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Seungho Bang, Ngoc Thanh Duong, Jubok Lee, Yoo Hyun Cho, Hye Min Oh, Hyun Kim, Seok Joon Yun, Chul Ho Park, Min-Ki Kwon, Ja-Yeon Kim, Jeongyong Kim, Mun Seok Jeong
Monolayer (1L) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are promising materials for nano-scale optoelectronic devices, because of their direct band gap and wide absorption range (ultraviolet to infrared). However, 1L-TMDCs cannot be easily utilized for practical optoelectronic device applications (e.g., photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting diodes) because of their extremely low optical quantum yields (QYs). In this investigation, a high-gain 1L-MoS2 photodetector was successfully realized, based on surface plasmon (SP) of the Ag nanowire (NW) network...
March 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Daniel Ramirez, Yusaku Suto, Nataly Carolina Rosero-Navarro, Akira Miura, Kiyoharu Tadanaga, Franklin Jaramillo
Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite materials have recently been investigated in a variety of applications, including solar cells, light emitting devices (LEDs), and lasers because of their impressive semiconductor properties. Nevertheless, the perovskite structure has the ability to host extrinsic elements, making its application in the battery field possible. During the present study, we fabricated and investigated the electrochemical properties of three-dimensional (3D) methylammonium lead mixed-halide CH3 NH3 PbI3- x Brx and two-dimensional (2D) propylammonium-methlylammonium lead bromide (CH3 NH3 )2 (CH3 (CH2 )2 NH3 )2 Pb3 Br10 hybrid perovskite thin films as electrode materials for Li-ion batteries...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
E S Radchenko, D V Anokhin, K L Gerasimov, A I Rodygin, A A Rychkov, E D Shabratova, S Grigorian, D A Ivanov
The control of structure formation in the active layers of organic solar cells allows for improvement in their processability and enhancement of the efficiency of the final devices. In the present work, in situ studies of film formation from binary toluene solutions of an electron donor, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and an electron acceptor such as [6,6]-phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) or indene-C60 bisadduct (ICBA) have been conducted. These experiments were carried out using GIWAXS with simultaneous electric current measurements...
March 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Lei Yang, Rebecka Lindblad, Erik Gabrielsson, Gerrit Boschloo, Håkan Rensmo, Licheng Sun, Anders Hagfeldt, Tomas Edvinsson, Erik M J Johansson
4-tert-butylpyridine (t-BP) is commonly used in solid state dye-sensitized solar cells (ssDSSCs) to increase the photo-voltaic performance. In this report, the mechanism how t-BP functions as a favorable additive is investigated compre-hensively. ssDSSCs were prepared with different concentration of t-BP and a clear increase in efficiency was observed up to a maximum concentration and for higher concentrations the efficiency thereafter decreases. The energy level alignment in the complete devices was measured using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES)...
March 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Johannes Schlipf, Abdelrahman M Askar, Florian Pantle, Benjamin D Wiltshire, Anton Sura, Peter Schneider, Linus Huber, Karthik Shankar, Peter Müller-Buschbaum
Solar cells employing hybrid perovskites have proven to be a serious contender versus established thin-film photovoltaic technologies. Typically, current photovoltaic devices are built up layer by layer from a transparent substrate (bottom-up approach), while the deposition of the perovskite layer itself comes with many challenges including the control of crystal size, nucleation density and growth rate. On the other hand, single crystals have been used with great success for studying the fundamental properties of this new class of optoelectronic materials...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shinpei Ogawa, Masafumi Kimata
Electromagnetic wave absorbers have been investigated for many years with the aim of achieving high absorbance and tunability of both the absorption wavelength and the operation mode by geometrical control, small and thin absorber volume, and simple fabrication. There is particular interest in metal-insulator-metal-based plasmonic metamaterial absorbers (MIM-PMAs) due to their complete fulfillment of these demands. MIM-PMAs consist of top periodic micropatches, a middle dielectric layer, and a bottom reflector layer to generate strong localized surface plasmon resonance at absorption wavelengths...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Chengbo Tian, Shujing Zhang, Anyi Mei, Yaoguang Rong, Yue Hu, Kai Du, Miao Duan, Yusong Sheng, Pei Jiang, Gengzhao Xu, Hongwei Han
The printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PMPSCs) have exhibited great attracting prospects in the energy conversion field due to their high stability and potential scalability. However, the thick perovskite film in the mesoporous layers challenge the charge transportation and increase grain boundary defects, limiting the performance of the PMPSCs. It is critical not only to improve the electric property of the perovskite film but also to passivate the charge traps to improve the device performance. Herein we synthesized a bis-adduct 2, 5-(Dimethyl ester) C60 fulleropyrrolidine (bis-DMEC60 ) via rational molecular design and incorporated it into the PMPSCs...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Guangye Zhang, Jingbo Zhao, Philip C Y Chow, Kui Jiang, Jianquan Zhang, Zonglong Zhu, Jie Zhang, Fei Huang, He Yan
The bulk-heterojunction blend of an electron donor and an electron acceptor material is the key component in a solution-processed organic photovoltaic device. In the past decades, a p-type conjugated polymer and an n-type fullerene derivative have been the most commonly used electron donor and electron acceptor, respectively. While most advances of the device performance come from the design of new polymer donors, fullerene derivatives have almost been exclusively used as electron acceptors in organic photovoltaics...
