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hippocampus assemblies

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135266/memory-replay-in-balanced-recurrent-networks
#1
Nikolay Chenkov, Henning Sprekeler, Richard Kempter
Complex patterns of neural activity appear during up-states in the neocortex and sharp waves in the hippocampus, including sequences that resemble those during prior behavioral experience. The mechanisms underlying this replay are not well understood. How can small synaptic footprints engraved by experience control large-scale network activity during memory retrieval and consolidation? We hypothesize that sparse and weak synaptic connectivity between Hebbian assemblies are boosted by pre-existing recurrent connectivity within them...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112460/from-hippocampus-to-whole-brain-the-role-of-integrative-processing-in-episodic-memory-retrieval
#2
Benjamin R Geib, Matthew L Stanley, Nancy A Dennis, Marty G Woldorff, Roberto Cabeza
Multivariate functional connectivity analyses of neuroimaging data have revealed the importance of complex, distributed interactions between disparate yet interdependent brain regions. Recent work has shown that topological properties of functional brain networks are associated with individual and group differences in cognitive performance, including in episodic memory. After constructing functional whole-brain networks derived from an event-related fMRI study of memory retrieval, we examined differences in functional brain network architecture between forgotten and remembered words...
January 23, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086931/the-release-and-trans-synaptic-transmission-of-tau-via-exosomes
#3
Yipeng Wang, Varun Balaji, Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan, Lars Krüger, Stephan Irsen, Katharina Tepper, RamReddy Chandupatla, Walter Maetzler, Anja Schneider, Eckhard Mandelkow, Eva-Maria Mandelkow
BACKGROUND: Tau pathology in AD spreads in a hierarchical pattern, whereby it first appears in the entorhinal cortex, then spreads to the hippocampus and later to the surrounding areas. Based on this sequential appearance, AD can be classified into six stages ("Braak stages"). The mechanisms and agents underlying the progression of Tau pathology are a matter of debate. Emerging evidence indicates that the propagation of Tau pathology may be due to the transmission of Tau protein, but the underlying pathways and Tau species are not well understood...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059792/quantitative-comparison-of-dense-core-amyloid-plaque-accumulation-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-protein-precursor-transgenic-mice
#4
Peng Liu, John H Reichl, Eshaan R Rao, Brittany M McNellis, Eric S Huang, Laura S Hemmy, Colleen L Forster, Michael A Kuskowski, David R Borchelt, Robert Vassar, Karen H Ashe, Kathleen R Zahs
There exist several dozen lines of transgenic mice that express human amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) with Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked mutations. AβPP transgenic mouse lines differ in the types and amounts of Aβ that they generate and in their spatiotemporal patterns of expression of Aβ assemblies, providing a toolkit to study Aβ amyloidosis and the influence of Aβ aggregation on brain function. More complete quantitative descriptions of the types of Aβ assemblies present in transgenic mice and in humans during disease progression should add to our understanding of how Aβ toxicity in mice relates to the pathogenesis of AD...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057866/evidence-for-opposing-roles-of-celsr3-and-vangl2-in-glutamatergic-synapse-formation
#5
Sonal Thakar, Liqing Wang, Ting Yu, Mao Ye, Keisuke Onishi, John Scott, Jiaxuan Qi, Catarina Fernandes, Xuemei Han, John R Yates, Darwin K Berg, Yimin Zou
The signaling mechanisms that choreograph the assembly of the highly asymmetric pre- and postsynaptic structures are still poorly defined. Using synaptosome fractionation, immunostaining, and coimmunoprecipitation, we found that Celsr3 and Vangl2, core components of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, are localized at developing glutamatergic synapses and interact with key synaptic proteins. Pyramidal neurons from the hippocampus of Celsr3 knockout mice exhibit loss of ∼50% of glutamatergic synapses, but not inhibitory synapses, in culture...
January 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003345/kctd-hetero-oligomers-confer-unique-kinetic-properties-on-hippocampal-gabab-receptor-induced-k-currents
#6
Thorsten Fritzius, Rostislav Turecek, Riad Seddik, Hiroyuki Kobayashi, Jim Tiao, Pascal D Rem, Michaela Metz, Michaela Kralikova, Michel Bouvier, Martin Gassmann, Bernhard Bettler
: GABAB receptors are the G-protein coupled receptors for the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABAB receptors were shown to associate with homo-oligomers of auxiliary KCTD8, -12, -12b and -16 subunits (named after their T1 K(+)-channel tetramerization domain) that regulate G-protein signaling of the receptor. Here we provide evidence that GABAB receptors also associate with hetero-oligomers of KCTD subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that two-thirds of the KCTD16 proteins in the hippocampus of adult mice associate with KCTD12...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997999/behavior-dependent-activity-patterns-of-gabaergic-long-range-projecting-neurons-in-the-rat-hippocampus
#7
Linda Katona, Ben Micklem, Zsolt Borhegyi, Daniel A Swiejkowski, Ornella Valenti, Tim J Viney, Dimitrios Kotzadimitriou, Thomas Klausberger, Peter Somogyi
Long-range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O-LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin-labeling in freely moving rats...
