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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141223/gradients-of-rac1-nanoclusters-support-spatial-patterns-of-rac1-signaling
#1
Amanda Remorino, Simon De Beco, Fanny Cayrac, Fahima Di Federico, Gaetan Cornilleau, Alexis Gautreau, Maria Carla Parrini, Jean-Baptiste Masson, Maxime Dahan, Mathieu Coppey
Rac1 is a small RhoGTPase switch that orchestrates actin branching in space and time and protrusion/retraction cycles of the lamellipodia at the cell front during mesenchymal migration. Biosensor imaging has revealed a graded concentration of active GTP-loaded Rac1 in protruding regions of the cell. Here, using single-molecule imaging and super-resolution microscopy, we show an additional supramolecular organization of Rac1. We find that Rac1 partitions and is immobilized into nanoclusters of 50-100 molecules each...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141207/distinct-terb1-domains-regulate-different-protein-interactions-in-meiotic-telomere-movement
#2
Jingjing Zhang, Zhaowei Tu, Yoshinori Watanabe, Hiroki Shibuya
Meiotic telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope (NE) and drive the chromosome movement required for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. The meiosis-specific telomere proteins TERB1, TERB2, and MAJIN are required to regulate these events, but their assembly processes are largely unknown. Here, we developed a germ-cell-specific knockout mouse of the canonical telomere-binding protein TRF1 and revealed an essential role for TRF1 in directing the assembly of TERB1-TERB2-MAJIN. Further, we identified a TERB2 binding (T2B) domain in TERB1 that is dispensable for the TRF1-TERB1 interaction but is essential for the subsequent TERB1-TERB2 interaction and therefore for telomere attachment to the NE...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#3
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141156/plasmid-azobr_p1-borne-fabg-gene-for-putative-3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein-reductase-is-essential-for-proper-assembly-and-work-of-the-dual-flagellar-system-in-the-alphaproteobacterium-azospirillum-brasilense-sp245
#4
Yulia A Filip'echeva, Andrei V Shelud'ko, Alexei G Prilipov, Gennady L Burygin, Elizaveta M Telesheva, Stella S Yevstigneyeva, Marina P Chernyshova, Lilia P Petrova, Elena I Katsy
Azospirillum brasilense can swim and swarm owing to the activity of a constitutive polar flagellum (Fla) and inducible lateral flagella (Laf), respectively. Experimental data on the regulation of the Fla and Laf assembly in azospirilla are scarce. Here, the coding sequence (CDS) AZOBR_p1160043 (fabG1) for a putative 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-carrier protein (ACP)] reductase was found essential for the construction of both types of flagella. In an immotile leaky Fla- Laf- fabG1::Omegon-Km mutant, Sp245.1610, defects in flagellation and motility were fully complemented by expressing the CDS AZOBR_p1160043 from plasmid pRK415...
November 15, 2017: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139529/lab-on-capillary-a-rapid-simple-and-quantitative-genetic-analysis-platform-integrating-nucleic-acid-extraction-amplification-and-detection
#5
Yu Fu, Xiaoming Zhou, Da Xing
In this work, we describe for the first time a genetic diagnosis platform employing a polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA)-modified capillary and a liquid-based thermalization system for rapid, simple and quantitative DNA analysis with minimal user interaction. Positively charged PDDA is modified on the inner surface of the silicon dioxide capillary by using an electrostatic self-assembly approach that allows the negatively charged DNA to be separated from the lysate in less than 20 seconds. The capillary loaded with the PCR mix is incorporated in the thermalization system, which can achieve on-site real-time PCR...