March 20, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Yue-Ying Li, Jian-Gan Wang, Huanhuan Sun, Bingqing Wei
Organic dyes used in the conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suffer from poor light stability and high cost. In this work, we demonstrate a new inorganic sensitized solar cell based on ordered one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanorod arrays of TiO2/NiTiO3 heterostructures prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. The semiconductor heterostructure arrays are highly desirable and promising for DSSCs due to their direct charge transport capability and slow charge recombination rate. The low-cost NiTiO3 inorganic semiconductor possesses an appropriate band gap that matches well with TiO2, which behaviors like a "dye" to enable efficient light-harvesting and fast electron-hole separation...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yohan Ko, Yechan Kim, Chanyong Lee, Youbin Kim, Yongseok Jun
Organometallic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have unique photovoltaic properties for use in next-generation solar-energy harvesting systems. The highest efficiency PSCs reached 22.1% at a lab scale of <0.1 cm2 device area. Thus, scaling up is the next step toward commercialization, but the difficulty in controlling the quality of large-area perovskite thin films remains a fundamental challenge. It has also been frequently reported that the J-V hysteresis is intensified in PSCs with areas larger than 1 cm2 ...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Núria F Montcada, Maria Méndez, Kyung Taek Cho, Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin, Emilio Palomares
We describe in this work how the use of the photo-induced charge extraction (PICE) technique can be useful to study and understand the relationship between perovskite composition, ion migration processes and solar cell performance. Our results show that varying the organic cation and halide composition in perovskite crystals has an effect on the charge extraction process, which is related to the differences in the ion migration process occurring during light irradiation. Moreover, we do also observe that different perovskites also show differences in interfacial carrier recombination kinetics under operando conditions but the dynamics are too fast to be influenced by the ion migration...
March 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Yen-Chen Shih, Leeyih Wang, Hsiao-Chi Hsieh, King-Fu Lin
Ion accumulation of organometal halide perovskite (OHP) induced by electrode polarization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under illumination has been intensely studied and associated with widely observed current-voltage hysteresis behavior. This work dedicates to the investigation of charged species' behavior at the compact TiO2/OHP interface with respect to electrode polarization in PSC devices. By providing a comprehensive discussion of open-circuit voltage (VOC) buildup and VOC decay under illumination and in the dark for the PSCs modified with [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at the TiO2/OHP interface and their corresponding electrochemical impedance spectroscopies (EIS), a justified mechanism is proposed attempting to elucidate the dynamics of interfacial species with respect to the time and frequency domains...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Li-Chuan Jia, Ding-Xiang Yan, Xiaofeng Liu, Rujun Ma, Hong-Yuan Wu, Zhongming Li
Electromagnetic protection in optoelectronic instruments such as optical windows and electronic displays is challenging because of the essential requirements of a high optical transmittance and an electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness (SE). Herein, we demonstrate the creation of an efficient transparent EMI shielding film that is composed of calcium alginate (CA), silver nanowires (AgNWs), and polyurethane (PU), via a facile and low-cost Meyer-rod coating method. The CA/AgNWs/PU film with a high optical transmittance of 92% achieves an EMI SE of 20...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meltem Aygüler, Alexander Georg Hufnagel, Philipp Rieder, Michael Wussler, Wolfram Jaegermann, Thomas Bein, Vladimir Dyakonov, Michiel L Petrus, Andreas Baumann, Pablo Docampo
We tune the Fermi level alignment between the SnOX electron transport layer (ETL) and Cs0.05(FA0.83MA0.17)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3 and highlight that this parameter is interlinked with current-voltage hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Furthermore, thermally stimulated current measurements reveal that the depth of trap states in the ETL or at the ETL-perovskite interface correlates with Fermi level positions, ultimately linking it to the energy difference between the Fermi level and conduction band minimum...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alex Echeverría-Vega, Guillermo Chong, Antonio E Serrano, Mariela Guajardo, Olga Encalada, Victor Parro, Yolanda Blanco, Luis Rivas, Kevin C Rose, Mercedes Moreno-Paz, José A Luque, Nathalie A Cabrol, Cecilia S Demergasso
