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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528445/interindividual-spread-of-herpesviruses
#1
Keith W Jarosinski
Interindividual spread of herpesviruses is essential for the virus life cycle and maintenance in host populations. For most herpesviruses, the virus-host relationship is close, having coevolved over millions of years resulting in comparatively high species specificity. The mechanisms governing interindividual spread or horizontal transmission are very complex, involving conserved herpesviral and cellular proteins during the attachment, entry, replication, and egress processes of infection. Also likely, specific herpesviruses have evolved unique viral and cellular interactions during cospeciation that are dependent on their relationship...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#2
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528443/herpesvirus-nuclear-egress
#3
Richard J Roller, Joel D Baines
Herpesviruses assemble and package their genomes into capsids in the nucleus, but complete final assembly of the mature virion in the cell cytoplasm. This requires passage of the genome-containing capsid across the double-membrane nuclear envelope. Herpesviruses have evolved a mechanism that relies on a pair of conserved viral gene products to shuttle the capsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by way of envelopment and de-envelopment at the inner and outer nuclear membranes, respectively. This complex process requires orchestration of the activities of viral and cellular factors to alter the architecture of the nuclear membrane, select capsids at the appropriate stage for egress, and accomplish efficient membrane budding and fusion events...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528440/the-human-cmv-ie1-protein-an-offender-of-pml-nuclear-bodies
#4
Myriam Scherer, Eva-Maria Schilling, Thomas Stamminger
PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are SUMOylation-dependent, highly complex protein assemblies that accumulate in the interchromosomal territories of the cell nucleus. Research of the last two decades revealed that many viruses have evolved effector proteins that modify PML-NBs. This correlates with antagonization of individual PML-NB components which act as host cell restriction factors. The multifunctional immediate-early protein IE1 of human cytomegalovirus directly interacts with the PML protein resulting in a disruption of the dot-like structure of PML-NBs...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528438/herpes-simplex-virus-membrane-fusion
#5
Darin J Weed, Anthony V Nicola
Herpes simplex virus mediates multiple distinct fusion events during infection. HSV entry is initiated by fusion of the viral envelope with either the limiting membrane of a host cell endocytic compartment or the plasma membrane. In the infected cell during viral assembly, immature, enveloped HSV particles in the perinuclear space fuse with the outer nuclear membrane in a process termed de-envelopment. A cell infected with some strains of HSV with defined mutations spread to neighboring cells by a fusion event called syncytium formation...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528299/selective-targeting-and-therapy-of-metastatic-and-multidrug-resistant-tumors-using-a-long-circulating-podophyllotoxin-nanoparticle
#6
Aniruddha Roy, Yucheng Zhao, Yang Yang, Andras Szeitz, Tara Klassen, Shyh-Dar Li
Treatment options for metastatic and multidrug resistant (MDR) tumors are limited, and most of the chemotherapeutic drugs exhibit low efficacy against MDR cancers. An anti-tubulin agent podophyllotoxin (PPT) displays high potency against MDR tumor cells. However, due to its poor solubility and non-specificity, PPT cannot be used systemically. We have developed a self-assembling nanoparticle dosage form for PPT (named Celludo) by covalently conjugating PPT and polyethylene glycol (PEG) to acetylated carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Ac) via ester linkages...
May 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527793/prevalence-of-non-aureus-staphylococcus-species-causing-intramammary-infections-in-canadian-dairy-herds
#7
Larissa A Z Condas, Jeroen De Buck, Diego B Nobrega, Domonique A Carson, Sohail Naushad, Sarne De Vliegher, Ruth N Zadoks, John R Middleton, Simon Dufour, John P Kastelic, Herman W Barkema
Non-aureus staphylococci (NAS), the microorganisms most frequently isolated from bovine milk worldwide, are a heterogeneous group of numerous species. To establish their importance as a group, the distribution of individual species needs to be determined. In the present study, NAS intramammary infection (IMI) was defined as a milk sample containing ≥1,000 cfu/mL in pure or mixed culture that was obtained from a cohort of cows assembled by the Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network. Overall, 6,213 (6.3%) of 98,233 quarter-milk samples from 5,149 cows and 20,305 udder quarters were associated with an NAS IMI...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527333/transcriptome-wide-analysis-of-jasmonate-treated-by-2-cells-reveals-new-transcriptional-regulators-associated-with-alkaloid-formation-in-tobacco
#8
Yuping Yang, Pengcheng Yan, Che Yi, Wenzheng Li, Yuhui Chai, Lingling Fei, Ping Gao, Heping Zhao, Yingdian Wang, Michael P Timko, Bingwu Wang, Shengcheng Han
Jasmonates (JAs) are well-known regulators of stress, defence, and secondary metabolism in plants, with JA perception triggering extensive transcriptional reprogramming, including both activation and/or repression of entire metabolic pathways. We performed RNA sequencing based transcriptomic profiling of tobacco BY-2 cells before and after treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to identify novel transcriptional regulators associated with alkaloid formation. A total of 107,140 unigenes were obtained through de novo assembly, and at least 33,213 transcripts (31%) encode proteins, in which 3419 transcription factors (TFs) were identified, representing 72 gene families, as well as 840 transcriptional regulators (TRs) distributed among 19 gene families...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527044/endocytic-vesicle-rupture-is-a-conserved-mechanism-of-cellular-invasion-by-amyloid-proteins
#9
William P Flavin, Luc Bousset, Zachary C Green, Yaping Chu, Stratos Skarpathiotis, Michael J Chaney, Jeffrey H Kordower, Ronald Melki, Edward M Campbell
Numerous pathological amyloid proteins spread from cell to cell during neurodegenerative disease, facilitating the propagation of cellular pathology and disease progression. Understanding the mechanism by which disease-associated amyloid protein assemblies enter target cells and induce cellular dysfunction is, therefore, key to understanding the progressive nature of such neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we utilized an imaging-based assay to monitor the ability of disease-associated amyloid assemblies to rupture intracellular vesicles following endocytosis...
