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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339476/coding-of-episodic-memory-in-the-human-hippocampus
#1
John T Wixted, Stephen D Goldinger, Larry R Squire, Joel R Kuhn, Megan H Papesh, Kris A Smith, David M Treiman, Peter N Steinmetz
Neurocomputational models have long posited that episodic memories in the human hippocampus are represented by sparse, stimulus-specific neural codes. A concomitant proposal is that when sparse-distributed neural assemblies become active, they suppress the activity of competing neurons (neural sharpening). We investigated episodic memory coding in the hippocampus and amygdala by measuring single-neuron responses from 20 epilepsy patients (12 female) undergoing intracranial monitoring while they completed a continuous recognition memory task...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261717/probing-the-putative-%C3%AE-7-nachr-nmdar-complex-in-human-and-murine-cortex-and-hippocampus-different-degrees-of-complex-formation-in-healthy-and-alzheimer-brain-tissue
#2
Mohamed R Elnagar, Anne Byriel Walls, Gouda K Helal, Farid M Hamada, Morten Skøtt Thomsen, Anders A Jensen
α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are key mediators of central cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In addition to numerous well-established functional interactions between α7 nAChRs and NMDARs, the two receptors have been proposed to form a multimeric complex, and in the present study we have investigated this putative α7 nAChR/NMDAR assembly in human and murine brain tissues. By α-bungarotoxin (BGT) affinity purification, α7 and NMDAR subunits were co-purified from human and murine cortical and hippocampal homogenates, substantiating the notion that the receptors are parts of a multimeric complex in the human and rodent brain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233654/trophic-modulation-of-gamma-oscillations-the-key-role-of-processing-protease-for-neuregulin-1-and-bdnf-precursors
#3
Hideki Tamura, Sadao Shiosaka, Shota Morikawa
Gamma oscillations within the cerebral cortex and hippocampus are associated with cognitive processes, including attention, sensory perception, and memory formation; a deficit in gamma regulation is a common symptom of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Accumulating evidence has suggested that gamma oscillations result from the synchronized activity of cell assemblies coordinated mainly by parvalbumin-positive inhibitory interneurons. The modulator molecules for parvalbumin-positive interneurons are major research targets and have the potential to control the specific oscillatory rhythm and behavior originating from neural coordination...
December 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193067/the-role-of-s-nitrosylation-of-kainate-type-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-2-in-epilepsy-induced-by-kainic-acid
#4
Linxiao Wang, Yanyan Liu, Rulan Lu, Guoying Dong, Xia Chen, Wenwei Yun, Xianju Zhou
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease affecting millions of individuals. Kainate receptors, especially kainate-type of ionotropic glutamate receptor 2 (GluK2), play an important role in epileptogenesis. Recent data showed that GluK2 could undergo post-translational modifications in terms of S-nitrosylation (SNO), and affect the signaling pathway of cell death in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. However, it is unclear whether S-nitrosylation of GluK2 (SNO-GluK2) contributes to cell death induced by epilepsy. Here, we report that kainic acid-induced SNO-GluK2 is mediated by GluK2 itself, regulated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the level of cytoplasmic calcium in vivo and in vitro hippocampus neurons...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986871/selective-cell-surface-expression-of-triheteromeric-nmda-receptors
#5
Feng Yi, Stephen F Traynelis, Kasper B Hansen
The NMDA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors play pivotal roles in many brain functions, but are also involved in numerous brain disorders. Seven NMDA receptor subunits exist (GluN1, GluN2A-D, and GluN3A-B) that assemble into a diverse array of tetrameric receptor subtypes with distinct functional properties and physiological roles. Most NMDA receptors are composed of two GluN1 and two GluN2 subunits, which can assemble into four diheteromeric receptor subtypes composed of GluN1 and one type of GluN2 subunit (e...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935861/correlation-profiling-of-brain-sub-cellular-proteomes-reveals-co-assembly-of-synaptic-proteins-and-subcellular-distribution
