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Dan Ruan, Rui Lin, Kui Jiang, Xiang Yu, Yaofeng Zhu, Yaqin Fu, Zilong Wang, He Yan, Wenjie Mai
Scalable manufacturing of flexible, fiber-shaped energy storage devices has enabled great technological advances in wearable and portable technology. Replacing inefficient oxides with inexpensive and high-performance oxynitrides with more favourable 3D structures is critical if the practical applications of these technologies are to be realised. Here we developed a facile and controllable approach for the synthesis of 3D porous micropillars of molybdenum oxynitride, which exhibit high conductivity, robust stability and excellent energy storage properties...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manuel Salado, Ramesh K Kokal, Laura Calio, Samrana Kazim, Melepurath Deepa, Shahzada Ahmad
Triple cation based perovskite solar cells offer enhanced moisture tolerance and stability compared to mixed perovskites. Slight substitution of methyl ammonium or formamidinium cation by cesium (Cs(+)), was also reported to eliminate halide segregation due to its smaller size. To elucidate the device kinetics and understand the role of the Cs, we undertook different modes of scanning probe microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) experiments. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the incorporation of the Cs cation increases the contact potential difference (CPD), this CPD further increases when Spiro-OMeTAD is used as a hole transport material...
August 16, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Junwoo Lee, Mahdi Malekshahi Byranvand, Gyeongho Kang, Sung Y Son, Seulki Song, Guan-Woo Kim, Taiho Park
In addition to having proper energy levels and high hole mobility (μh) without the use of dopants, hole-transporting materials (HTMs) used in n-i-p-type perovskite solar cells (PSCs) should be processed using green solvents to enable environmentally friendly device fabrication. Although many HTMs have been assessed, owing to the limited solubility of HTMs in green solvents, no green-solvent-processable HTM has been reported to date. Here we report on a green-solvent-processable HTM, an asymmetric D-A polymer (asy-PBTBDT) that exhibits superior solubility even in the green solvent, 2-methylanisole, which is a known food additive...
August 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kevin M Huang, Sherry Liang, Steven Yeung, Etuajie Oiyemhonlan, Kristan H Cleveland, Cyrus Parsa, Robert Orlando, Frank L Meyskens, Bradley Andresen, Ying Huang
In previous studies, the β-blocker carvedilol inhibited EGF-induced epidermal cell transformation and chemical carcinogen-induced mouse skin hyperplasia. As exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation leads to skin cancer, the present study examined whether carvedilol can prevent UV-induced carcinogenesis. Carvedilol absorbs UV like a sunscreen; thus, to separate pharmacological from sunscreen effects, 4-hydroxycarbazole (4-OHC), which absorbs UV to the same degree as carvedilol, served as control. JB6 P+ cells, an established epidermal model for studying tumor promotion, were used for evaluating the effect of carvedilol on UV-induced neoplastic transformation...
August 15, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
Surendra K Yadav, Sandheep Ravishankar, Sara Pescetelli, Antonio Agresti, Francisco Fabregat-Santiago, Aldo Di Carlo
In the last few decades, dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) technology has been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for low cost energy production due to cost-effective materials and fabrication processes. Arguably, DSC stability is the biggest challenge for making this technology appealing for industrial exploitation. This work provides further insight into the stability of DSCs by considering specific dye-electrolyte systems characterized by Raman and impedance spectroscopy analysis. In particular, two ruthenium-based dyes, Z907 and Ru505, and two commercially available electrolytes, namely, the high stability electrolyte (HSE) and solvent-free Livion 12 (L-12), were tested...
August 15, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Tianjun Liao, Xin Zhang, Xiaohang Chen, Bihong Lin, Jincan Chen
The negative illumination thermoradiative solar cell (NITSC) consisting of a concentrator, an absorber, and a thermoradiative cell (TRC) is established, where the radiation and reflection losses from the absorber to the environment and the radiation loss from the TRC to the environment are taken into consideration. The power output and overall efficiency of the NITSC are analytically derived. The operating temperature of the TRC is determined through the thermal equilibrium equations, and the efficiency of the NITSC is calculated through the optimization of the output voltage of the TRC and the concentrating factor for a given value of the bandgap...