May 19, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526713/co-evolution-of-domain-interactions-in-the-chloroplast-tgd1-2-3-lipid-transfer-complex-specific-to-brassicaceae-and-poaceae-plants
#10
Yang Yang, Agnieszka Zienkiewicz, Anastasiya Lavell, Christoph Benning
The import of lipids into the chloroplast is essential for photosynthetic membrane biogenesis. This process requires an ABC transporter in the inner envelope membrane with three subunits, TRIGALACTOSYLDIACYLGLYCEROL (TGD) 1, 2, and 3 named after the oligogalactolipids that accumulate in the respective Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Unlike Arabidopsis, in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon, chloroplast lipid biosynthesis is largely dependent on imported precursors, resulting in a characteristic difference in chloroplast lipid acyl composition between plants...
May 19, 2017: Plant Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526573/transcriptomic-variation-of-locally-infected-skin-of-epinephelus-coioides-reveals-the-mucosal-immune-mechanism-against-cryptocaryon-irritans
#11
Yazhou Hu, Anxing Li, Yang Xu, Biao Jiang, Geling Lu, Xiaochun Luo
Fish skin is the largest immunologically active mucosal organ, providing first-line defense against external pathogens. However, the skin-associated immune mechanisms of fish are still unclear. Cryptocaryon irritans is an obligate ectoparasitic ciliated protozoan that infects almost all marine fish, and is believed to be an excellent pathogen model to study fish mucosal immunity. In this study, a de novo transcriptome assembly of Epinephelus coioides skin post C. irritans tail-infection was performed for the first time using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2500 system...
May 16, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526563/live-cell-imaging-and-analysis-of-lipid-droplets-biogenesis-in-hcv-infected-cells
#12
Inbar Nevo-Yassaf, Marcos Lovelle, Yaacov Nahmias, Koret Hirschberg, Ella H Sklan
Lipid droplets (LDs) are regulated neutral lipid storage organelles having a central role in numerous cellular processes as well as in various pathologies such as metabolic disorders, immune responses and during pathogen infection. Several viruses were found to use the interface between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and LDs as the site for replication and assembly. Due to the growing significance of LDs, extensive efforts are made to study the mechanism and the dynamics of their formation and life history and how are these diverted or modified by pathogens...
May 16, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525708/affinity-based-assembly-of-peptides-on-plasmonic-nanoparticles-delivered-intracellularly-with-light-activated-control
#13
Demosthenes P Morales, William Wonderly, Xiao Huang, Meghan McAdams, Amanda Chron, Norbert O Reich
We report a universal strategy for functionalizing near-infrared light-responsive nanocarriers with both a peptide "cargo" and an orthogonal cell-penetrating peptide. Modularity of both the cargo and internalization peptide attachment are an important feature of these materials relying on the robust affinity of polyhistidine tags to nitrilotriacetic acid in the presence of nickel as well as the affinity of biotin labeled peptides to streptavidin. Attachment to the gold surface uses thiol labeled scaffolds terminated with the affinity partner...
May 19, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525391/titanium-dioxide-nanowire-sensor-array-integration-on-cmos-platform-using-deterministic-assembly
#14
Oren Gall, Xiahua Zhong, Daniel Schulman, Myungkoo Kang, Ali Razavieh, Theresa Mayer
Nanosensor arrays have recently received significant attention due to their utility in a wide range of applications, including gas sensing, fuel cells, internet of things (IoT), and portable health monitoring systems. Less attention has been given to the production of sensor platforms in the µW range for ultra-low power applications. Here, we discuss how to scale the nanosensor energy demand by developing a process for integration of nanowire sensing arrays on a monolithic CMOS chip. This work demonstrates an off-chip nanowire fabrication method; subsequently nanowires link to a fused SiO2 substrate using electric-field assisted directed assembly...