#6
Nikhil J Pandya, Frank Koopmans, Johan A Slotman, Iryna Paliukhovich, Adriaan B Houtsmuller, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Protein correlation profiling might assist in defining co-assembled proteins and subcellular distribution. Here, we quantified the proteomes of five biochemically isolated mouse brain cellular sub-fractions, with emphasis on synaptic compartments, from three brain regions, hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum. We demonstrated the expected co-fractionation of canonical synaptic proteins belonging to the same functional groups. The enrichment profiles also suggested the presence of many novel pre- and post-synaptic proteins...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921856/disruption-of-perineuronal-nets-increases-the-frequency-of-sharp-wave-ripple-events
#7
Zhi Yong Sun, P Lorenzo Bozzelli, Adam Caccavano, Megan Allen, Jason Balmuth, Stefano Vicini, Jian-Young Wu, Katherine Conant
Hippocampal sharp wave ripples (SWRs) represent irregularly occurring synchronous neuronal population events that are observed during phases of rest and slow wave sleep. SWR activity that follows learning involves sequential replay of training-associated neuronal assemblies and is critical for systems level memory consolidation. SWRs are initiated by CA2 or CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs) and require initial excitation of CA1 PCs as well as participation of parvalbumin (PV) expressing fast spiking (FS) inhibitory interneurons...
September 16, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904534/three-dimensional-organoid-system-transplantation-technologies-in-future-treatment-of-central-nervous-system-diseases
#8
REVIEW
NaiLi Wei, ZiFang Quan, Hailiang Tang, JianHong Zhu
In recent years, scientists have made great achievements in understanding the development of human brain and elucidating critical elements of stepwise spatiotemporal control strategies in neural stem cell specification lineage, which facilitates successful induction of neural organoid in vitro including the cerebral cortex, cerebellar, neural tube, hippocampus cortex, pituitary, and optic cup. Besides, emerging researches on neural organogenesis promote the application of 3D organoid system transplantation in treating central nervous system (CNS) diseases...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898248/place-field-assembly-distribution-encodes-preferred-locations
#9
Omar Mamad, Lars Stumpp, Harold M McNamara, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Richard B Reilly, Marian Tsanov
The hippocampus is the main locus of episodic memory formation and the neurons there encode the spatial map of the environment. Hippocampal place cells represent location, but their role in the learning of preferential location remains unclear. The hippocampus may encode locations independently from the stimuli and events that are associated with these locations. We have discovered a unique population code for the experience-dependent value of the context. The degree of reward-driven navigation preference highly correlates with the spatial distribution of the place fields recorded in the CA1 region of the hippocampus...
September 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890054/home-cage-odors-spatial-cues-elicit-theta-phase-gamma-amplitude-coupling-between-olfactory-bulb-and-dorsal-hippocampus
#10
Roberta Ribas Pena, Daniel de Castro Medeiros, Leonardo de Oliveira Guarnieri, Julio Boriollo Guerra, Vinícius Rezende Carvalho, Eduardo Mazoni Andrade Marçal Mendes, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Márcio Flávio Dutra Moraes
The brain oscillations may play a critical role in synchronizing neuronal assemblies in order to establish appropriate sensory-motor integration. In fact, studies have demonstrated phase-amplitude coupling of distinct oscillatory rhythms during cognitive processes. Here we investigated whether olfacto-hippocampal coupling occurs when mice are detecting familiar odors located in a spatially restricted area of a new context. The spatial olfactory task (SOT) was designed to expose mice to a new environment in which only one quadrant (target) contains odors provided by its own home-cage bedding...
