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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667236/recent-advances-in-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging-maldi-msi-for-in-situ-analysis-of-endogenous-molecules-in-plants
#1
Liang Qin, Yawen Zhang, Yaqin Liu, Huixin He, Manman Han, Yanyan Li, Maomao Zeng, Xiaodong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) as a label-free and powerful imaging technique enables in situ evaluation of a tissue metabolome and/or proteome, becoming increasingly popular in the detection of plant endogenous molecules. OBJECTIVE: The characterization of structure and spatial information of endogenous molecules in plants are both very important aspects to better understand the physiological mechanism of plant organism. METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a commonly-used tissue imaging technique, which requires matrix to assist in situ detection of a variety of molecules on the surface of a tissue section...
April 17, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667156/how-we-manage-patients-with-plasmacytomas
#2
REVIEW
Despina Fotiou, Meletios A Dimopoulos, Efstathios Kastritis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the diagnostic approach, treatment options, and future considerations in the management of plasmacytomas, either solitary or in the context of overt multiple myeloma (MM). RECENT FINDINGS: Advanced imaging techniques such as whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computerized tomography are essential for the diagnostic workup of solitary plasmacytomas (SP) to rule out the presence of other disease foci...
April 17, 2018: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666443/single-cell-transcriptional-profiling-a-window-into-embryonic-cell-type-specification
#3
REVIEW
Blanca Pijuan-Sala, Carolina Guibentif, Berthold Göttgens
During mammalian embryonic development, a single fertilized egg cell will proliferate and differentiate into all the cell lineages and cell types that eventually form the adult organism. Cell lineage diversification involves repeated cell fate choices that ultimately occur at the level of the individual cell rather than at the cell-population level. Improvements in single-cell technologies are transforming our understanding of mammalian development, not only by overcoming the limitations presented by the extremely low cell numbers of early embryos but also by enabling the study of cell fate specification in greater detail...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664757/primary-hyperparathyroidism-recent-advances
#4
Marcella D Walker, John P Bilezikian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances and changes in the evaluation and management of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). RECENT FINDINGS: Although it has long been recognized that asymptomatic PHPT is associated with bone loss, particularly at cortical skeletal sites when evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, new imaging techniques suggest that trabecular skeletal deterioration as well as clinically silent vertebral fractures and nephrolithiasis are common...
April 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664644/field-assisted-contact-line-motion-in-thin-films
#5
Udita Uday Ghosh, Sunando DasGupta
The balance of intermolecular and surface forces plays a critical role in the transport phenomena near the contact line region of an extended meniscus in several technologically important processes. Externally applied fields can alter the equilibrium and stability of the meniscus with concomitant effects on its shape, spreading characteristics and may even lead to oscillation. This article provides a detailed account of the present and past efforts in exploring the behavior of curved thin liquid films, subjected to mild thermal perturbations, heat input, electrical and magnetic fields for pure as well as colloidal suspensions - including the effects of particle charge and polarity...
April 17, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664070/recent-advances-in-ambient-mass-spectrometry-of-trace-explosives
#6
REVIEW
Thomas P Forbes, Edward Sisco
Ambient mass spectrometry has evolved rapidly over the past decade, yielding a plethora of platforms and demonstrating scientific advancements across a range of fields from biological imaging to rapid quality control. These techniques have enabled real-time detection of target analytes in an open environment with no sample preparation and can be coupled to any mass analyzer with an atmospheric pressure interface; capabilities of clear interest to the defense, customs and border control, transportation security, and forensic science communities...
