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hippocampus assemblies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772381/high-gamma-activity-in-the-human-hippocampus-and-parahippocampus-during-inter-trial-rest-periods-of-a-virtual-navigation-task
#1
Yi Pu, Brian R Cornwell, Douglas Cheyne, Blake W Johnson
In rodents, hippocampal cell assemblies formed during learning of a navigation task are observed to re-emerge during resting (offline) periods, accompanied by high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). This phenomenon is believed to reflect mechanisms for strengthening newly-formed memory traces. Using magnetoencephalography recordings and a beamforming source location algorithm (synthetic aperture magnetometry), we investigated high-gamma (80-140 Hz) oscillations in the hippocampal region in 18 human participants during inter-trial rest periods in a virtual navigation task...
May 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709504/the-pleiotropic-transcriptional-regulator-coup-tfi-plays-multiple-roles-in-neural-development-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Michele Bertacchi, Josephine Parisot, Michèle Studer
Transcription factors are expressed in a dynamic fashion both in time and space during brain development, and exert their roles by activating a cascade of multiple target genes. This implies that understanding the precise function of a transcription factor becomes a challenging task. In this review, we will focus on COUP-TFI (or NR2F1), a nuclear receptor belonging to the superfamily of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptors, and considered to be one of the major transcriptional regulators orchestrating cortical arealization, cell-type specification and maturation...
April 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706992/nmda-receptor-subunits-change-after-synaptic-plasticity-induction-and-learning-and-memory-acquisition
#3
REVIEW
María Verónica Baez, Magalí Cecilia Cercato, Diana Alicia Jerusalinsky
NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are crucial in activity-dependent synaptic changes and in learning and memory. NMDARs are composed of two GluN1 essential subunits and two regulatory subunits which define their pharmacological and physiological profile. In CNS structures involved in cognitive functions as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, GluN2A and GluN2B are major regulatory subunits; their expression is dynamic and tightly regulated, but little is known about specific changes after plasticity induction or memory acquisition...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691421/parallel-detection-of-theta-and-respiration-coupled-oscillations-throughout-the-mouse-brain
#4
Adriano B L Tort, Simon Ponsel, Jakob Jessberger, Yevgenij Yanovsky, Jurij Brankačk, Andreas Draguhn
Slow brain oscillations are usually coherent over long distances and thought to link distributed cell assemblies. In mice, theta (5-10 Hz) stands as one of the most studied slow rhythms. However, mice often breathe at theta frequency, and we recently reported that nasal respiration leads to local field potential (LFP) oscillations that are independent of theta. Namely, we showed respiration-coupled oscillations in the hippocampus, prelimbic cortex, and parietal cortex, suggesting that respiration could impose a global brain rhythm...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673150/immunohistochemical-evidence-from-app-transgenic-mice-for-glutaminyl-cyclase-as-drug-target-to-diminish-pe-abeta-formation
#5
Maike Hartlage-Rübsamen, Alexandra Bluhm, Anke Piechotta, Miriam Linnert, Jens-Ulrich Rahfeld, Hans-Ulrich Demuth, Inge Lues, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Steffen Roßner, Corinna Höfling
Oligomeric assemblies of neurotoxic amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides generated by proteolytical processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In recent years, a substantial heterogeneity of Abeta peptides with distinct biophysical and cell biological properties has been demonstrated. Among these, a particularly neurotoxic and disease-specific Abeta variant is N-terminally truncated and modified to pyroglutamate (pE-Abeta). Cell biological and animal experimental studies imply the catalysis of this modification by the enzyme glutaminyl cyclase (QC)...
April 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548910/chronic-infusion-of-wnt7a-wnt5a-and-dkk-1-in-the-adult-hippocampus-induces-structural-synaptic-changes-and-modifies-anxiety-and-memory-performance
#6
Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
Wnt signaling plays an important role in the adult brain function and its dysregulation has been implicated in some neurodegenerative pathways. Despite the functional role of the Wnt signaling in adult neural circuits, there is currently no evidence regarding the relationships between exogenously Wnt signaling activation or inhibition and hippocampal structural changes in vivo. Thus, we analyzed the effect of the chronic infusion of Wnt agonists, Wnt7a and Wnt5a, and antagonist, Dkk-1, on different markers of plasticity such as neuronal MAP-2, Tau, synapse number and morphology, and behavioral changes...
