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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922033/profilometry-of-thin-films-on-rough-substrates-by-raman-spectroscopy
#1
Martin Ledinský, Bertrand Paviet-Salomon, Aliaksei Vetushka, Jonas Geissbühler, Andrea Tomasi, Matthieu Despeisse, Stefaan De Wolf, Christophe Ballif, Antonín Fejfar
Thin, light-absorbing films attenuate the Raman signal of underlying substrates. In this article, we exploit this phenomenon to develop a contactless thickness profiling method for thin films deposited on rough substrates. We demonstrate this technique by probing profiles of thin amorphous silicon stripes deposited on rough crystalline silicon surfaces, which is a structure exploited in high-efficiency silicon heterojunction solar cells. Our spatially-resolved Raman measurements enable the thickness mapping of amorphous silicon over the whole active area of test solar cells with very high precision; the thickness detection limit is well below 1 nm and the spatial resolution is down to 500 nm, limited only by the optical resolution...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920679/basal-cell-carcinoma-on-the-sole-an-easily-missed-cancer
#2
Natalie L Hone, Radhika Grandhi, Adam A Ingraffea
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer, and solar ultraviolet ray exposure is the most significant risk factor for its development. The plantar foot is infrequently exposed to the sun, thus the presence of BCC on the sole is rare. We report a case of BCC on the sole of the foot and its treatment in the hope to facilitate its detection.
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918642/high-performance-porphyrin-based-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-with-both-iodine-and-cobalt-redox-shuttles
#3
Huaide Xiang, Wei Fan, Jiahui Li, Tianyue Li, Neil Robertson, Xiongrong Song, Wenjun Wu, Zhaohui Wang, Weihong Zhu, He Tian
Recently, enormous research passion has been devoted to enhance the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of porphyrin sensitizers for DSSCs, but the major stumbling block is its absorption defects in visible spectrum region. To address the challenge, herein we reported a duplexing high performance photovoltaic result for DSSCs based on a novel D-π-A sensitizer FW-1 7H-Dibenzo[c,g] carbazole-substituted and fused Zn-porphyrin, co-sensitized with benzotriazole featured dye (WS-5) in iodine and cobalt redox system and got high PCE of 10...
December 5, 2016: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918107/achieving-high-performance-ternary-organic-solar-cells-through-tuning-acceptor-alloy
#4
Yusheng Chen, Pan Ye, Zhen-Gang Zhu, Xinlong Wang, Lei Yang, Xiaozhou Xu, Xiaoxi Wu, Tao Dong, Hao Zhang, Jianhui Hou, Feng Liu, Hui Huang
Acceptor alloys based on n-type small molecular and fullerene derivatives are used to fabricate the ternary solar cell. The highest performance of optimized ternary device is 10.4%, which is the highest efficiency for one donor/two acceptors-based ternary systems. Three important parameters, JSC , VOC , and FF, of the optimized ternary device are all higher than the binary reference devices.
December 5, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918015/highly-efficient-polymer-solar-cells-by-step-by-step-optimizing-donor-molecular-packing-and-acceptor-redistribution
#5
Qianqian Sun, Fujun Zhang, Qiaoshi An, Miao Zhang, Jian Wang, Jian Zhang
The dynamic drying process of the active layer should play a vitally important role in determining the performance of polymer solar cells (PSCs). Donor molecular packing and acceptor redistribution can be optimized by two successive post-treatments on the active layer. The blend films were freshly prepared by spin-coating method and then immediately transferred to a covered glass Petri dish to allow self-assembly of the donor molecules. The films were then treated with methanol or PFN-methanol solution to adjust the acceptor redistribution...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914337/restrain-recombination-by-spraying-pyrolysis-tio2-on-nio-film-for-quinoxaline-based-p-type-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#6
Ying Yu, Xing Li, Zhongjin Shen, Xiaoyu Zhang, Peng Liu, Yuting Gao, Tao Jiang, Jianli Hua
In this work, we reported two new quinoxaline-based sensitizers (BQI and BQII) for p-type dye-sensitized solar cells (p-DSSCs) featuring carboxylic acid and pyridine as anchoring groups, respectively, in combination with triphenylamine donor. The optical, electrochemical and photovoltaic properties of BQI and BQII were investigated. Results showed that BQI-based p-DSSC with carboxylic acid anchoring group obtained higher photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.140%. To further optimize the device performance, we added a layer of TiO2 on the surface of NiO film as a barrier layer, which contributed to the improvement of the photocurrent density from 3...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914329/facile-synthesis-of-go-sno2-tio2-nanofibers-and-their-behavior-in-photovoltaics
#7
Ibrahim M A Mohamed, Van-Duong Dao, Ahmed S Yasin, Ho-Suk Choi, KhalilAbdelrazek Khalil, Nasser A M Barakat
Chemical doping is a widely-used strategy to improve the performance of TiO2 for the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). However, the effect of two efficient dopants has been rarely investigated. We present the synthesis of GO@SnO2/TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) by a facile method using electrospinning and hydrothermal processes. The synthesized NFs are described in terms of morphology, crystallinity and chemistry through FESEM, TEM, HR-TEM, XRD, EDX, XPS, FT-IR and Raman spectra. As the results, the axial ratio and the average diameter of NFs decreased after the hydrothermal treatment and calcination process, respectively...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909341/intracellular-mechanisms-of-solar-water-disinfection