April 17, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663374/oleic-acid-promotes-prostate-cancer-malignant-phenotype-via-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-ffa1-gpr40
#7
Antonietta Liotti, Vincenzo Cosimato, Paola Mirra, Gaetano Calì, Domenico Conza, Agnese Secondo, Gelsomina Luongo, Daniela Terracciano, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Luigi Insabato, Luca Ulianich
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in industrialized countries. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that obesity promotes aggressive PCa. Recently, a family of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) receptors (FFARs) has been identified and reported to affect several crucial biological functions of tumor cells such as proliferation, invasiveness, and apoptosis. Here we report that oleic acid (OA), one of the most prevalent FFA in human plasma, increases proliferation of highly malignant PC3 and DU-145 PCa cells...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663038/-relevance-of-spinal-navigation-in-reconstructive-surgery-of-the-cervical-spine
#8
REVIEW
R Kothe, M Richter
BACKGROUND: Spinal navigation has made significant advances in the last two decades. After initial experiences with pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar spine, technological improvements have resulted in their increased application in the cervical spine. Instrumentation techniques like cervical pedicle screws, lateral mass screws in C1 and transarticular screws C1/C2 have become standard due to the application of image guidance. TECHNIQUE: Different navigation techniques can be distinguished based on the type of imaging...
April 16, 2018: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662940/large-scale-in-vivo-recording-of-sensory-neuron-activity-with-gcamp6
#9
Kim I Chisholm, Nikita Khovanov, Douglas M Lopes, Federica La Russa, Stephen B McMahon
Greater emphasis on the study of intact cellular networks in their physiological environment has led to rapid advances in intravital imaging of the central nervous system (CNS), while the peripheral system remains largely unexplored. To assess large networks of sensory neurons, we selectively label primary afferents with GCaMP6s in male and female C57bl/6 mice and visualize their functional responses to peripheral stimulation in vivo . We show that we are able to monitor the activity of hundreds of sensory neurons simultaneously, with sufficient sensitivity to detect, in most cases, single action potentials with a typical rise time of around 200 ms, and an exponential decay with a time constant of approximately 700 ms...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662559/deep-learning-in-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-current-perspectives-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Hongyoon Choi
Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers...
April 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662557/ct-radiomics-in-thoracic-oncology-technique-and-clinical-applications
#11
REVIEW
Geewon Lee, So Hyeon Bak, Ho Yun Lee
Precision medicine offers better treatment options and improved survival for cancer patients based on individual variability. As the success of precision medicine depends on robust biomarkers, the requirement for improved imaging biomarkers that reflect tumor biology has grown exponentially. Radiomics, the field of study in which high-throughput data are generated and large amounts of advanced quantitative features are extracted from medical images, has shown great potential as a source of quantitative biomarkers in the field of oncology...
April 2018: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661193/simulation-of-phase-contrast-angiography-for-renal-arterial-models
#12
Artur Klepaczko, Piotr Szczypiński, Michał Strzelecki, Ludomir Stefańczyk
BACKGROUND: With the development of versatile magnetic resonance acquisition techniques there arises a need for more advanced imaging simulation tools to enable adequate image appearance prediction, measurement sequence design and testing thereof. Recently, there is a growing interest in phase contrast angiography (PCA) sequence due to the capabilities of blood flow quantification that it offers. Moreover, as it is a non-contrast enhanced protocol, it has become an attractive option in areas, where usage of invasive contrast agents is not indifferent for the imaged tissue...
April 16, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658769/multimodality-imaging-assessment-of-endoleaks-post-endovascular-aortic-repair
#13
Sasan Partovi, Thomas Trischman, Vasileios Rafailidis, Suvranu Ganguli, Fabian Rengier, Harold Goerne, Prabhakar Rajiah, Daniel Staub, Indravadan J Patel, George Oliveira, Brian Ghoshhajra
Endoleaks are a common complication of endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). As a result, patients require lifelong imaging surveillance following EVAR. In current clinical practice evaluation for endoleaks is predominantly performed with computed tomography angiography (CTA). Due to the significant cumulative radiation burden associated with repetitive CTA imaging, as well as the repeated administration of nephrotoxic contrast agent, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have evolved as potential modalities for lifelong surveillance post-EVAR...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657239/application-of-a-fresh-decellularized-pulmonary-allograft-for-pulmonary-valve-replacement-in-japan
#14
Hideto Ozawa, Takayoshi Ueno, Masaki Taira, Koichi Toda, Toru Kuratani, Yoshiki Sawa
BACKGROUND: Tissue engineering has advanced the technique of decellularization of the heart valve. The valve is reseeded with the patient's own cells after implantation with suppression of immunologic reactions. The same advantage has been reported for fresh decellularized heart valves, and more than 10 years of excellent outcomes have been achieved. We began performing such heart valve implantations in 2013 as part of a clinical study at Osaka University. We report our evaluation of the safety and efficacy of heart valve implantation...