August 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Liangang Xiao, Tianxiang Liang, Ke Gao, Tianqi Lai, Xuebin Chen, Feng Liu, Thomas P Russell, Fei Huang, Xiaobin Peng, Yong Cao
Ternary organic solar cells (OSCs) are very attractive for further enhancing the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of binary ones but still with a single active layer. However, improving the PCEs is still challenging because a ternary cell with one more component is more complicated on phase separation behavior. If the two donors or two acceptors have similar chemical structures, good miscibility can be expected to reduce the try-and-error work. Herein, we report ternary devices based on two small molecule donors with the same backbone but different substituents...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xinwei Chen, Si-Lu Tao, Cong Fan, Dongcheng Chen, Ling Zhou, Hui Lin, Cai-Jun Zheng, Shi-Jian Su
Ternary bulk heterojunction (BHJ) is a brilliant photovoltaic technology for improving the performance of organic solar cells (OSCs), since the light absorption range can be significantly extended by using multiple donors or acceptor materials. In this paper, coumarin7 (C7), a small organic molecule typical led used in organic light-emitting diodes, was initially exploited as second electron-donor component in ternary bulk heterojunction OSCs along with conventional blend system spolythieno[3,4-b]-thiophene/benzodithiophene(PTB7) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl(PC71 BM)...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Haider Ali, Xinbo Yang, Klaus Weber, Winston V Schoenfeld, Kristopher O Davis
In this study, the cross-section of electron-selective titanium oxide (TiO2) contacts for n-type crystalline silicon solar cells were investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the excellent cell efficiency of 21.6% obtained on n-type cells, featuring SiO2/TiO2/Al rear contacts and after forming gas annealing (FGA) at 350°C, is due to strong surface passivation of SiO2/TiO2 stack as well as low contact resistivity at the Si/SiO2/TiO2 heterojunction. This can be attributed to the transformation of amorphous TiO2 to a conducting TiO2-x phase...
August 15, 2017: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Zhijie Bi, Xiaomin Li, Yongbo Chen, Xiaoli He, Xiaoke Xu, Xiang Dong Gao
A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3●H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s) and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaolei Wang, Peng Li, Xiao Xia Han, Yasutaka Kitahama, Bing Zhao, Yukihiro Ozaki
A number of recent studies have focused on improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Cells with a ZnO-TiO2/N3/Ag structure have attracted particular attention because of their excellent power conversion efficiencies. Using a dendritic crystal ZnO-TiO2 composite semiconductor and Ag in conjunction leads to different charge-transfer (CT) processes, and this is the main theoretical basis for the improvement of DSSC performances. Thus, in the present study, TiO2/N3, ZnO/N3, ZnO-TiO2/N3, TiO2/N3/Ag, ZnO/N3/Ag, and ZnO-TiO2/N3/Ag assemblies have been fabricated and their CT processes have been monitored by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra, with particular focus on the differences caused by the synergistic effect of the ZnO-TiO2 component...
August 14, 2017: Nanoscale
Shu Huei Hsieh, Jhong Min Hsieh, Wen Jauh Chen, Chia Chih Chuang
In this work, nickel thin films were deposited on texture silicon by electroless plated deposition. The electroless-deposited Ni layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and sheet resistance measurement. The results indicate that the dominant phase was Ni₂Si and NiSi in samples annealed at 300-800 °C. Sheet resistance values were found to correlate well with the surface morphology obtained by SEM and the results of XRD diffraction...
