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hippocampus assemblies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486969/activation-of-p2x7-receptor-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-assembly-in-hippocampal-glial-cells-mediates-chronic-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors
#1
Na Yue, Huijie Huang, Xiaocang Zhu, Qiuqin Han, Yalin Wang, Bing Li, Qiong Liu, Gencheng Wu, Yuqiu Zhang, Jin Yu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a member of the purinergic receptor family, which is predominantly present on microglia, as well as on astrocytes and neurons in lesser amounts in the central nervous system, was suggested to be involved in the processing and releasing of IL-1β. Here, we investigated the role of P2X7R in the pathogenesis of depression...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484867/regional-brain-volume-reduction-and-cognitive-outcomes-in-preterm-children-at-low-risk-at-9%C3%A2-years-of-age
#2
Ebru Arhan, Kıvılcım Gücüyener, Şebnem Soysal, Şafak Şalvarlı, M Ali Gürses, Ayşe Serdaroğlu, Ercan Demir, Ebru Ergenekon, Canan Türkyılmaz, Esra Önal, Esin Koç, Yıldız Atalay
OBJECTIVE: More information is needed on "low-risk" preterm infants' neurological outcome so that they can be included in follow-up programs. A prospective study was performed to examine the regional brain volume changes compared to term children and to assess the relationship between the regional brain volumes to cognitive outcome of the low-risk preterm children at 9 years of age. PATIENTS: Subjects comprised 22 preterm children who were determined to be at low risk for neurodevelopmental deficits with a gestational age between 28 and 33 weeks without a major neonatal morbidity in the neonatal period and 24 age-matched term control children term and matched for age, sex, and parental educational and occupational status...
May 8, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478680/fucoxanthin-inhibits-%C3%AE-amyloid-assembly-and-attenuates-%C3%AE-amyloid-oligomer-induced-cognitive-impairments
#3
Siying Xiang, Fufeng Liu, Jiajia Lin, Huixin Chen, Chunhui Huang, Liping Chen, Yiying Zhou, Luying Ye, Ke Zhang, Jiukai Jin, Jiacheng Zhen, Chuang Wang, Shan He, Qinwen Wang, Wei Cui, Jinrong Zhang
β-Amyloid (Aβ) can form aggregates through self-assembly and produce neurotoxicity in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Therefore, the inhibition of Aβ assembly is considered as the primary target for AD therapy. In this study, we reported that fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid, potently reduced the formation of Aβ fibrils and oligomers. Moreover, the fucoxanthin-triggered modification significantly reduced the neurotoxicity of Aβ oligomers in vitro. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis further revealed a hydrophobic interaction between fucoxanthin and Aβ peptide, which might prevent the conformational transition and self-assembly of Aβ...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449243/pathologic-features-of-mycobacteriosis-in-naturally-infected-syngnathidae-and-novel-transcriptome-assembly-in-association-with-disease
#4
S B Fogelson, M D Fast, J Leary, A C Camus
Syngnathidae (seahorses, seadragons and pipefish) suffer significant losses from non-tuberculous mycobacteria. However, they produce markedly different lesions in response to the disease compared to other teleost species, notably infrequent granuloma formation. This study evaluated 270 syngnathid fish, from which 92 were diagnosed with mycobacteriosis by histopathology, culture or both. Microscopic lesions variably consisted of random foci of coagulative necrosis in multiple organs, containing high numbers of free bacteria and large aggregates or sheets of macrophages with cytoplasm laden with acid-fast bacilli...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444302/draft-genome-of-the-lined-seahorse-hippocampus-erectus
#5
Qiang Lin, Ying Qiu, Ruobo Gu, Meng Xu, Jia Li, Chao Bian, Huixian Zhang, Geng Qin, Yanhong Zhang, Wei Luo, Jieming Chen, Xinxin You, Mingjun Fan, Min Sun, Pao Xu, Byrappa Venkatesh, Junming Xu, Hongtuo Fu, Qiong Shi
Background: The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus , is an Atlantic species and mainly inhabits shallow sea-beds or coral reefs. It has become very popular in China for its wide use in traditional Chinese medicine. In order to improve the aquaculture yield of this valuable fish species, we are trying to develop genomic resources for assistant selection in genetic breeding. Here, we provide whole genome sequencing, assembly and gene annotation of the lined seahorse, which can enrich genome resource and further application for its molecular breeding...
