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Advanced imaging technique

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474098/comparing-four-radiotherapy-techniques-for-treating-the-chest-wall-plus-levels-iii-iv-draining-nodes-after-breast-reconstruction
#1
Valentina Lancellotta, Martina Iacco, Elisabetta Perrucci, Lorenzo Falcinelli, Claudio Zucchetti, Berardino de Bari, Simonetta Saldi, Cynthia Aristei
OBJECTIVE: To compare the dosimetric outcomes of four radiotherapy (RT) techniques for treating the chest wall plus draining nodes after mastectomy and breast reconstruction. METHODS: Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), linac-based intensity modulated radiotherapy, helical tomotherapy (HT) and direct tomotherapy (DT) treatments were planned for 40 breast cancer patients. Dose prescription was 50 Gy. Plans were compared in terms of doses to the planning target volume, organs at risk (OARs) and the homogeneity index (HI)...
February 23, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473093/assessment-of-iodine-uptake-by-pancreatic-cancer-following-chemotherapy-using-dual-energy-ct
#2
REVIEW
Satomi Kawamoto, Matthew K Fuld, Daniel Laheru, Peng Huang, Elliot K Fishman
Pancreatic cancer remains a major health problem, and only less than 20% of patients have resectable disease at the time of initial diagnosis. Systemic chemotherapy is often used in the patients with borderline resectable, locally advanced unresectable disease and metastatic disease. CT is often used to assess for therapeutic response; however, conventional imaging including CT may not correctly reflect treatment response after chemotherapy. Dual-energy (DE) CT can acquire datasets at two different photon spectra in a single CT acquisition, and permits separating materials and extract iodine by applying a material decomposition algorithm...
February 23, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472301/revenue-increase-following-2017-multiple-procedures-payment-reduction-modification-differential-impact-on-neuroradiology-report-from-an-academic-medical-center
#3
B B Noveiry, F N Varzaneh, D M Yousem
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services imposed a 25% professional component multiple procedure payment reduction for the professional component of advanced diagnostic imaging modalities in January 2012. In 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rolled back the multiple procedure payment reduction to 5% for subsequent imaging. To evaluate the effect of this change, we analyzed 5 months of Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services procedures at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472076/robustness-of-vmat-and-3dcrt-plans-toward-setup-errors-in-radiation-therapy-of-locally-advanced-left-sided-breast-cancer-with-dibh
#4
Christer Andre Jensen, Ana María Acosta Roa, Marie Johansen, Jo-Åsmund Lund, Jomar Frengen
PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to evaluate and compare the robustness of treatment plans produced using the volumetric modulated arc-therapy (VMAT) and the standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) techniques by estimating perturbed doses induced by localization offsets for deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) in locally advanced breast cancer radiation therapy. METHODS: Twenty patients with left breast carcinoma requiring radiation therapy were analysed in this planning study...
January 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471618/visual-probing-of-rectal-neoplasia-near-infrared-interrogation-of-primary-tumours-and-secondary-lymph-nodes
#5
Haseeb A Khokhar, Eamon Loughman, Moataz Khogali, Niall Mulligan, Donal F O'Shea, Ronan A Cahill
Laparoscopic and endoscopic colorectal intervention and operations have their basis in real-time, image-based decision-making and step-by-step sequenced technical progress. The capacity to visualise accurately malignant disease wherever it may be including within the primary lesion and its draining lymph node basin as well as at potential sites of metastatic harbour (i.e. peritoneum, liver and lung) would allow more accurate surgery at the time of operation and enable personalised, stratified surgical intervention...
February 21, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470463/monitoring-intracellular-nanomolar-calcium-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#6
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Dmitri A Rusakov
Nanomolar-range fluctuations of intracellular [Ca2+ ] are critical for brain cell function but remain difficult to measure. We have advanced a microscopy technique to monitor intracellular [Ca2+ ] in individual cells in acute brain slices (also applicable in vivo) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the Ca2+ -sensitive fluorescent indicator Oregon Green BAPTA1 (OGB-1). The OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime is sensitive to [Ca2+ ] within the 10-500 nM range but not to other factors such as viscosity, temperature, or pH...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469856/spatially-incoherent-common-path-off-axis-color-digital-holography
#7
Cuong M Nguyen, Dilband Muhammad, Hyuk-Sang Kwon
We describe a new method for recording spatially incoherent common-path off-axis color digital holograms. We present the theoretical and experimental evidence to demonstrate an incoherent common-path off-axis color digital holographic (ICOCH) system capable of capturing information from three-dimensional color objects under incoherent illumination, both in transmission and reflection modes. Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH), a common-path system, is a frequently used incoherent holography technique...