#8
María Castro-Alférez, María Inmaculada Polo-López, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909338/uv-degradation-and-recovery-of-perovskite-solar-cells
#9
Sang-Won Lee, Seongtak Kim, Soohyun Bae, Kyungjin Cho, Taewon Chung, Laura E Mundt, Seunghun Lee, Sungeun Park, Hyomin Park, Martin C Schubert, Stefan W Glunz, Yohan Ko, Yongseok Jun, Yoonmook Kang, Hae-Seok Lee, Donghwan Kim
Although the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells has increased from 3.81% to 22.1% in just 7 years, they still suffer from stability issues, as they degrade upon exposure to moisture, UV light, heat, and bias voltage. We herein examined the degradation of perovskite solar cells in the presence of UV light alone. The cells were exposed to 365 nm UV light for over 1,000 h under inert gas at <0.5 ppm humidity without encapsulation. 1-sun illumination after UV degradation resulted in recovery of the fill factor and power conversion efficiency...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908128/identifying-barriers-to-charge-carriers-in-the-bulk-and-surface-regions-of-cu2znsns4-nanocrystal-films-by-x-ray-absorption-fine-structures-xafss
#10
Matthew J Turnbull, Daniel Vaccarello, Yun Mui Yiu, Tsun-Kong Sham, Zhifeng Ding
Solar cell performance is most affected by the quality of the light absorber layer. For thin-film devices, this becomes a two-fold problem of maintaining a low-cost design with well-ordered nanocrystal (NC) structure. The use of Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) NCs as the light absorber films forms an ideal low-cost design, but the quaternary structure makes it difficult to maintain a well-ordered layer without the use of high-temperature treatments. There is little understanding of how CZTS NC structures affect the photoconversion efficiency, the charge-carriers, and therefore the performance of the device manufactured from it...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906382/laser-patterned-functionalized-cvd-graphene-as-highly-transparent-conductive-electrodes-for-polymer-solar-cells
#11
Luca La Notte, Enrica Villari, Alessandro Lorenzo Palma, Alberto Sacchetti, Maria Michela Giangregorio, Giovanni Bruno, Aldo Di Carlo, Giuseppe Valerio Bianco, Andrea Reale
A five-layer (5L) graphene on a glass substrate has been demonstrated as a transparent conductive electrode to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in organic photovoltaic devices. The required low sheet resistance, while maintaining high transparency, and the need of a wettable surface are the main issues. To overcome these, two strategies have been applied: (i) the p-doping of the multilayer graphene, thus reaching 25 Ω □(-1) or (ii) the O2-plasma oxidation of the last layer of the 5L graphene that results in a contact angle of 58° and a sheet resistance of 134 Ω □(-1)...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905397/11-4-efficiency-non-fullerene-polymer-solar-cells-with-trialkylsilyl-substituted-2d-conjugated-polymer-as-donor
#12
Haijun Bin, Liang Gao, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yankang Yang, Yindong Zhang, Chunfeng Zhang, Shanshan Chen, Lingwei Xue, Changduk Yang, Min Xiao, Yongfang Li
Simutaneously high open circuit voltage and high short circuit current density is a big challenge for achieving high efficiency polymer solar cells due to the excitonic nature of organic semdonductors. Herein, we developed a trialkylsilyl substituted 2D-conjugated polymer with the highest occupied molecular orbital level down-shifted by Si-C bond interaction. The polymer solar cells obtained by pairing this polymer with a non-fullerene acceptor demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency of 11.41% with both high open circuit voltage of 0...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905394/uvr2-ensures-transgenerational-genome-stability-under-simulated-natural-uv-b-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#13
Eva-Maria Willing, Thomas Piofczyk, Andreas Albert, J Barbro Winkler, Korbinian Schneeberger, Ales Pecinka
Ground levels of solar UV-B radiation induce DNA damage. Sessile phototrophic organisms such as vascular plants are recurrently exposed to sunlight and require UV-B photoreception, flavonols shielding, direct reversal of pyrimidine dimers and nucleotide excision repair for resistance against UV-B radiation. However, the frequency of UV-B-induced mutations is unknown in plants. Here we quantify the amount and types of mutations in the offspring of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and UV-B-hypersensitive mutants exposed to simulated natural UV-B over their entire life cycle...
December 1, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905138/efficient-and-air-stable-mixed-cation-lead-mixed-halide-perovskite-solar-cells-with-n-doped-organic-electron-extraction-layers
#14
Zhiping Wang, David P McMeekin, Nobuya Sakai, Stephan van Reenen, Konrad Wojciechowski, Jay B Patel, Michael B Johnston, Henry J Snaith
Air-stable doping of the n-type fullerene layer in an n-i-p planar heterojunction perovskite device is capable of enhancing device efficiency and improving device stability. Employing a (HC(NH2 )2 )0.83 Cs0.17 Pb(I0.6 Br0.4 )3 perovskite as the photoactive layer, glass-glass laminated devices are reported, which sustain 80% of their "post burn-in" efficiency over 3400 h under full sun illumination in ambient conditions.