November 5, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790178/heteromeric-channels-formed-by-trpc1-trpc4-and-trpc5-define-hippocampal-synaptic-transmission-and-working-memory
#11
Jenny Bröker-Lai, Astrid Kollewe, Barbara Schindeldecker, Jörg Pohle, Vivan Nguyen Chi, Ilka Mathar, Raul Guzman, Yvonne Schwarz, Alan Lai, Petra Weißgerber, Herbert Schwegler, Alexander Dietrich, Martin Both, Rolf Sprengel, Andreas Draguhn, Georg Köhr, Bernd Fakler, Veit Flockerzi, Dieter Bruns, Marc Freichel
Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels influence various neuronal functions. Using quantitative high-resolution mass spectrometry, we demonstrate that TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC5 assemble into heteromultimers with each other, but not with other TRP family members in the mouse brain and hippocampus. In hippocampal neurons from Trpc1/Trpc4/Trpc5-triple-knockout (Trpc1/4/5(-/-)) mice, lacking any TRPC1-, TRPC4-, or TRPC5-containing channels, action potential-triggered excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were significantly reduced, whereas frequency, amplitude, and kinetics of quantal miniature EPSC signaling remained unchanged...
September 15, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774647/discrimination-of-a-medial-functional-module-within-the-temporal-lobe-using-an-effective-connectivity-model-a-ccep-study
#12
Julien Krieg, Laurent Koessler, Jacques Jonas, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Christian G Bénar, Louis G Maillard
The temporal lobe is classically divided in two functional systems: the ventral visual pathway and the medial temporal memory system. However, their functional separation has been challenged by studies suggesting that the medial temporal lobe could be best understood as an extension of the hierarchically organized ventral visual pathway. Our purpose was to investigate (i) whether cerebral regions within the temporal lobe could be grouped into distinct functional assemblies, and (ii) which regions were central within these functional assemblies...
November 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751664/afferent-specific-role-of-nmda-receptors-for-the-circuit-integration-of-hippocampal-neurogliaform-cells
#13
R Chittajallu, J C Wester, M T Craig, E Barksdale, X Q Yuan, G Akgül, C Fang, D Collins, S Hunt, K A Pelkey, C J McBain
Appropriate integration of GABAergic interneurons into nascent cortical circuits is critical for ensuring normal information processing within the brain. Network and cognitive deficits associated with neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia, that result from NMDA receptor-hypofunction have been mainly attributed to dysfunction of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons that paradoxically express low levels of synaptic NMDA receptors. Here, we reveal that throughout postnatal development, thalamic, and entorhinal cortical inputs onto hippocampal neurogliaform cells are characterized by a large NMDA receptor-mediated component...
July 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628102/regulation-of-body-weight-and-energy-homeostasis-by-neuronal-cell-adhesion-molecule-1
#14
Thomas Rathjen, Xin Yan, Natalia L Kononenko, Min-Chi Ku, Kun Song, Leiron Ferrarese, Valentina Tarallo, Dmytro Puchkov, Gaga Kochlamazashvili, Sebastian Brachs, Luis Varela, Klara Szigeti-Buck, Chun-Xia Yi, Sonja C Schriever, Sudhir Gopal Tattikota, Anne Sophie Carlo, Mirko Moroni, Jan Siemens, Arnd Heuser, Louise van der Weyden, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Thoralf Niendorf, James F A Poulet, Tamas L Horvath, Matthias H Tschöp, Matthias Heinig, Mirko Trajkovski, Volker Haucke, Matthew N Poy
Susceptibility to obesity is linked to genes regulating neurotransmission, pancreatic beta-cell function and energy homeostasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified associations between body mass index and two loci near cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2), which encode membrane proteins that mediate synaptic assembly. We found that these respective risk variants associate with increased CADM1 and CADM2 expression in the hypothalamus of human subjects. Expression of both genes was elevated in obese mice, and induction of Cadm1 in excitatory neurons facilitated weight gain while exacerbating energy expenditure...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602691/temporal-and-rate-coding-for-discrete-event-sequences-in-the-hippocampus
#15
Satoshi Terada, Yoshio Sakurai, Hiroyuki Nakahara, Shigeyoshi Fujisawa
Although the hippocampus is critical to episodic memory, neuronal representations supporting this role, especially relating to nonspatial information, remain elusive. Here, we investigated rate and temporal coding of hippocampal CA1 neurons in rats performing a cue-combination task that requires the integration of sequentially provided sound and odor cues. The majority of CA1 neurons displayed sensory cue-, combination-, or choice-specific (simply, "event"-specific) elevated discharge activities, which were sustained throughout the event period...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593904/on-the-data-stirring-role-of-the-dentate-gyrus-of-the-hippocampus
#16
REVIEW
Charles R Legéndy
Understanding hippocampal (HC) function, as it is presently known, includes exploring the HC role in episodic memory storage. As pointed out by Teyler and DiScenna in the 1980s, the apparatus needed for recalling a stored episode, and awakening all its components in a coordinated manner, by necessity includes a triggering device able to reach each of the mental entities that must be awakened. In the context of neuronal networks, the triggering device in question takes the form of a large cell assembly, a separate one made for every new episode stored...
