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Dasol Lee, Minkyung Kim, Sunae So, Inki Kim, Gwanho Yoon, Kyunghoon Kim, Junsuk Rho
The use of super-resolution imaging to overcome the diffraction limit of conventional microscopy has attracted the interest of researchers in biology and nanotechnology. Although near-field scanning microscopy and superlenses have improved the resolution in the near-field region, far-field imaging in real-time remains a significant challenge. Recently, the hyperlens, which magnifies and converts evanescent waves into propagating waves, has emerged as a novel approach to far-field imaging. Here, we report the fabrication of a spherical hyperlens composed of alternating silver (Ag) and titanium oxide (TiO2) thin layers...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ziqian Tang, Linghong Lu, Zhongyang Dai, Wenlong Xie, Lili Shi, Xiaohua Lu
Based on our previous experimental research, we studied the absorption of CO2 in the ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([hmim][Tf2N] ), immobilized on TiO2 [rutile (110) ] with different thickness by molecular dynamics simulation. The effects of the properties (hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity) of solid interfaces were also studied with IL immobilized on graphite and TiO2 respectively. We studied the influence of the thickness of IL immobilized on TiO2 on the absorption of CO2 via structural and dynamical properties...
September 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Qi Luo, Chenxi Zhang, Xueshuang Deng, Hongbing Zhu, Zhiqiang Li, Zengbo Wang, Xiaohong Chen, Sumei Huang
We report the systematic design and formation of plasmonic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by integrating Au@TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) into porous TiO2 and/or perovskite semiconductor capping layers. The plasmonic effects in the formed PSCs are examined. The most efficient configuration is obtained by incorporating Au@TiO2 NPs into both the porous TiO2 and the perovskite capping layers, which increases the power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 12.59 % to 18.24 %, demonstrating over 44% enhancement, compared with the reference device without the metal NPs...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Qingqing Sun, Kaixiang Chen, Yubin Liu, Yafeng Li, Mingdeng Wei
Although Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are one of the most promising rechargeable batteries in energy storage devices, the poor cycling performance of Li-S batteries restricts their potential application. The polar materials can improve the cycling stability due to their inherent strong chemical interaction with polysulfides. Herein, a novel rutile TiO2 mesocrystals (RTMs) was employed as the host of sulfur in Li-S, displaying a stable cycling performance with a capacity retention of 64% and a small average capacity decay rate of 0...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
M Abid, S Bouattour, A M Ferraria, D S Conceição, A P Carapeto, L F Vieira Ferreira, A M Botelho do Rego, M Rei Vilar, S Boufi
A simple approach to functionalize cotton fabrics with Au and TiO2 nanostructured layer is presented. Hybrid fabrics (Cot-Au-TiO2) are prepared through reduction of AuCl4(-) on cotton, followed by a non-aqueous sol-gel procedure using tetrabutyltitanate and a hydrothermal treatment at 110°C. The generation of crystalline TiO2 is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. The fibres morphology and their roughness are characterized by AFM and FE-SEM. XPS shows how the concentration of the NPs precursors (Au and TiO2) affects the layer composition...
November 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Cedric Frantz, Alessandro Lauria, Cristina Vicente Manzano, Carlos Guerra-Nuñez, Markus Niederberger, Cédric Storrer, Johann Michler, Laetitia Vérnique Philippe
TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by nonaqueous sol-gel route using chloride precursor and benzyl alcohol as the solvent. The obtained 4 nm size anatase nanocrystals were readily dispersible in various polar solvents allowing for simple preparation of colloidal dispersions in water, isopropyl alcohol, dimethyl sulfoxide, and ethanol. Results showed that dispersed nanoparticles have acidic properties and exhibit positive zeta-potential which is suitable for their deposition by cathodic electrophoresis. Aluminum substrates were anodized in phosphoric acid in order to produce porous anodic oxide layers with pores ranging from 160 to 320 nm...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Eduardo Guzmán, Eva Santini, Michele Ferrari, Libero Liggieri, Francesca Ravera
The effect of the incorporation of hydrophilic titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles on the interfacial properties of Langmuir monolayers of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) has been evaluated combining interfacial thermodynamic studies, dilatational rheology and Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM). The results show that the TiO2 nanoparticles are able to penetrate into DPPC layers, modifying the organization of the molecules and, consequently, the phase behaviour and viscoelastic properties of the systems...
