and Asn-121, have an apparent mutational potential for fine-tuning of AzoA, based on their beneficial pleiotropic feedbacks. However, epistasis between the two promising mutational spots in AzoA has not been obtained in terms of substrate binding and azoreductase activity...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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