November 15, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138526/stimulation-of-primordial-follicle-assembly-by-estradiol-17%C3%AE-requires-the-action-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-bmp2
#6
Prabuddha Chakraborty, Shyamal K Roy
Primordial follicle (PF) pool determines the availability of follicles for ovulation in all mammals. Premature depletion of the PF reserve leads to subfertility or infertility. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) promotes PF formation by facilitating oocyte and granulosa cell development. Estradiol-17β (E2) upregulates PF formation in developing hamster ovaries. However, if BMP2 mediates E2 effect is not known. We hypothesize that E2 facilitates the effect of BMP2 on somatic to granulosa cell transition. BMP2 and E2 together significantly upregulated the percentage of PFs in hamster fetal ovaries in vitro compared with either of the treatments alone...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138413/oscillators-that-sync-and-swarm
#7
Kevin P O'Keeffe, Hyunsuk Hong, Steven H Strogatz
Synchronization occurs in many natural and technological systems, from cardiac pacemaker cells to coupled lasers. In the synchronized state, the individual cells or lasers coordinate the timing of their oscillations, but they do not move through space. A complementary form of self-organization occurs among swarming insects, flocking birds, or schooling fish; now the individuals move through space, but without conspicuously altering their internal states. Here we explore systems in which both synchronization and swarming occur together...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137986/long-range-stress-transmission-guides-endothelial-gap-formation
#8
C Corey Hardin, Joyjit Chattoraj, Greeshma Manomohan, Jader Colombo, Trong Nguyen, Dhananjay Tambe, Jeffrey J Fredberg, Konstantin Birukov, James P Butler, Emanuela Del Gado, Ramaswamy Krishnan
In endothelial gap formation, local tractions exerted by the cell upon its basal adhesions are thought to exceed balancing tensile stresses exerted across the cell-cell junction, thus causing the junction to rupture. To test this idea, we mapped evolving tractions, intercellular stresses, and corresponding growth of paracellular gaps in response to agonist challenge. Contrary to expectation, we found little to no relationship between local tensile stresses and gap formation. Instead, we discovered that intercellular stresses were aligned into striking multi-cellular domains punctuated by defects in stress alignment...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137754/proteinaceous-microspheres-as-a-delivery-system-for-carvacrol-and-thymol-in-antibacterial-applications
#9
Chana G Sokolik, Rina Ben-Shabat-Binyamini, Aharon Gedanken, Jean-Paul Lellouche
There is an urgent need for new materials with antimicrobial activity. Phenolic essential oil (EO) compounds with Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status are attractive candidates, but they need suitable delivery systems to overcome specific drawbacks. Core-shell microspheres (MSs) of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) or Human Serum Albumin (HSA) encapsulating such active compounds in the oil phase are a delivery system that is novel in combination with phenolic EO compounds. Moreover, the EO compounds can also be assembled in an oil shell around a protein core by choosing an appropriate oil phase...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137640/direct-reprogramming-of-mouse-fibroblasts-into-neural-cells-via-porphyra-yezoensis-polysaccharide-based-high-efficient-gene-co-delivery
#10
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Yan Wang, Jie Zhou, Wenqian Xu, Pan Du, Qiang Wang, Jiangnan Yu, Ximing Xu
BACKGROUND: The cell source for transplantation therapy is always a prerequisite question to be solved in clinical applications. Neural cells are considered non-regenerable, which highly restrict their application in the treatment for nerve injury. Therefore, neural trans-differentiation based on gene transfection provides a new solution to this issue. Compared to viral strategy, non-viral gene delivery systems are considered as a more promising way to achieve this aim. This study centers on a novel application of Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide as a non-viral gene carrier for the neural trans-differentiation of mouse fibroblasts...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137479/the-role-of-the-carbohydrates-in-plasmatic-membrane
#11
P Sprovieri, G Martino
In the following paper, authors describe glycans present on cell membranes as they affect the folding, the spatial arrangement, the behavior and the interaction with the substrate of some membrane proteins. Authors describe the synthesis and assembly of a glycan on a protein, the formation of N-glycans, the maturation of an N-glycan in different cellular compartments, the structure of the glycocalyx and how it interacts with any pathogens. The study of the E-cadherin and the potassium channel to demonstrate how glycans affect the spatial arrangement, the stability and activity of the glycoproteins on the membranes...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137277/ningnanmycin-inhibits-tobacco-mosaic-virus-virulence-by-binding-directly-to-its-coat-protein-discs
#12
Xiangyang Li, Gefei Hao, Qingmin Wang, Zhuo Chen, Yan Ding, Lu Yu, Deyu Hu, Baoan Song
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) causes severe plant diseases worldwide; however, effective antiviral agents for controlling TMV infections are not available. This lack of effective antiviral agents is mainly due to the poor understanding of potential targets associated with TMV infections. During infection, the coat protein (CP), which is delivered by viral particles into susceptible host cells, provides protection for viral RNA. Here, we found that Ningnanmycin (NNM), a commercially used plant antibacterial agent, inhibits the assembly of the CP by directly binding several residues...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137172/fluorescent-magnetopolymersomes-a-theranostic-platform-to-track-intracellular-delivery
#13
Oliver Bixner, Noga Gal, Christoph Zaba, Andrea Scheberl, Erik Reimhult
We present a potential theranostic delivery platform based on the amphiphilic diblock copolymer polybutadiene-block-poly (ethylene oxide) combining covalent fluorescent labeling and membrane incorporation of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for multimodal imaging. A simple self-assembly and labeling approach to create the fluorescent and magnetic vesicles is described. Cell uptake of the densely PEGylated polymer vesicles could be altered by surface modifications that vary surface charge and accessibility of the membrane active species...
November 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136588/a-facile-way-to-fabricate-manganese-phosphate-self-assembled-carbon-networks-as-efficient-electrochemical-catalysts-for-real-time-monitoring-of-superoxide-anions-released-from-hepg2-cells
#14
Xuan Cai, Libo Shi, Wenqian Sun, Hongli Zhao, Hong Li, Haiyan He, Minbo Lan
Quantification of superoxide anions (O2(•-)) is significant in the monitoring of many serious diseases and the design of enzyme-mimic catalysts plays the main role in the development of non-enzymatic O2(•-) sensors. Herein, we proposed a facile self-assembly process to synthesize manganese phosphate modified carbon networks using three kinds of widely-used carbon materials (MWCNTs, NGS and GO) as pillar connectors. Characterizations demonstrate that manganese phosphate is widely dispersed inside and on the surface of carbon networks without visible morphology...