December 20, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992175/label-free-electrochemical-biosensor-for-monitoring-of-chloride-ion-in-an-animal-model-of-alzhemier-s-disease
#8
Hui Dong, Limin Zhang, Wei Liu, Yang Tian
The potential damage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in brain function has attracted extensive attention. As the most common anion, Cl(-) has been indicated to play significant roles in brain diseases, particularly in the pathological process of AD. In this work, a label-free selective and accurate electrochemical biosensor was first developed for real-time monitoring of Cl(-) levels in a mouse brain model of AD and rat brain upon global cerebral ischemia. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were designed and synthesized as selective recognition element for Cl(-), while 5'-MB-GGCGCGATTTT-SH-3' (SH-DNA-MB, MB = methylene blue) was selected as an inner reference molecule for a built-in correction to avoid the effects from the complicated brain...
December 19, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974754/the-seahorse-genome-and-the-evolution-of-its-specialized-morphology
#9
Qiang Lin, Shaohua Fan, Yanhong Zhang, Meng Xu, Huixian Zhang, Yulan Yang, Alison P Lee, Joost M Woltering, Vydianathan Ravi, Helen M Gunter, Wei Luo, Zexia Gao, Zhi Wei Lim, Geng Qin, Ralf F Schneider, Xin Wang, Peiwen Xiong, Gang Li, Kai Wang, Jiumeng Min, Chi Zhang, Ying Qiu, Jie Bai, Weiming He, Chao Bian, Xinhui Zhang, Dai Shan, Hongyue Qu, Ying Sun, Qiang Gao, Liangmin Huang, Qiong Shi, Axel Meyer, Byrappa Venkatesh
Seahorses have a specialized morphology that includes a toothless tubular mouth, a body covered with bony plates, a male brood pouch, and the absence of caudal and pelvic fins. Here we report the sequencing and de novo assembly of the genome of the tiger tail seahorse, Hippocampus comes. Comparative genomic analysis identifies higher protein and nucleotide evolutionary rates in H. comes compared with other teleost fish genomes. We identified an astacin metalloprotease gene family that has undergone expansion and is highly expressed in the male brood pouch...
December 14, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940600/the-prion-like-behavior-of-assembled-tau-in-transgenic-mice
#10
Florence Clavaguera, Markus Tolnay, Michel Goedert
Tauopathies constitute neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the intracellular deposition of filaments made of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. The pattern of tau deposition in Alzheimer's disease follows a stereotypical progression, with the first lesions appearing in the locus coeruleus and entorhinal cortex, from where they appear to spread to the hippocampus and neocortex. Propagation of pathological tau is also characteristic of argyrophilic grain disease, where the lesions seem to spread through distinct regions of the limbic system...
December 9, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917146/a-unified-theoretical-framework-for-cognitive-sequencing
#11
Tejas Savalia, Anuj Shukla, Raju S Bapi
The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit vs. explicit and goal-directed vs. habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880004/causal-relationships-among-neurons-of-the-nucleus-incertus-and-the-hippocampal-theta-activity-in-the-rat
#12
Sergio Martínez-Bellver, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Aina Luque-García, Joana Martínez-Ricós, Alfonso Valverde-Navarro, Manuel Bataller, Juan Guerrero, Vicent Teruel-Marti
In recent years, a body of evidence has shown that the nucleus incertus (NI), in the dorsal tegmental pons, is a key node of the brainstem circuitry involved in hippocampal theta rhythmicity. Ascending reticular brainstem system activation evokes hippocampal theta rhythm with coupled neuronal activity in the NI. In a recent paper, we showed three populations of neurons in the NI with differential firings during hippocampal theta activation. The objective of this work is to better evaluate the causal relationship between the activity of NI neurons and the hippocampus during theta activation in order to further understand the role of the NI in the theta network...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822649/ultrasensitive-and-facile-electrochemical-detection-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-rat-brain-microdialysate-based-on-competitive-binding-reaction
#13
Bo Li, Lin Li, Keqing Wang, Chao Wang, Linlin Zhang, Kun Liu, Yuqing Lin
In this study, a sensitive and facile method with wide linear range and low detection limit for detecting hydrogen sulfide in rat brain microdialysate was developed. The design of the sensor is based on the competitive binding reaction principle, in which cysteine was self-assembly immobilized on the surface of gold electrode, and then the Cu(2+) as the electrochemical probe was anchored to the cysteine film through coordination bonding with carboxyl (-COOH) and amino group (-NH2) to form the Cu(2+)/Cys/Au electrode...
November 7, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805868/ovariectomy-alters-gene-expression-of-the-hippocampal-formation-in-middle-aged-rats
#14
Miklós Sárvári, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky, Norbert Solymosi, Zsolt Liposits
Ovarian hormones regulate the transcriptome of the hippocampus and modulate its functions. During menopause this complex signaling declines, leading to impaired learning and memory. This study was undertaken to clarify the effects of long-term, surgical ovariectomy (OVX) on the rat hippocampal transcriptome. At age of 13 months, intact control and ovariectomized groups were formed. All animals were sacrificed 5 weeks after gonadectomy, hippocampal formations were dissected and processed for transcriptome analysis...
