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Philip C Andrews, Melissa Werrett, Megan Herdman, Rajini Brammananth, Uthpala Garusinghe, Warren Batchelor, Paul Crellin, Ross Coppel
A series of poorly soluble phenyl bis-phosphinato bismuth(III) complexes [BiPh(OP(=O)R1R2)2] (R1 = R2 = Ph; R1 = R2 = p-OMePh; R1 = R2 = m-NO2Ph; R1 = Ph, R2 = H; R1 = R2 = Me) have been synthesised and characterised, and shown to have effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The bismuth complexes were incorporated into microfibrillated (nano-) cellulose generating a bismuth-cellulose composite as paper sheets...
June 17, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yizhi Zhang, Guofeng Dong, Jiahui Li, Lijiang Chen, Haiyang Liu, Wenzi Bi, Hong Lu, Tieli Zhou
Linezolid is considered as a last-resort antimicrobial agent, the resistance of which is of great concern. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms and transferability of linezolid resistance and molecular epidemiology of linezolid-resistant enterococcal isolates in Wenzhou, China. A collection of 1623 enterococcal strains, including 789 Enterococcus faecalis and 834 Enterococcus faecium, were isolated from our hospital during 2011-2016. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and clinical data analysis were performed...
June 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Chang Zeng, Jon Willison, Mohamed M Meghil, Brian E Bergeron, Christopher W Cutler, Franklin R Tay, Lina Niu, Jingzhi Ma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of EDDY, a new sonic-powered irrigation system, in reducing intracanal bacteria load. METHODS: Thirty-eight instrumented, autoclaved single-rooted human premolars were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-29212) for 21 days. Two teeth were used as negative control without bacterial contamination. For the bacteria-inoculated teeth, 6 were used as positive control without irrigation. The remaining 30 teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (N = 15), using 3% NaOCl as irrigant: (A) 30-gauge syringe needle irrigation (SNI), (B) EDDY (VDW, Munich, Germany)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Armen Ovsepian, Hanne Ingmer, Martin Vestergaard
Development of new antibiotics is costly and time-consuming and therefore it is highly attractive if the efficacy of conventional antibiotics can be expanded. For the human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, we recently demonstrated that inactivation of the ATP synthase increases the susceptibility of the pathogen 16-fold to the aminoglycoside, gentamicin. Aminoglycosides are rarely used as monotherapy against S. aureus due to the risk of resistance development and toxic effects. Here we have explored the possibility of enhancing the efficacy of aminoglycosides against S...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Lou Macaux, Oulimata Ndoye, Hugues Cordel, Typhaine Billard Pomares, Delphine Seytre, Olivier Bouchaud, Yves Cohen, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Etienne Carbonnelle
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant bacteria (XDRB) have emerged as a major source of resistance. Hospitalization abroad seems to be the major risk factor associated with carriage, and numerous reports have warned about the risk of in-hospital transmission. However, little is known regarding possible community transmission. METHODS: A retrospective-matched case-control study was conducted in a Parisian teaching hospital, and it included admitted patients with a history of travel abroad during the preceding 12 months...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Kahoru Fukuoka, Mihoko Furuichi, Kenta Ito, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Ichiro Watanabe, Naoki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi
OBJECTIVES: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Emre Korkut, Emrah Torlak, Onur Gezgin, Hazal Özer, Yağmur Şener
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare antibacterial and smear layer removal efficacy of the erbium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser irradiation by photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS), neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd:YAG), and diode lasers and conventional irrigation agent in primary molar root canals. BACKGROUND: The selection, application, and activation of the irrigant are important factors affecting the success of the endodontic treatment...
June 15, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
S Ran, M Chu, S Gu, J Wang, J Liang
AIM: To investigate the ability of E. faecalis to cause apoptosis and pyroptosis of human osteoblastic MG63 cells and whether the inflammasome is involved in this process. METHODOLOGY: MG63 cells were infected with E. faecalis at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10, 100, 500, and 1000 for 6 and 12 h. The cell proliferation was determined with the Cell Counting Kit-8. Apoptosis and pyroptosis after E. faecalis infection was evaluated by flow cytometry and a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) cytotoxicity assay kit...