September 19, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Kuo-Hsiung Tseng, Chaur-Yang Chang, Meng-Yun Chung, Ting-Shou Cheng
In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (Ton) and pulse off Time (Toff) were respectively set at 50 and 100 s, 100 and 100 s, 150 and 100 s, and 200 and 100 s to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids...
September 19, 2017: Nanotechnology
Alexander Grupp, Philipp Ehrenreich, Julian Kalb, Arne Budweg, Lukas Schmidt-Mende, Daniele Brida
In this work, we investigate the exciton dissociation dynamics occurring at the donor-acceptor interface in organic and hybrid blends employed in the realization of photovoltaic cells. Fundamental differences in the charge separation process are studied with the organic semiconductor polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and either [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or titanium dioxide (TiO2) acting as acceptor. By using ultrafast broadband transient absorption spectroscopy with few-fs temporal resolution, we observe that in both cases the incoherent formation of free charges is dominating the charge generation process...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Gengping Wan, Xiange Peng, Min Zeng, Lei Yu, Kan Wang, Xinyue Li, Guizhen Wang
This paper reports the synthesis of a new type of Au@TiO2 yolk-shell nanostructures by integrating ion sputtering method with atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique and its applications as visible light-driven photocatalyst and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate. Both the size and amount of gold nanoparticles confined in TiO2 nanotubes could be facilely controlled via properly adjusting the sputtering time. The unique structure and morphology of the resulting Au@TiO2 samples were investigated by using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in detail...
September 18, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Alessandro Maggi, Hanqing Li, Julia R Greer
The precise mechanisms that lead to orthopedic implant failure are not well understood; it is believed that the micromechanical environment at the bone-implant interface regulates structural stability of an implant. In this work, we seek to understand how the 3D mechanical environment of an implant affects bone formation during early osteointegration. We employed two-photon lithography (TPL) direct laser writing to fabricate 3-dimensional rigid polymer scaffolds with tetrakaidecahedral periodic geometry, herewith referred to as nanolattices, whose strut dimensions were on the same order as osteoblasts' focal adhesions (∼2μm) and pore sizes on the order of cell size, ∼10μm...
September 15, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Nazly E Sánchez-Peña, José L Narváez-Semanate, Daniela Pabón-Patiño, Javier E Fernández-Mera, Marcos L S Oliveira, Kátia da Boit, Bernardo F Tutikian, Tito J Crissien, Diana C Pinto, Iván D Serrano, Claudia I Ayala, Ana L Duarte, José D Ruiz, Luis F O Silva
The present study is focused on the chemical and nano-mineralogical characterization of sludge from gold mine activities, in order to put forward diverse solution alternatives, where lack of knowledge has been found. The sample was collected from "La Estrella" mine of Suarez, located in Department of Cauca, south-west Colombia. The sludge micro-structure and chemical composition were analyzed using a high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) equipped with a dispersive X-ray detector (EDS). X-ray diffraction technique was employed to identify the mineralogical phases present in the sludge...
August 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Ankita Kolay, Ramesh K Kokal, Ankarao Kalluri, Isaac Macwan, Prabir K Patra, Partha Ghosal, Melepurath Deepa
A novel assembly of a photocathode and photoanode is investigated to explore their complementary effects in enhancing the photovoltaic performance of a quantum dot solar cell (QDSC). While p-type nickel oxide (NiO) has been used previously, antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) has not been used in a QDSC, especially as a component of a counter electrode (CE) architecture that doubles up as the photocathode. Here, near infrared (NIR) light absorbing Sb2Se3 nanoparticles (NPs) coated over electrodeposited NiO nanofibers on a carbon (C)-fabric substrate was employed as the highly efficient photocathode...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Arif D Sheikh, Rahim Munir, Md Azimul Haque, Ashok Bera, Weijin Hu, Parvez Shaikh, Aram Amassian, Tom Wu
In this work, we investigated the effects of high operating temperature and thermal cycling on the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with a typical mesostructured (m)-TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3-xClx-spiro-OMeTAD architecture. After carrying out temperature-dependent grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS), in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical absorption experiments, thermal durability of PSCs was tested by subjecting the devices to repetitive heating to 70 °C and cooling to room temperature (20 °C)...