August 14, 2017: Materials
John Ciro, Santiago Mesa, Juan Felipe Montoya, Jose Ignacio Uribe, Rafael Betancur, Franklin Jaramillo
Optimization of the interface between the electron transport layer (ETL) and hybrid perovskite is crucial to achieve high performance perovskite solar cell (PSC) devices. Fullerene-based compounds have attracted attention as modifiers on the surface properties of TiO2, the archetypal ETL in regular n-i-p PSCs. However, the partial solubility of fullerenes in the aprotic solvents used for perovskite deposition hinders its application to low-temperature solution-processed PSCs. In this work, we introduce a new method for fullerene modification of TiO2 layers derived from nanoparticles (NPs) inks...
August 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xuepeng Liu, Fantai Kong, Rahim Ghadari, Shengli Jin, Ting Yu, Wangchao Chen, Guozhen Liu, Zhan'ao Tan, Jian Chen, Songyuan Dai
Two arylamine-based hole transporting materials with an anthracene π-linker have been synthesized and tested for perovskite solar cells. Improved power conversion efficiency and stability were achieved by employing A102 compared with that of spiro-OMeTAD.
August 14, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Carlito S Ponseca, Pavel Chábera, Jens Uhlig, Petter Persson, Villy Sundström
Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted...
August 14, 2017: Chemical Reviews
Naoyuki Shibayama, Hiroyuki Kanda, Shin-Ichi Yusa, Shota Fukumoto, Ajay K Baranwal, Hiroshi Segawa, Tsutomu Miyasaka, Seigo Ito
We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density (Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage (Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it is important to use the oxide nanoparticles with a small particle diameter and to reduce the water content in the oxide forming material in order to manufacture a highly efficient all inorganic perovskite solar cells...
2017: Nano Convergence
Zhi-Wen Zhao, Qing-Qing Pan, Shuang-Bao Li, Yu-Ai Duan, Yun Geng, Min Zhang, Zhong-Min Su
A series of polymer donor materials 1-5 based on diketopyrrolopyrrole and thiophene unit which have been widely used in organic solar cells (OSCs) were investigated based on quantum chemical calculations. The effect of fluorine and cyano substitutions in polymer donor materials was focused on. Based on the investigation on electronic structures and optical properties of the reported molecules 1 and 2 and the analysis on some parameters relevant to charge dissociation ability at donor/acceptor interface constituted by 1 and 2 with PC61BM such as intermolecular charge transfer and recombination, driving force and Coulombic bound energy, we explained why fluorine substitution can improve OPV efficiency through strengthening eletron-withdrawing ability from a theoretical perspective...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
James E Bishop, David K Mohamad, Michael Wong-Stringer, Alex Smith, David G Lidzey
We utilise spray-coating under ambient conditions to sequentially deposit compact-TiO2, mesoporous-TiO2, CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx perovskite and doped spiro-OMeTAD layers, creating a mesoporous standard architecture perovskite solar cell (PSC). The devices created had an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.2% and a peak PCE of 10.2%; values that compare favourably with control-devices fabricated by spin-casting that had an average efficiency of 11.4%. We show that our process can be used to create devices having an active-area of 1...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Seungtaeg Oh, Hakhyeon Song, Jihun Oh
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells have attracted much attention as a viable route for storing solar energy and producing value-added chemicals and fuels. However, the competition between light absorption and electrocatalysis at a restrained cocatalyst area on conventional planar-type photoelectrodes could limit their conversion efficiency. Here, we demonstrate a new monolithic photoelectrode architecture that eliminate the optical-electrochemical coupling by forming locally nanostructured cocatalysts on a photoelectrode...
August 11, 2017: Nano Letters
Mannix Padayhag Balanay, Dong Hee Kim
Bacteriochlorin-based dyes, having a push-pull type of configuration similar to the YD2 dye, were theoretically designed based on the modification of the macrocycle and π-conjugated bridge for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. Various parameters were assessed to determine its structure-property relationships, such as the absorption profile based on time-dependent density functional theory, non-linear optical properties from (hyper)polarizability data, ground- and excited-state oxidation potentials, and the electronic properties of the free and adsorbed dyes...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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