June 14, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Jennie Johnstone, Cynthia Chen, Laura Rosella, Kwaku Adomako, Michelle E Policarpio, Freda Lam, Chatura Prematunge, Gary Garber
BACKGROUND: Data are limited on risk factors for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia. METHODS: All patients with a confirmed VRE bacteremia in Ontario, Canada, between January 2009 and December 2013 were linked to provincial healthcare administrative data sources and frequency matched to 3 controls based on age, sex, and aggregated diagnosis group. Associations between predictors and VRE bacteremia were estimated by generalized estimating equations and summarized using odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
Josiane de Almeida, Bruna Casagrande Cechella, Anarela Vassen Bernardi, Andrea de Lima Pimenta, Wilson Tadeu Felippe
Context: To overcome the challenge imposed by the presence of biofilm and reach significant bacterial reduction of the root canals, many irrigants have been indicated during endodontic treatment, among them nanoparticles solutions. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of experimental solutions containing silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Np) and conventional endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, in root canals. Methods: Seventy-six extracted human teeth were biomechanically prepared and sterilized...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Adèle Friot, Justine Guguin, Louisa Haniche, Sylvia Vuillier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Mahima Tilakchand, Nisha Nitin Singh, Mahantesh Mrityunjay Yeli, Balaram D Naik
Aims and Objectives: The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of a diode LASER on the infected root canal system. Methodology: A total of forty patients with infected root canals were selected. The root canals were prepared mechanically, and irrigation was done with 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Microbiological samples were collected before LASER treatment with the help of the master apical file (MAF) to full working length for subsequent microbiological examination...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Anta Seck, Khaly Bane, Amadou Diop, Diouma Ndiaye, Seydina O Niang, Babacar Touré
Context: Enterococcus faecalis is the most common bacteria found in infected root canals. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the mono instrument (wave-one® ) on the reduction of E. faecalis in root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two human monoroot teeth were used. After sterilization by autoclave, the teeth were infected by E. faecalis and incubated for 24 h. Each tooth underwent sampling before and after the root canal shaping...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Fernando Soveral D'aviz, Ana Paula Farina, Matheus Albino Souza, Doglas Cecchin
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial reduction achieved with reciprocating instruments such as Reciproc® R25 (VDW GMBH, Munich, Germany) and Reciproc® R25 combined with rotary file Mtwo 40.04 (VDW GMBH) during root canal preparation. Materials and Methods: Fifty mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary molars were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis broth culture and then an initial bacterial sample was collected from the root canal with paper cones and plated on brain-heart infusion agar...
May 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Cai Yanling, Liu Hongyan, Wei Xi, Crielaard Wim, Deng Dongmei
OBJECTIVE: Relacin is a synthetic molecule that targets RelA, an essential protein in a conserved bacterial stress response system. It was shown to inhibit bacterial growth. The aims of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of relacin combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and to evaluate the cytotoxicity of relacin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 48-h E. faecalis OG1RF biofilms were treated by various concentrations of relacin in order to determine its inhibitory concentration...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
Elliott Smock, E Demertzi, A Abdolrasouli, B Azadian, Greg Williams
The authors devised a comparative prospective study to determine the in vitro microbicidal efficacy of skin preparation solutions in the concentrations and temperatures used in the burns theatre against common bacterial and fungal microorganisms. A panel of 10 microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans, bacillus cereus were assembled comprising 8 common strains of S. aureus (including methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)), S...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
L L Zhao, H C Yin, T F Lu, Y J Niu, Y Y Zhang, S Q Li, Y P Wang, H Y Chen
High-throughput sequencing technologies play important roles in the study of animal enteric microorganisms. Fecal samples collected from 3 strains (9 samples) of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) ducks raised in an isolator. Duck intestinal bacterial flora were analyzed by sequencing distinct regions of the 16S rRNA genes using an Illumina HiSeq2500 platform. The result showed the most abundant primary enteric microbial phyla of 3 different strains of 70-week-old SPF ducks were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes, the most abundant primary enteric microbial order were Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Aeromonadales, and the most abundant primary enteric microbial genera were Bacteroides, Comamonas, and Enterococcus...
April 20, 2018: Poultry Science
Mónica Martins, Sandra Sanches, Inês A C Pereira
Antibiotics and hormones are among the most concerning trace contaminants in the environment. Therefore, the present work aimed to identify anaerobic microorganisms with the ability to remove pharmaceutical products (PhPs) belonging to these two classes (ciprofloxacin, 17β-estradiol and sulfamethoxazole) under different anaerobic conditions, and to elucidate the bio-removal mechanisms involved. Ciprofloxacin was efficiently biodegraded under both nitrate- and sulfate-reducing conditions reaching a PhP removal superior to 80%, whereas 17β-estradiol was only biodegraded under nitrate-reducing conditions reaching a removal of 84%...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Carmen M S Ambrosio, Severino Matias De Alencar, Andrea Micke Moreno, Eduardo Micotti Da Gloria
Essential oils (EOs), as substitutes for antibiotics in animal diets, should have a selective antibacterial activity between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria from animal gut. Thus, this study evaluated the selective antibacterial activity of <i>E. globulus</i> (EG) and <i>P. pseudocaryophyllus</i> (PP) EOs on <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> as surrogate model of pathogenic bacterium, and <i>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</i> as beneficial bacterium model. The EOs antibacterial activity was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBCs) and fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index determinations...
June 12, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Xuemeng He, Lili Ding, Wenbo Su, Haijun Ma, Hui Huang, Yanru Wang, Hongqiang Ren
Endotoxins are potential toxics impacting human health through respiration derived in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), yet the formation of endotoxins during wastewater treatment processes is still lacking research. In our study, the distribution of endotoxins and bacterial community structure in the wastewater of three full scale pharmaceutical WWTPs were explored using the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test and MiSeq technique. Results showed that higher endotoxin activities in the influent of Plant A and Plant C (560 and 1140 EU/mL), stemming from the fermentation process, were found compared to that of Plant B (135 EU/mL), coming from the process of chemical synthesis...
June 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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