July 26, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558154/theta-paced-flickering-between-place-cell-maps-in-the-hippocampus-a-model-based-on-short-term-synaptic-plasticity
#17
Shirley Mark, Sandro Romani, Karel Jezek, Misha Tsodyks
Hippocampal place cells represent different environments with distinct neural activity patterns. Following an abrupt switch between two familiar configurations of visual cues defining two environments, the hippocampal neural activity pattern switches almost immediately to the corresponding representation. Surprisingly, during a transient period following the switch to the new environment, occasional fast transitions between the two activity patterns (flickering) were observed (Jezek, Henriksen, Treves, Moser, & Moser, )...
September 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551776/targeted-deletion-of-aqp4-promotes-the-formation-of-astrocytic-gap-junctions
#18
Shirin Katoozi, Nadia Skauli, Soulmaz Rahmani, Laura M A Camassa, Henning B Boldt, Ole P Ottersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain and is expressed in high density in astrocytes. By fluxing water along osmotic gradients, AQP4 contributes to brain volume and ion homeostasis. Here we ask whether deletion of Aqp4 leads to upregulation of the gap junctional proteins connexin-43 (Cx43) and connexin-30 (Cx30). These molecules couple adjacent astrocytes to each other and allow water and ions to redistribute within the astrocyte syncytium. Immunogold analysis of parietal cortex and hippocampus showed that the number of gap junctions per capillary profile is increased in AQP4 knockout (AQP4 KO) mice...
May 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548044/falcon-a-highly-flexible-open-source-software-for-closed-loop-neuroscience
#19
Davide Ciliberti, Fabian Kloosterman
OBJECTIVE: Closed-loop experiments provide unique insights into brain dynamics and function. To facilitate a wide range of closed-loop experiments, we created an open-source software platform that enables high-performance real-time processing of streaming experimental data. APPROACH: We wrote Falcon, a C++ multi-threaded software in which the user can load and execute an arbitrary processing graph. Each node of a Falcon graph is mapped to a single thread and nodes communicate with each other through thread-safe buffers...
August 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486969/activation-of-p2x7-receptor-and-nlrp3-inflammasome-assembly-in-hippocampal-glial-cells-mediates-chronic-stress-induced-depressive-like-behaviors
#20
Na Yue, Huijie Huang, Xiaocang Zhu, Qiuqin Han, Yalin Wang, Bing Li, Qiong Liu, Gencheng Wu, Yuqiu Zhang, Jin Yu
BACKGROUND: In recent years, proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was considered to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of depression. In addition, P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a member of the purinergic receptor family, which is predominantly present on microglia, as well as on astrocytes and neurons in lesser amounts in the central nervous system, was suggested to be involved in the processing and releasing of IL-1β. Here, we investigated the role of P2X7R in the pathogenesis of depression...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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