March 13, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514614/novel-hemostatic-biomolecules-based-on-elastin-like-polypeptides-and-the-self-assembling-peptide-rada-16
#7
Shasha Yang, Sili Wei, Yun Mao, Hanxue Zheng, Juantao Feng, Jihong Cui, Xin Xie, Fulin Chen, Honmgmin Li
BACKGROUND: Safe and effective hemostatic materials are important for reducing mortality resulting from excessive hemorrhage. In this work, new biomaterials with hemostatic effects were created by fusing the gene coding for RADA-16, a self-assembling peptide with the sequence RADARADARADARADA, to the 3'-end of the open reading frame (ORF) encoding elastin-like polypeptides through gene recombination. RESULTS: The fusion proteins, termed 36R, 60R and 96R, were solubly over-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) based on genetic manipulation of the high-efficiency prokaryotic expression vector pET28a (+) and bacterial transformation...
March 7, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465896/insights-into-the-structure-and-function-of-the-hippocampal-formation-relevance-to-parkinson-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Orsolya Györfi, Helga Nagy, Magdolna Bokor, Szabolcs Kéri
The link between the hippocampus and declarative memory dysfunctions following the removal of the medial temporal lobe opened unexplored fields in neuroscience. In the first part of our review, we summarized current theoretical frameworks discussing the role of hippocampus in learning and memory. Several theories are highlighted suggesting that the hippocampus is responsible for assembling stimulus elements into a unitary representation that later can be utilized to simulate future events. The hippocampal formation has been implicated in a growing number of disorders, from neurodegenerative diseases to atypical cognitive ageing and depression...
January 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439327/stabilized-low-n-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-induce-robust-novel-object-recognition-deficits-associated-with-inflammatory-synaptic-and-gabaergic-dysfunction-in-the-rat
#9
William Watremez, Joshua Jackson, Bushra Almari, Samantha L McLean, Ben Grayson, Joanna C Neill, Nicolas Fischer, Ahmad Allouche, Violette Koziel, Thierry Pillot, Michael K Harte
BACKGROUND: With current treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) only providing temporary symptomatic benefits, disease modifying drugs are urgently required. This approach relies on improved understanding of the early pathophysiology of AD. A new hypothesis has emerged, in which early memory loss is considered a synapse failure caused by soluble amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). These small soluble Aβo, which precede the formation of larger fibrillar assemblies, may be the main cause of early AD pathologies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432809/seizure-progression-and-inflammatory-mediators-promote-pericytosis-and-pericyte-microglia-clustering-at-the-cerebrovasculature
#10
Wendy Klement, Rita Garbelli, Emma Zub, Laura Rossini, Laura Tassi, Benoit Girard, Marine Blaquiere, Federica Bertaso, Julie Perroy, Frederic de Bock, Nicola Marchi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation occur in epilepsy. Here we asked whether pericytes, a pivotal cellular component of brain capillaries, undergo pathological modifications during experimental epileptogenesis and in human epilepsy. We evaluated whether pro-inflammatory cytokines, present in the brain during seizures, contribute to pericyte morphological modifications. METHODS: In vivo, unilateral intra-hippocampal kainic acid (KA) injections were performed in NG2DsRed/C57BL6 mice to induce status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS)...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414938/teneurin-3-controls-topographic-circuit-assembly-in-the-hippocampus
#11
Dominic S Berns, Laura A DeNardo, Daniel T Pederick, Liqun Luo
Brain functions rely on specific patterns of connectivity. Teneurins are evolutionarily conserved transmembrane proteins that instruct synaptic partner matching in Drosophila and are required for vertebrate visual system development. The roles of vertebrate teneurins in connectivity beyond the visual system remain largely unknown and their mechanisms of action have not been demonstrated. Here we show that mouse teneurin-3 is expressed in multiple topographically interconnected areas of the hippocampal region, including proximal CA1, distal subiculum, and medial entorhinal cortex...