February 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469659/grading-of-oligodendroglial-tumors-of-the-brain-with-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-and-dynamic-susceptibility-contrast-imaging
#8
Muhammad Atif Naveed, Pradeep Goyal, Ajay Malhotra, Xiang Liu, Sonali Gupta, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Purpose We explored whether advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques could grade oligodendrogliomas. Methods Forty patients (age 9-61 years) with oligodendroglial tumors were selected. There were 23 patients with World Health Organization grade II (group 1) and 17 patients with grade III (group 2) tumors. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated by b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2 . Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) images were obtained during the first pass of a bolus of gadolinium-based contrast...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468094/chobs-color-histogram-of-block-statistics-for-automatic-bleeding-detection-in-wireless-capsule-endoscopy-video
#9
Tonmoy Ghosh, Shaikh Anowarul Fattah, Khan A Wahid
Wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) is the most advanced technology to visualize whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract in a non-invasive way. But the major disadvantage here, it takes long reviewing time, which is very laborious as continuous manual intervention is necessary. In order to reduce the burden of the clinician, in this paper, an automatic bleeding detection method for WCE video is proposed based on the color histogram of block statistics, namely CHOBS. A single pixel in WCE image may be distorted due to the capsule motion in the GI tract...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467916/utility-of-endoscopic-ultrasound-and-endoscopy-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-its-complications-what-does-endoscopic-ultrasonography-offer-above-and-beyond-conventional-cross-sectional-imaging
#10
REVIEW
Mohit Girotra, Kaartik Soota, Amaninder S Dhaliwal, Rtika R Abraham, Mauricio Garcia-Saenz-de-Sicilia, Benjamin Tharian
Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes over 90% of the primary liver tumors, the rest being cholangiocarcinoma. It has an insidious presentation, which is responsible for the delayed presentation. Hence, the management strategy relies on screening to diagnose it an early stage for curative resection and/or treatment with local ablative techniques or chemotherapy. However, even with different screening programs, more than 60% of tumors are still detected at an advanced stage, leading to an unchanged mortality rate, thereby implying a room for improvement in the screening and diagnostic process...
February 16, 2018: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467827/advanced-imaging-techniques-for-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease-what-does-the-future-hold
#11
REVIEW
Inês Pita, Fernando Magro
Treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) is intrinsically reliant on imaging techniques, due to the preponderance of small bowel disease and its transmural pattern of inflammation. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the most widely employed imaging methods and have excellent diagnostic accuracy in most instances. Some limitations persist, perhaps the most clinically relevant being the distinction between inflammatory and fibrotic strictures. In this regard, several methodologies have recently been tested in animal models and human patients, namely US strain elastography, shear wave elastography, contrast-enhanced US, magnetization transfer MRI and contrast dynamics in standard MRI...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467012/structural-and-advanced-imaging-in-predicting-mgmt-promoter-methylation-of-primary-glioblastoma-a-region-of-interest-based-analysis
#12
Yu Han, Lin-Feng Yan, Xi-Bin Wang, Ying-Zhi Sun, Xin Zhang, Zhi-Cheng Liu, Hai-Yan Nan, Yu-Chuan Hu, Yang Yang, Jin Zhang, Ying Yu, Qian Sun, Qiang Tian, Bo Hu, Gang Xiao, Wen Wang, Guang-Bin Cui
BACKGROUND: The methylation status of oxygen 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter has been associated with treatment response in glioblastoma(GBM). Using pre-operative MRI techniques to predict MGMT promoter methylation status remains inconclusive. In this study, we investigated the value of features from structural and advanced imagings in predicting the methylation of MGMT promoter in primary glioblastoma patients. METHODS: Ninety-two pathologically confirmed primary glioblastoma patients underwent preoperative structural MR imagings and the efficacy of structural image features were qualitatively analyzed using Fisher's exact test...
February 21, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464169/enhanced-preoperative-deep-inferior-epigastric-artery-perforator-flap-planning-with-a-3d-printed-perforasome-template-technique-and-case-report
#13
Michael P Chae, David J Hunter-Smith, Marie Rostek, Julian A Smith, Warren Matthew Rozen
Optimizing preoperative planning is widely sought in deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap surgery. One reason for this is that rates of fat necrosis remain relatively high (up to 35%), and that adjusting flap design by an improved understanding of individual perforasomes and perfusion characteristics may be useful in reducing the risk of fat necrosis. Imaging techniques have substantially improved over the past decade, and with recent advances in 3D printing, an improved demonstration of imaged anatomy has become available...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463906/noninvasive-imaging-biomarker-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-by-elastography-in-nafld
#14
REVIEW
Elliot B Tapper, Rohit Loomba
NAFLD is a global epidemic. The prevalence of NAFLD is 20-30% in North America, northern Europe, Australia, Japan, India and China. It is crucial that patients with NAFLD receive an assessment for their risk of advanced fibrosis, which increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and other complications of cirrhosis. Risk stratification that is efficient, cost-effective, patient-centred and evidence-based is one of the most important issues facing clinicians who care for those with liver disease. Given patients' preference to avoid liver biopsy, noninvasive alternatives to assess liver fibrosis are in high demand...