September 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Toshinari Koketsu, Jiwei Ma, Benjamin J Morgan, Monique Body, Christophe Legein, Walid Dachraoui, Mattia Giannini, Arnaud Demortière, Mathieu Salanne, François Dardoize, Henri Groult, Olaf J Borkiewicz, Karena W Chapman, Peter Strasser, Damien Dambournet
In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg(2+) and Al(3+) into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg(2+) and Al(3+) insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2...
September 18, 2017: Nature Materials
Ee Taek Hwang, Katherine L Orchard, Daisuke Hojo, Joseph Beton, Colin W J Lockwood, Tadafumi Adschiri, Julea N Butt, Erwin Reisner, Lars J C Jeuken
Coupling light-harvesting semiconducting nanoparticles (NPs) with redox enzymes has been shown to create artificial photosynthetic systems that hold promise for the synthesis of solar fuels. High quantum yields require efficient electron transfer from the nanoparticle to the redox protein, a property that can be difficult to control. Here, we have compared binding and electron transfer between dye-sensitized TiO2 nanocrystals or CdS quantum dots and two decaheme cytochromes on photoanodes. The effect of NP surface chemistry was assessed by preparing NPs capped with amine or carboxylic acid functionalities...
August 2017: ChemElectroChem
Yuan-Chun Hu, Wei-Lu Ding, Xing-Liang Peng, Ze-Sheng Li
We have theoretically designed two D-A-π-A dyes 3 and 4 based on the efficient references 1 and 2 by introducing an extra electron donor unit (D2). Via calculating the electronic structures of isolated dyes, we obtain that dyes 3 and 4 possess stronger light-harvesting efficiency imparted by the fluorescence energy transfer of D2 part, maintain comparable lifetime of excited states, and shorten the electron injection time significantly with regard to 1 and 2. Meanwhile, dye 3 positively shifts the edge of virtual states of TiO2 in a larger extent compared to its counterparts...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Peng Liu, Yansha Hao, Yongchun Zhao, Zhang Yuan, Yao Ding, Kaiyong Cai
The insufficient osseointegration and bacterial infection of titanium and its alloys remain the key challenges in their clinic applications, which may result in failure implantation. To improve osteogenetic and antibacterial properties, TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated on titanium substrates for loading of antibacterial drug. Then, TiO2 nanotube arrays were covered with chitosan/sodium alginate multilayer films. The successful construction of this system was verified via scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurement...
August 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Segun A Ogundare, Vashen Moodley, Werner E van Zyl
We report the isolation of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) produced from discarded cigarette filters (DCF). The DCF were processed into cellulose via ethanolic extraction, hypochlorite bleaching, alkaline deacetylation, and then converted into NCC by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The morphological structures of the isolated NCC established with TEM showed that the nanocrystals were needle-like with a mean length of 143nm. FEGSEM showed the morphological transition of the micro-sized DCF to self-assembled NCC while EDX revealed the presence of Ti (as TiO2) in DCF, which was retained in the NCC...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Malihe Khalili, Mohammad Abedi, Hossein Salar Amoli, Seyed Ahmad Mozaffari
In commercialization of liquid dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), whose leakage, evaporation and toxicity of organic solvents are limiting factors, replacement of organic solvents with water-based gel electrolyte is recommended. This work reports on utilizing and comparison of chitosan and chitosan nanoparticle as different gelling agents in preparation of water-based gel electrolyte in fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells. All photovoltaic parameters such as open circuit voltage (Voc), fill factor (FF), short circuit current density (Jsc) and conversion efficiency (η) were measured...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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