April 14, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655938/delineation-of-early-brain-development-from-fetuses-to-infants-with-diffusion-mri-and-beyond
#15
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Jessica Dubois, Qinlin Yu, Pratik Mukherjee, Hao Huang
Dynamic macrostructural and microstructural changes take place from the mid-fetal stage to 2 years after birth. Delineating brain structural changes during this early developmental period provides new insights into the complicated processes of both typical brain development and the pathological mechanisms underlying various psychiatric and neurological disorders including autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Decades of histological studies have identified strong spatial and functional gradients of maturation in human brain gray and white matter...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655936/dynamic-causal-modelling-on-infant-fnirs-data-a-validation-study-on-a-simultaneously-recorded-fnirs-fmri-dataset
#16
Chiara Bulgarelli, Anna Blasi, Simon Arridge, Samuel Powell, Carina de Klerk, Victoria Southgate, Sabrina Brigadoi, William Penny, Sungho Tak, Antonia Hamilton
Tracking the connectivity of the developing brain from infancy through childhood is an area of increasing research interest, and fNIRS provides an ideal method for studying the infant brain as it is compact, safe and robust to motion. However, data analysis methods for fNIRS are still underdeveloped compared to those available for fMRI. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) is an advanced connectivity technique developed for fMRI data, that aims to estimate the coupling between brain regions and how this might be modulated by changes in experimental conditions...
April 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655580/canadian-association-of-radiologists-white-paper-on-artificial-intelligence-in-radiology
#17
REVIEW
An Tang, Roger Tam, Alexandre Cadrin-Chênevert, Will Guest, Jaron Chong, Joseph Barfett, Leonid Chepelev, Robyn Cairns, J Ross Mitchell, Mark D Cicero, Manuel Gaudreau Poudrette, Jacob L Jaremko, Caroline Reinhold, Benoit Gallix, Bruce Gray, Raym Geis
Artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly moving from an experimental phase to an implementation phase in many fields, including medicine. The combination of improved availability of large datasets, increasing computing power, and advances in learning algorithms has created major performance breakthroughs in the development of AI applications. In the last 5 years, AI techniques known as deep learning have delivered rapidly improving performance in image recognition, caption generation, and speech recognition...
April 11, 2018: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652127/optical-probes-for-neurobiological-sensing-and-imaging
#18
Eric H Kim, Gregory Chin, Guoxin Rong, Kira E Poskanzer, Heather A Clark
Fluorescent nanosensors and molecular probes are next-generation tools for imaging chemical signaling inside and between cells. Electrophysiology has long been considered the gold standard in elucidating neural dynamics with high temporal resolution and precision, particularly on the single-cell level. However, electrode-based techniques face challenges in illuminating the specific chemicals involved in neural cell activation with adequate spatial information. Measuring chemical dynamics is of fundamental importance to better understand synergistic interactions between neurons as well as interactions between neurons and non-neuronal cells...
April 13, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650012/technologies-to-monitor-the-health-of-loaded-skin-tissues
#19
REVIEW
Dan L Bader, Peter R Worsley
There are many situations where the skin and underlying soft tissues are compromised by mechanical loading in the form or pressure, or pressure in combination with shear. If sustained, this can lead to damage in the tissues particularly adjacent to bony prominences, resulting in chronic wounds. An array of bioengineering technologies have been adopted to assess the integrity of loaded soft tissues. This paper aims to review these approaches for the quantification, simulation and early detection of mechanically-induced skin damage...
April 12, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649981/in-silico-cancer-research-towards-3r
#20
Claire Jean-Quartier, Fleur Jeanquartier, Igor Jurisica, Andreas Holzinger
BACKGROUND: Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments...
April 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
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