February 21, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462554/big-potential-from-small-agents-nanoparticles-for-imaging-based-companion-diagnostics
#15
Emily B Ehlerding, Piotr Grodzinski, Weibo Cai, Christina H Liu
The importance of medical imaging in the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer cannot be overstated. As personalized cancer treatments are gaining popularity, a need for more advanced imaging techniques has grown significantly. Nanoparticles are uniquely suited to fill this void, not only as imaging contrast agents but also as companion diagnostics. This manuscript provides an overview of many ways nanoparticle imaging agents have contributed to cancer imaging, both preclinically and in the clinic, as well as charting future directions in companion diagnostics...
February 20, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461949/quantitative-elastography-methods-in-liver-disease-current-evidence-and-future-directions
#16
Paul Kennedy, Mathilde Wagner, Laurent Castéra, Cheng William Hong, Curtis L Johnson, Claude B Sirlin, Bachir Taouli
Chronic liver diseases often result in the development of liver fibrosis and ultimately, cirrhosis. Treatment strategies and prognosis differ greatly depending on the severity of liver fibrosis, thus liver fibrosis staging is clinically relevant. Traditionally, liver biopsy has been the method of choice for fibrosis evaluation. Because of liver biopsy limitations, noninvasive methods have become a key research interest in the field. Elastography enables the noninvasive measurement of tissue mechanical properties through observation of shear-wave propagation in the tissue of interest...
March 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461799/laser-ablation-aerosol-mass-spectrometry-chemical-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-ambient-surface-imaging
#17
Jennifer L Berry, Douglas A Day, Tim Elseberg, Brett B Palm, Weiwei Hu, Aroob Abdelhamid, Jason C Schroder, Uwe Karst, Jose L Jimenez, Eleanor C Browne
Mass spectrometry imaging is becoming an increasingly common analytical technique due to its ability to provide spa-tially resolved chemical information. Here, we report a novel imaging approach combining laser ablation with two mass spectrometric techniques, aerosol mass spectrometry and chemical ionization mass spectrometry, separately and in parallel. Both mass spectrometric methods provide the fast response, rapid data acquisition, low detection limits, and high-resolution peak separation desirable for imaging complex samples...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460985/characterization-of-cellular-and-matrix-alterations-in-the-early-pathogenesis-of-osteochondritis-dissecans-in-pigs-using-second-harmonic-generation-and-two-photon-excitation-fluorescence-microscopy
#18
Andreas Finnøy, Kristin Olstad, Magnus B Lilledahl
Osteochondritis dissecans is a joint disease that is observed in several species. The disease can develop as a cause of ischemic chondronecrosis in the epiphyseal growth cartilage. Some lesions of chondronecrosis undergo spontaneous resolution, but it is not possible to predict whether a lesion will resolve or progress and require intervention. Proliferation of cells into clusters occurs at the lesion margin, but it is unclear if the clusters have a repair function. The aims of the current study were to examine clusters and potential matrix changes in response to ischemic chondronecrosis in the distal femur of 10 pigs aged 70-180 days using advanced microscopy based on two-photon excitation fluorescence and second harmonic generation...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460389/the-remarkable-vocal-anatomy-of-the-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-insights-into-low-frequency-sound-production-in-a-marsupial-species
#19
Roland Frey, David Reby, Guido Fritsch, Benjamin D Charlton
Koalas are characterised by a highly unusual vocal anatomy, with a descended larynx and velar vocal folds, allowing them to produce calls at disproportionately low frequencies. Here we use advanced imaging techniques, histological data, classical macroscopic dissection and behavioural observations to provide the first detailed description and interpretation of male and female koala vocal anatomy. We show that both males and females have an elongated pharynx and soft palate, resulting in a permanently descended larynx...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459844/magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-positron-emission-tomography-and-radiogenomics-relevance-to-glioma
#20
REVIEW
Gloria C Chiang, Ilhami Kovanlikaya, Changho Choi, Rohan Ramakrishna, Rajiv Magge, Dikoma C Shungu
Advances in metabolic imaging techniques have allowed for more precise characterization of gliomas, particularly as it relates to tumor recurrence or pseudoprogression. Furthermore, the emerging field of radiogenomics where radiographic features are systemically correlated with molecular markers has the potential to achieve the holy grail of neuro-oncologic neuro-radiology, namely molecular diagnosis without requiring tissue specimens. In this section, we will review the utility of metabolic imaging and discuss the current state of the art related to the radiogenomics of glioblastoma...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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