Laguna Negra and Lo Encañado are two oligotrophic Andean lakes forming part of the system fed by meltwater from distinct glacial tongues of the Echaurren glacier in central Chile, which is in a recession period. The recent increase in temperature and decline in precipitation have led to an increase of glacial meltwater and sediments entering these lakes. Although the lacustrine systems are also hydrogeologically connected, the limnology of the lakes is strongly controlled by the surface processes related to the respective sub-watersheds and hydrology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
D J Huels, L Bruens, M C Hodder, P Cammareri, A D Campbell, R A Ridgway, D M Gay, M Solar-Abboud, W J Faller, C Nixon, L B Zeiger, M E McLaughlin, E Morrissey, D J Winton, H J Snippert, J van Rheenen, O J Sansom
Many epithelial stem cell populations follow a pattern of stochastic stem cell divisions called 'neutral drift'. It is hypothesised that neutral competition between stem cells protects against the acquisition of deleterious mutations. Here we use a Porcupine inhibitor to reduce Wnt secretion at a dose where intestinal homoeostasis is maintained despite a reduction of Lgr5+ stem cells. Functionally, there is a marked acceleration in monoclonal conversion, so that crypts become rapidly derived from a single stem cell...
March 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Alexandra Levtchenko, Sylvain LE Gall, Raphael Lachaume, Jerome Michallon, Stephane Collin, Jose Alvarez, Zakaria Djebbour, Jean Paul Kleider
By coupling optical and electrical modeling, we have investigated the photovoltaic performances of p-i-n radial nanowires array based on crystalline p-type silicon (c-Si) core/hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) shell. By varying either the doping concentration of the c-Si core, or back contact work function we can separate and highlight the contribution to the cell's performance of the nanowires themselves (the radial cell) from the interspace between the nanowires (the planar cell). We show that the build-in potential (Vbi) in the radial and planar cells strongly depends on the doping of c-Si core and the work function of the back contact respectively...
March 19, 2018: Nanotechnology
Tara Nietzold, Bradley M West, Michael Stuckelberger, Barry Lai, Stefan Vogt, Mariana I Bertoni
The quantification of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy maps by fitting the raw spectra to a known standard is crucial for evaluating chemical composition and elemental distribution within a material. Synchrotron-based XRF has become an integral characterization technique for a variety of research topics, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and its high sensitivity. Today, synchrotrons can acquire fluorescence data at spatial resolutions well below a micron, allowing for the evaluation of compositional variations at the nanoscale...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jesus Idigoras, Francisco Javier Aparicio, Lidia Contreras-Bernal, Susana Ramos-Terrón, María Alcaire, Juan R Sanchez-Valencia, Ana Borras, Angel Barranco, Juan Antonio Anta
A compromise between high power conversion efficiency and long-term stability of hybrid organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells is necessary for their outdoor photovoltaic application and commercialization. Herein, a method to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells under water and moisture exposure consisting in the encapsulation of the cell with an ultrathin plasma polymer is reported. The deposition of the polymer is carried out at room temperature by the remote plasma vacuum deposition of adamantane powder...
March 19, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Garam Park, In-Hwan Oh, J M Sungil Park, Jinyong Jung, Chun-Yeol You, June-Seo Kim, Yonghwan Kim, Jong Hoon Jung, Namjung Hur, Younghak Kim, J-Y Kim, Chang Seop Hong, Ki-Yeon Kim
Two dimensional layered organic-inorganic halide perovskites offer a wide variety of novel functionality such as solar cell and optoelectronics and magnetism. Self-assembly of these materials using solution process (ex. spin coating) makes crystalline thin films synthesized at ambient environment. However, flexibility of organic layer also poses a structure stability issue in perovskite thin films against environment factors (ex. moisture). In this study, we investigate the effect of solvents and moisture on structure and property in the (C6 H5 (CH2 )2 NH3 )2 (Cu, Mn)Cl4 (Cu-PEA, Mn-PEA) perovskite thin films spin-coated on Si wafer using three solvents (H2 O, MeOH, MeOH + H2 O)...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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