November 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135264/peptide-based-polymer-polyoxometalate-supramolecular-structure-with-differed-antimicrobial-mechanism
#15
Lakshmi Priya Datta, Riya Mukherjee, Subharanjan Biswas, Tapan Kumar Das
Because of the increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistance feature, several investigations have been so far reported regarding the antibiotic alternative supramolecular bioactive agents made of hybrid assemblies. In this regard, it is well established that combinational therapy inherited by assembled supramolecular structures can improve the bioactivity to some extent but their mode of actions have not been studied in details. We provide the first direct evidence that the improved mechanism of action of antimicrobial supra-amphiphilic nanocomposites differ largely from their parent antimicrobial peptide based polymers...
November 14, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134943/phylogenomic-analysis-of-balantidium-ctenopharyngodoni-ciliophora-litostomatea-based-on-single-cell-transcriptome-sequencing
#16
Zongyi Sun, Chuanqi Jiang, Jinmei Feng, Wentao Yang, Ming Li, Wei Miao
In this paper, we present transcriptome data for Balantidium ctenopharyngodoni Chen, 1955 collected from the hindgut of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We evaluated sequence quality and de novo assembled a preliminary transcriptome, including 43.3 megabits and 119,141 transcripts. Then we obtained a final transcriptome, including 17.7 megabits and 35,560 transcripts, by removing contaminative and redundant sequences. Phylogenomic analysis based on a supermatrix with 132 genes comprising 53,873 amino acid residues and phylogenetic analysis based on SSU rDNA of 27 species were carried out herein to reveal the evolutionary relationships among six ciliate groups: Colpodea, Oligohymenophorea, Litostomatea, Spirotrichea, Heterotrichea and Protocruziida...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134798/hierarchical-self-assembly-of-a-copolymer-stabilized-coacervate-protocell
#17
Alexander F Mason, Bastiaan C Buddingh', David S Williams, Jan C M van Hest
Complex coacervate microdroplets are finding increased utility in synthetic cell applications due to their cytomimetic proper-ties. However, their intrinsic membrane-free nature results in instability that limits their application in protocell research. Herein, we present the development of a new protocell model through the spontaneous interfacial self-assembly of copolymer molecules on biopolymer coacervate microdroplets. This hierarchical protocell model not only incorporates the favorable properties of coacervates (such as spontaneous assembly and macromolecular condensation) but also assimilates the essential features of a semi-permeable copolymeric membrane (such as discretization and stabilization)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134602/applications-of-the-bacteriophage-mu-in-vitro-transposition-reaction-and-genome-manipulation-via-electroporation-of-dna-transposition-complexes
#18
Saija Haapa-Paananen, Harri Savilahti
The capacity of transposable elements to insert into the genomes has been harnessed during the past decades to various in vitro and in vivo applications. This chapter describes in detail the general protocols and principles applicable for the Mu in vitro transposition reaction as well as the assembly of DNA transposition complexes that can be electroporated into bacterial cells to accomplish efficient gene delivery. These techniques with their modifications potentiate various gene and genome modification applications, which are discussed briefly here, and the reader is referred to the original publications for further details...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134300/freeze-fracture-new-avenues-for-the-ultrastructural-analysis-of-cells-in-vitro
#19
REVIEW
Carola Meier, Anja Beckmann
The ultrastructural analysis of biological membranes by freeze fracture has a 60-year tradition. In this review, we summarize the benefits of the freeze-fracture technique and review special structures analyzed by freeze fracture and by combined freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL) of cell cultures. In principle, every cellular membrane whether of cell suspensions, mono- or bilayers of cell cultures can be analyzed in freeze fracture. The combination of freeze fracture and immunogold labeling of the replica allows the ultrastructural identification of protein assemblies in combination with the molecular identification of their constituent proteins using specific antibodies...
November 13, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133898/intertwining-dna-rna-nanocapsules-loaded-with-tumor-neoantigens-as-synergistic-nanovaccines-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
Guizhi Zhu, Lei Mei, Harshad D Vishwasrao, Orit Jacobson, Zhantong Wang, Yijing Liu, Bryant C Yung, Xiao Fu, Albert Jin, Gang Niu, Qin Wang, Fuwu Zhang, Hari Shroff, Xiaoyuan Chen
Nanomedicines that co-deliver DNA, RNA, and peptide therapeutics are highly desirable yet remain underdeveloped for cancer theranostics. Herein, we report self-assembled intertwining DNA-RNA nanocapsules (iDR-NCs) that efficiently delivered synergistic DNA CpG and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) adjuvants, as well as tumor-specific peptide neoantigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs) in lymph nodes for cancer immunotherapy. These nanovaccines were prepared by (1) producing tandem CpG and shRNA via concurrent rolling circle replication and rolling circle transcription, (2) self-assembling CpG and shRNA into DNA-RNA microflowers, (3) shrinking microflowers into iDR-NCs using PEG-grafted cationic polypeptides, and (4) physically loading neoantigen into iDR-NCs...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
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