April 22, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426966/assembly-of-excitatory-synapses-in-the-absence-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission
#6
Richard Sando, Eric Bushong, Yongchuan Zhu, Min Huang, Camille Considine, Sebastien Phan, Suyeon Ju, Marco Uytiepo, Mark Ellisman, Anton Maximov
Synaptic excitation mediates a broad spectrum of structural changes in neural circuits across the brain. Here, we examine the morphologies, wiring, and architectures of single synapses of projection neurons in the murine hippocampus that developed in virtually complete absence of vesicular glutamate release. While these neurons had smaller dendritic trees and/or formed fewer contacts in specific hippocampal subfields, their stereotyped connectivity was largely preserved. Furthermore, loss of release did not disrupt the morphogenesis of presynaptic terminals and dendritic spines, suggesting that glutamatergic neurotransmission is unnecessary for synapse assembly and maintenance...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424990/proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-in-mouse-models-of-trigeminal-neuralgia-and-inescapable-shock-induced-depression
#7
Qing-Huan Guo, Qing-He Tong, Ning Lu, Hong Cao, Liu Yang, Yu-Qiu Zhang
To investigate the behavioral and biomolecular similarity between neuralgia and depression, a trigeminal neuralgia (TN) mouse model was established by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) to mimic clinical trigeminal neuropathic pain. A mouse learned helplessness (LH) model was developed to investigate inescapable foot-shock-induced psychiatric disorders like depression in humans. Mass spectrometry was used to assess changes in the biomolecules and signaling pathways in the hippocampus from TN or LH mice...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416631/mutation-of-neuron-specific-chromatin-remodeling-subunit-baf53b-rescue-of-plasticity-and-memory-by-manipulating-actin-remodeling
#8
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Enikö A Kramár, Dina P Matheos, Robbert Havekes, Thekla J Hemstedt, Christophe N Magnan, Keith Sakata, Ashley Tran, Soraya Azzawi, Alberto Lopez, Richard Dang, Weisheng Wang, Brian Trieu, Joyce Tong, Ruth M Barrett, Rebecca J Post, Pierre Baldi, Ted Abel, Gary Lynch, Marcelo A Wood
Recent human exome-sequencing studies have implicated polymorphic Brg1-associated factor (BAF) complexes (mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes) in several intellectual disabilities and cognitive disorders, including autism. However, it remains unclear how mutations in BAF complexes result in impaired cognitive function. Post-mitotic neurons express a neuron-specific assembly, nBAF, characterized by the neuron-specific subunit BAF53b. Subdomain 2 of BAF53b is essential for the differentiation of neuronal precursor cells into neurons...
May 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386671/alzheimer-s-senile-plaque-as-shown-by-microcryodissection-a-new-technique-for-dissociating-tissue-structures
#9
Manon Thierry, Serge Marty, Susana Boluda, Charles Duyckaerts
Extracellular accumulation of Aβ peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins are the two hallmark lesions of Alzheimer disease (AD). The senile plaque is made of a core of extracellular Aβ surrounded by phospho-tau positive neurites. It includes multiple components such as axons, synapses, glial fibers and microglia. To visualize the relationships of those elements, an original technique was developed, based on the dilation of interstitial water during freezing. Samples of neocortex, hippocampus and striatum were taken from formalin-fixed brains (one control case; three cases with severe Alzheimer disease)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345095/a-simple-functional-carbon-nanotube-fiber-for-in-vivo-monitoring-of-no-in-a-rat-brain-following-cerebral-ischemia
#10
Li Liu, Limin Zhang, Zhihui Dai, Yang Tian
Nitric oxide (NO) is key free-radical messenger and neuronal signal which is closely related to many brain diseases. It is a challenge to develop a sensitive and reliable biosensor for in vivo monitoring of NO in the brain. In this research, a simple ratiometric electrochemical biosensor for NO monitoring in rat brain following cerebral ischemia was developed using a carbon nanotube fiber (CNF) modified with hemin, in which the CNF not only served as a platform to assemble the hemin molecule, but greatly facilitated the electron transfer of hemin on to the electrode surface...
May 2, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135266/memory-replay-in-balanced-recurrent-networks
#11
Nikolay Chenkov, Henning Sprekeler, Richard Kempter
Complex patterns of neural activity appear during up-states in the neocortex and sharp waves in the hippocampus, including sequences that resemble those during prior behavioral experience. The mechanisms underlying this replay are not well understood. How can small synaptic footprints engraved by experience control large-scale network activity during memory retrieval and consolidation? We hypothesize that sparse and weak synaptic connectivity between Hebbian assemblies are boosted by pre-existing recurrent connectivity within them...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112460/from-hippocampus-to-whole-brain-the-role-of-integrative-processing-in-episodic-memory-retrieval
#12
Benjamin R Geib, Matthew L Stanley, Nancy A Dennis, Marty G Woldorff, Roberto Cabeza
Multivariate functional connectivity analyses of neuroimaging data have revealed the importance of complex, distributed interactions between disparate yet interdependent brain regions. Recent work has shown that topological properties of functional brain networks are associated with individual and group differences in cognitive performance, including in episodic memory. After constructing functional whole-brain networks derived from an event-related fMRI study of memory retrieval, we examined differences in functional brain network architecture between forgotten and remembered words...