May 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525316/er-assembly-of-snare-complexes-mediating-formation-of-partitioning-membrane-in-arabidopsis-cytokinesis
#15
Matthias Karnahl, Misoon Park, Ulrike Mayer, Ulrike Hiller, Gerd Jürgens
Intracellular membrane fusion mediates diverse processes including cell growth, division and communication. Fusion involves complex formation between SNARE proteins anchored to adjacent membranes. How and in what form interacting SNARE proteins reach their sites of action is virtually unknown. We have addressed this problem in the context of plant cell division in which a large number of TGN-derived membrane vesicles fuse with one another to form the partitioning membrane. Blocking vesicle formation at the TGN revealed cis-SNARE complexes...
May 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525259/biodegradable-smart-polyphosphazenes-with-intrinsic-multi-functionality-as-intracellular-protein-delivery-vehicles
#16
Andre P Martinez, Bareera Qamar, Thomas R Fuerst, Silvia Muro, Alexander K Andrianov
A series of biodegradable drug delivery polymers with intrinsic multifunctionality have been designed and synthesized utilizing polyphosphazene macromolecular engineering approach. Novel water-soluble polymers, which contain carboxylic acid and pyrrolidone moieties attached to inorganic phosphorus-nitrogen backbone, were characterized by a suite of physico-chemical methods to confirm their structure, composition, and molecular sizes. All synthesized polyphosphazenes displayed composition dependent hydrolytic degradability in aqueous solutions at neutral pH...
May 19, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525257/self-etch-adhesive-as-a-carrier-for-acp-nanoprecursors-to-deliver-biomimetic-remineralization
#17
Zhifang Wu, Xiaokan Wang, Zhe Wang, Changyu Shao, Xiaoting Jin, Leiqing Zhang, Haihua Pan, Ruikang Tang, Baiping Fu
Lab biomineralization should be carried out in an actual clinical practice. This study evaluated self-etch adhesive as a carrier for amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) nanoprecursors to continuously deliver biomimetic remineralization of self-assembly type I collagen and demineralized dentin. Si-containing ACP particles (Si-ACP) stabilized with polyaspartic acid (PAsp) were synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared analysis, X-ray powder diffractometry, and X-ray phototelectron spectroscopy...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524877/optimized-fragmentation-schemes-and-data-analysis-strategies-for-proteome-wide-cross-link-identification
#18
Fan Liu, Philip Lössl, Richard Scheltema, Rosa Viner, Albert J R Heck
We describe optimized fragmentation schemes and data analysis strategies substantially enhancing the depth and accuracy in identifying protein cross-links using non-restricted whole proteome databases. These include a novel hybrid data acquisition strategy to sequence cross-links at both MS2 and MS3 level and a new algorithmic design XlinkX v2.0 for data analysis. As proof-of-concept we investigated proteome-wide protein interactions in E. coli and HeLa cell lysates, respectively, identifying 1,158 and 3,301 unique cross-links at ∼1% false discovery rate...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524720/surface-tailored-nanomixed-micelles-containing-quercetin-salicylic-acid-physical-complex-for-enhanced-cellular-and-in-vivo-activities-a-quality-by-design-perspective
#19
Premjeet Singh Sandhu, Rajendra Kumar, O P Katare, Bhupinder Singh
AIM: The development of surface-tailored quercetin (QCT)-salicylic acid (SA) physical complex for effective treatment of skin carcinoma. MATERIALS & METHODS: QCT-SA nanomixed micelles were prepared by the self-assembly method employing the Quality by Design (QbD) approach and evaluated for various in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo parameters. RESULTS: The optimized formulation showed enhanced percent permeation (Q24), in other words, 78.12 ± 0...
May 19, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524656/multifunctional-and-redox-responsive-self-assembled-magnetic-nanovectors-for-protein-delivery-and-dual-modal-imaging
#20
Hong Yu Yang, Moon-Sun Jang, Yi Li, Jung Hee Lee, Doo Sung Lee
Nanoparticle (NP)-based model carriers present an emerging strategy for protein delivery. However, constructing a multifunctional nanocarrier with high loading capacity, diagnostic imaging capacity and controlled release capability is a tremendous challenge for protein delivery systems. Thus, we herein report on the fabrication of redox-responsive magnetic nanovectors (termed RMNs) through self- assembly of Fe3O4 NPs and redox-responsive polymer ligands, which could effectively transport protein and trigger intracellular protein release...
May 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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