December 1, 2016: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905094/improved-work-function-of-poly-3-4-ethylenedioxythiophene-poly-styrenesulfonic-acid-and-its-effect-on-hybrid-silicon-organic-heterojunction-solar-cells
#15
Xiaojuan Shen, Ling Chen, Jianmei Pan, Yue Hu, Songjun Li, Jie Zhao
Hybrid silicon/organic solar cells have been recently extensively investigated due to their simple structure and low-cost fabrication process. However, the efficiency of the solar cells is greatly limited by the barrier height as well as the carrier recombination at the silicon/organic interface. In this work, hydrochloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) is employed into the poly(3,4-ethlenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) solution, and the work function (WF) of the PEDOT:PSS layer has been successfully improved...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905022/neurophysiology-of-space-travel-energetic-solar-particles-cause-cell-type-specific-plasticity-of-neurotransmission
#16
Sang-Hun Lee, Barna Dudok, Vipan K Parihar, Kwang-Mook Jung, Miklós Zöldi, Young-Jin Kang, Mattia Maroso, Allyson L Alexander, Gregory A Nelson, Daniele Piomelli, István Katona, Charles L Limoli, Ivan Soltesz
In the not too distant future, humankind will embark on one of its greatest adventures, the travel to distant planets. However, deep space travel is associated with an inevitable exposure to radiation fields. Space-relevant doses of protons elicit persistent disruptions in cognition and neuronal structure. However, whether space-relevant irradiation alters neurotransmission is unknown. Within the hippocampus, a brain region crucial for cognition, perisomatic inhibitory control of pyramidal cells (PCs) is supplied by two distinct cell types, the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1)-expressing basket cells (CB1BCs) and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing interneurons (PVINs)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903435/lack-of-effect-of-selected-sunscreens-applied-on-ex-vivo-human-skin-for-5-methyl-aminolevulinic-acid-penetration-and-protoporphyrin-ix-photoactivation
#17
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Karine Sevin, Alexandre Gaborit, Magali Kouidhi, Johanna Hanaizi, Pierre Comby, Bernard Ruty, Guy Bouvier
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which accumulates in the skin lesion and which generates a painful photochemical toxic reaction upon red light exposure. PDT using daylight (DL) exposure is now used to reduce pain and subjects are advised to protect the areas with sunscreen. This work investigated the effect of sunscreen on MAL penetration and PpIX photoactivation in ex vivo human skin...
November 26, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902941/enhanced-thermal-stability-of-a-polymer-solar-cell-blend-induced-by-electron-beam-irradiation-in-the-transmission-electron-microscope
#18
Olof Bäcke, Camilla Lindqvist, Amaia Diaz de Zerio Mendaza, Stefan Gustafsson, Ergang Wang, Mats R Andersson, Christian Müller, Per Magnus Kristiansen, Eva Olsson
We show by in situ microscopy that the effects of electron beam irradiation during transmission electron microscopy can be used to lock microstructural features and enhance the structural thermal stability of a nanostructured polymer:fullerene blend. Polymer:fullerene bulk-heterojunction thin films show great promise for use as active layers in organic solar cells but their low thermal stability is a hindrance. Lack of thermal stability complicates manufacturing and influences the lifetime of devices. To investigate how electron irradiation affects the thermal stability of polymer:fullerene films, a model bulk-heterojunction film based on a thiophene-quinoxaline copolymer and a fullerene derivative was heat-treated in-situ in a transmission electron microscope...
November 21, 2016: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901473/influence-of-solar-and-geomagnetic-activity-in-gymnodinium-catenatum-dinophyceae-cultures
#19
Paulo Vale
Laboratory cultures of the paralytic shellfish poisoning producing microalga Gymnodinium catenatum were subjected to a hypo-osmotic shock and changes in cell concentration were observed in two separate experiments of 8 and 24 hours duration, respectively. The increase in geomagnetic activity (GMA), radio and X-ray fluxes and solar X-ray flares were negatively correlated with cell numbers. Cell losses were observed in the short experiment, but not in the longest one. GMA action was related to the course of the experimental period, while electromagnetic radiation (EMR) was only significantly related when the previous hours before the experiments were considered...
November 30, 2016: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901151/improving-the-charge-carrier-transport-of-organic-solar-cells-by-incorporating-a-deep-energy-level-molecule
#20
Chunyu Liu, Zhiqi Li, Zhihui Zhang, Xinyuan Zhang, Liang Shen, Wenbin Guo, Liu Zhang, Yongbing Long, Shengping Ruan
Tetrafluoro-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ), a strong molecular acceptor, has been proved to be an excellent candidate to achieve the p-type doping effect. When F4-TCNQ is incorporated into a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) active layer, superior behavior upon inducing polymer donor excited electron transport is demonstrated due to the addition of a deep-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) from F4-TCNQ, leading to the realization of organic solar cells (OSCs) with an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5...
November 30, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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