April 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086931/the-release-and-trans-synaptic-transmission-of-tau-via-exosomes
#13
Yipeng Wang, Varun Balaji, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Lars Krüger, Stephan Irsen, Katharina Tepper, RamReddy Chandupatla, Walter Maetzler, Anja Schneider, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Tau pathology in AD spreads in a hierarchical pattern, whereby it first appears in the entorhinal cortex, then spreads to the hippocampus and later to the surrounding areas. Based on this sequential appearance, AD can be classified into six stages ("Braak stages"). The mechanisms and agents underlying the progression of Tau pathology are a matter of debate. Emerging evidence indicates that the propagation of Tau pathology may be due to the transmission of Tau protein, but the underlying pathways and Tau species are not well understood...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059792/quantitative-comparison-of-dense-core-amyloid-plaque-accumulation-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-transgenic-mice
#14
Peng Liu, John H Reichl, Eshaan R Rao, Brittany M McNellis, Eric S Huang, Laura S Hemmy, Colleen L Forster, Michael A Kuskowski, David R Borchelt, Robert Vassar, Karen H Ashe, Kathleen R Zahs
There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#15
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003345/kctd-hetero-oligomers-confer-unique-kinetic-properties-on-hippocampal-gabab-receptor-induced-k-currents
#16
Thorsten Fritzius, Rostislav Turecek, Riad Seddik, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Jim Tiao, Pascal D Rem, Michaela Metz, Michaela Kralikova, Michel Bouvier, Martin Gassmann, Bernhard Bettler
GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, -12, -12b and -16 subunits (named after their T1 K(+)-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#17
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
April 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992175/label-free-electrochemical-biosensor-for-monitoring-of-chloride-ion-in-an-animal-model-of-alzhemier-s-disease
#18
Hui Dong, Limin Zhang, Wei Liu, Yang Tian
The potential damage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in brain function has attracted extensive attention. As the most common anion, Cl(-) has been indicated to play significant roles in brain diseases, particularly in the pathological process of AD. In this work, a label-free selective and accurate electrochemical biosensor was first developed for real-time monitoring of Cl(-) levels in a mouse brain model of AD and rat brain upon global cerebral ischemia. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were designed and synthesized as selective recognition element for Cl(-), while 5'-MB-GGCGCGATTTT-SH-3' (SH-DNA-MB, MB = methylene blue) was selected as an inner reference molecule for a built-in correction to avoid the effects from the complicated brain...
December 19, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974754/the-seahorse-genome-and-the-evolution-of-its-specialized-morphology
#19
Qiang Lin, Shaohua Fan, Yanhong Zhang, Meng Xu, Huixian Zhang, Yulan Yang, Alison P Lee, Joost M Woltering, Vydianathan Ravi, Helen M Gunter, Wei Luo, Zexia Gao, Zhi Wei Lim, Geng Qin, Ralf F Schneider, Xin Wang, Peiwen Xiong, Gang Li, Kai Wang, Jiumeng Min, Chi Zhang, Ying Qiu, Jie Bai, Weiming He, Chao Bian, Xinhui Zhang, Dai Shan, Hongyue Qu, Ying Sun, Qiang Gao, Liangmin Huang, Qiong Shi, Axel Meyer, Byrappa Venkatesh
Seahorses have a specialized morphology that includes a toothless tubular mouth, a body covered with bony plates, a male brood pouch, and the absence of caudal and pelvic fins. Here we report the sequencing and de novo assembly of the genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Comparative genomic analysis identifies higher protein and nucleotide evolutionary rates in H. comes compared with other teleost fish genomes. We identified an astacin metalloprotease gene family that has undergone expansion and is highly expressed in the male brood pouch...
December 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940600/the-prion-like-behavior-of-assembled-tau-in-transgenic-mice
#20
Florence Clavaguera, Markus Tolnay, Michel Goedert
Tauopathies constitute neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the intracellular deposition of filaments made of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The pattern of tau deposition in Alzheimer's disease follows a stereotypical progression, with the first lesions appearing in the locus coeruleus and entorhinal cortex, from where they appear to spread to the hippocampus and neocortex. Propagation of pathological tau is also characteristic of argyrophilic grain disease, where the lesions seem to spread through distinct regions of the limbic system...
December 9, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
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