November 2, 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799303/different-doublecortin-dcx-patient-alleles-show-distinct-phenotypes-in-cultured-neurons-evidence-for-divergent-loss-of-function-and-off-pathway-cellular-mechanisms
#15
Chan Choo Yap, Laura Digilio, Lloyd McMahon, Matylda Roszkowska, Christopher J Bott, Kamil Kruczek, Bettina Winckler
Doublecortin on the X-chromosome (DCX) is a neuronal microtubule-binding protein with a multitude of roles in neurodevelopment. In humans, DCX is a major genetic locus for X-linked lissencephaly. The best studied defects are in neuronal migration during corticogenesis and in the hippocampus, as well as axon and dendrite growth defects. Much effort has been directed at understanding the molecular and cellular bases of DCX-linked lissencephaly. The focus has been in particular on defects in microtubule assembly and bundling, using knock-out mice and expression of WT and mutant Dcx in non-neuronal cells...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636199/gamma-synchronization-influences-map-formation-time-in-a-topological-model-of-spatial-learning
#16
Edward Basso, Mamiko Arai, Yuri Dabaghian
The mammalian hippocampus plays a crucial role in producing a cognitive map of space-an internalized representation of the animal's environment. We have previously shown that it is possible to model this map formation using a topological framework, in which information about the environment is transmitted through the temporal organization of neuronal spiking activity, particularly those occasions in which the firing of different place cells overlaps. In this paper, we discuss how gamma rhythm, one of the main components of the extracellular electrical field potential affects the efficiency of place cell map formation...
September 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634534/awake-hippocampal-reactivations-project-onto-orthogonal-neuronal-assemblies
#17
Arnaud Malvache, Susanne Reichinnek, Vincent Villette, Caroline Haimerl, Rosa Cossart
The chained activation of neuronal assemblies is thought to support major cognitive processes, including memory. In the hippocampus, this is observed during population bursts often associated with sharp-wave ripples, in the form of an ordered reactivation of neurons. However, the organization and lifetime of these assemblies remain unknown. We used calcium imaging to map patterns of synchronous neuronal activation in the CA1 region of awake mice during runs on a treadmill. The patterns were composed of the recurring activation of anatomically intermingled, but functionally orthogonal, assemblies...
16, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473321/synaptic-adhesion-molecules-regulate-the-integration-of-new-granule-neurons-in-the-postnatal-mouse-hippocampus-and-their-impact-on-spatial-memory
#18
Marine Krzisch, Christine Fülling, Laura Jabinet, Jan Armida, Elias Gebara, Frédéric Cassé, Samia Habbas, Andrea Volterra, Jean-Pierre Hornung, Nicolas Toni
Postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis induces network remodeling and may participate to mechanisms of learning. In turn, the maturation and survival of newborn neurons is regulated by their activity. Here, we tested the effect of a cell-autonomous overexpression of synaptic adhesion molecules on the maturation and survival of neurons born postnatally and on hippocampal-dependent memory performances. Families of adhesion molecules are known to induce pre- and post-synaptic assembly. Using viral targeting, we overexpressed three different synaptic adhesion molecules, SynCAM1, Neuroligin-1B and Neuroligin-2A in newborn neurons in the dentate gyrus of 7- to 9-week-old mice...
July 29, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353207/neuroprotective-effects-of-engineered-polymeric-nasal-microspheres-containing-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-on-%C3%AE-amyloid-1-42-induced-toxicity
#19
Ayfer Yalcin, Elena Soddu, Ezgi Turunc Bayrakdar, Yigit Uyanikgil, Lutfiye Kanit, Guliz Armagan, Giovanna Rassu, Elisabetta Gavini, Paolo Giunchedi
β-Amyloid (Aβ) plaques are the key neurotoxic assemblies in Alzheimer disease. It has been suggested that an interaction occurs between membrane cholesterol and Aβ aggregation in the brain. Cyclodextrins can remove cholesterol from cell membranes and change receptor function. This study aimed to investigate the effect of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-CD) polymeric microspheres, based on chitosan or sodium alginate, on the levels of lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial function in brain synaptosomes...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312850/a-model-of-topological-mapping-of-space-in-bat-hippocampus
#20
Kentaro Hoffman, Andrey Babichev, Yuri Dabaghian
The mammalian hippocampus plays a key role in spatial learning and memory, but the exact nature of the hippocampal representation of space is still being explored. Recently, there has been a fair amount of success in modeling hippocampal spatial maps in rats, assuming a topological perspective on spatial information processing. In this article, we use the topological approach to study the formation of a 3D spatial map in bats, which produces several insights into neurophysiological mechanisms of the hippocampal spatial leaning...
October 2016: Hippocampus
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