February 15, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376876/endogenous-murine-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptide-assembles-into-aggregates-in-the-aged-c57bl-6j-mouse-suggesting-these-animals-as-a-model-to-study-pathogenesis-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-plaque-formation
#12
Barbara Ahlemeyer, Sascha Halupczok, Elke Rodenberg-Frank, Klaus-Peter Valerius, Eveline Baumgart-Vogt
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), paired helical filament-tau (PHF-tau), and α-synuclein are in the focus of neuroscience research because they aggregate in brains of patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. For this purpose, transgenic mouse models were used containing the human genes for AβPP/presenilin/tau or α-synuclein with the most frequent mutations. This is not ideal because most patients develop sporadic forms of the diseases with no causative single gene defect and furthermore the aggregation of human proteins in man is not necessarily the same in rodents...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339476/coding-of-episodic-memory-in-the-human-hippocampus
#13
John T Wixted, Stephen D Goldinger, Larry R Squire, Joel R Kuhn, Megan H Papesh, Kris A Smith, David M Treiman, Peter N Steinmetz
Neurocomputational models have long posited that episodic memories in the human hippocampus are represented by sparse, stimulus-specific neural codes. A concomitant proposal is that when sparse-distributed neural assemblies become active, they suppress the activity of competing neurons (neural sharpening). We investigated episodic memory coding in the hippocampus and amygdala by measuring single-neuron responses from 20 epilepsy patients (12 female) undergoing intracranial monitoring while they completed a continuous recognition memory task...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261717/probing-the-putative-%C3%AE-7-nachr-nmdar-complex-in-human-and-murine-cortex-and-hippocampus-different-degrees-of-complex-formation-in-healthy-and-alzheimer-brain-tissue
#14
Mohamed R Elnagar, Anne Byriel Walls, Gouda K Helal, Farid M Hamada, Morten Skøtt Thomsen, Anders A Jensen
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of central cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In addition to numerous well-established functional interactions between α7 nAChRs and NMDARs, the two receptors have been proposed to form a multimeric complex, and in the present study we have investigated this putative α7 nAChR/NMDAR assembly in human and murine brain tissues. By α-bungarotoxin (BGT) affinity purification, α7 and NMDAR subunits were co-purified from human and murine cortical and hippocampal homogenates, substantiating the notion that the receptors are parts of a multimeric complex in the human and rodent brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#15
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193067/the-role-of-s-nitrosylation-of-kainate-type-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-2-in-epilepsy-induced-by-kainic-acid
#16
Linxiao Wang, Yanyan Liu, Rulan Lu, Guoying Dong, Xia Chen, Wenwei Yun, Xianju Zhou
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease affecting millions of individuals. Kainate receptors, especially kainate-type of ionotropic glutamate receptor 2 (GluK2), play an important role in epileptogenesis. Recent data showed that GluK2 could undergo post-translational modifications in terms of S-nitrosylation (SNO), and affect the signaling pathway of cell death in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. However, it is unclear whether S-nitrosylation of GluK2 (SNO-GluK2) contributes to cell death induced by epilepsy. Here, we report that kainic acid-induced SNO-GluK2 is mediated by GluK2 itself, regulated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the level of cytoplasmic calcium in vivo and in vitro hippocampus neurons...
February 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986871/selective-cell-surface-expression-of-triheteromeric-nmda-receptors
#17
Feng Yi, Stephen F Traynelis, Kasper B Hansen
The NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors play pivotal roles in many brain functions, but are also involved in numerous brain disorders. Seven NMDA receptor subunits exist (GluN1, GluN2A-D, and GluN3A-B) that assemble into a diverse array of tetrameric receptor subtypes with distinct functional properties and physiological roles. Most NMDA receptors are composed of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, which can assemble into four diheteromeric receptor subtypes composed of GluN1 and one type of GluN2 subunit (e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935861/correlation-profiling-of-brain-sub-cellular-proteomes-reveals-co-assembly-of-synaptic-proteins-and-subcellular-distribution
#18
Nikhil J Pandya, Frank Koopmans, Johan A Slotman, Iryna Paliukhovich, Adriaan B Houtsmuller, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Protein correlation profiling might assist in defining co-assembled proteins and subcellular distribution. Here, we quantified the proteomes of five biochemically isolated mouse brain cellular sub-fractions, with emphasis on synaptic compartments, from three brain regions, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum. We demonstrated the expected co-fractionation of canonical synaptic proteins belonging to the same functional groups. The enrichment profiles also suggested the presence of many novel pre- and post-synaptic proteins...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#19
Zhi Yong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) and require initial excitation of CA1 PCs as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
January 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904534/three-dimensional-organoid-system-transplantation-technologies-in-future-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#20
REVIEW
NaiLi Wei, ZiFang Quan, Hailiang Tang, JianHong Zhu
In recent years, scientists have made great achievements in understanding the development of human brain and elucidating critical elements of stepwise spatiotemporal control strategies in neural stem cell specification lineage, which facilitates successful induction of neural organoid in vitro including the cerebral cortex, cerebellar, neural tube, hippocampus cortex, pituitary, and optic cup. Besides, emerging researches on neural organogenesis promote the application of 3D organoid system transplantation in treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases...
2017: Stem Cells International
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