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Shang-Ru Tsai, Michael R Hamblin
Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Minghui He, Kaili Zhang, Guangxue Chen, Junfei Tian, Bin Su
Conductive paper owns low-cost, lightweight, sustainable, easy to scale-up and tailorable advantages, allowing for its promising potential in flexible electronics, such as bendable supercapacitors, solar cells, electromagnetic shields and actuators. Ionic gels, exhibiting a lower Young's modulus together with facile manufacturing, can fully serve as the conductive component to prepare conductive paper. Herein we report a low-cost (~1.3 dollars/m(2)), continuous and high-throughput (up to ~ 30 m/min) fabrication of reliable and long-term (stable for more than two months) conductive paper...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Luca Passoni, Francesco Fumagalli, Andrea Perego, Sebastiano Bellani, Piero Mazzolini, Fabio di Fonzo
Monolithic dye sensitized solar cell architectures hold great potential for building integrated photovoltaics applications. They indeed benefit from lower weight and manufacturing costs as they avoid the use of a transparent conductive oxide coated glass counter electrode. In this work a transparent monolithic dye-sensitized solar cell comprising hierarchical 1D nanostructures stack is fabricated by physical vapour deposition techniques. The proof of concept device comprises hyperbranched TiO<sub>2 </sub> nanostructures, sensitized by the prototypical N719, as photoanode, a hierarchical nanoporous Al<sub>2 </sub>O<sub>3 </sub> spacer and a microporous ITO top electrode...
April 25, 2017: Nanotechnology
Pan Wang, Jiwen Guan, Draven T K Galeschuk, Yansun Yao, Cindy Fung He, Shan Jiang, Sijia Zhang, Ying Liu, Meiling Jin, Changqing Jin, Yang Song
Formamidinium lead iodide (FAPbI3) perovskite as a superior solar cell material was investigated in two polymorphs at high pressures using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, electrical conductivity (EC) measurements, and ab initio calculations. We identified two new structures (i.e., Imm2 and Immm) for α-FAPbI3, but only a structural distortion (in C2/c) for δ-FAPbI3 on compression. Pressure-enhanced hydrogen bond plays a prominent role in structural modifications, as corroborated by FTIR spectroscopy...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Jun Shao, Songwang Yang, Yan Liu
A novel bulk heterojunction (BHJ) perovskite solar cell (PSC), where the perovskite grains act as donor and the TiO2 nanoparticles act as acceptor, is reported. This efficient BHJ PSC was simply solution-processed from a mixing precursor of CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) and TiO2 nanoparticles. With dissolution and recrystallization by multi-cycle-coating, a unique composite structure ranging from a MAPbI3-TiO2-dominated layer on the substrate side to a pure perovskite layer on the top side is formed, which is beneficial for the blocking of possible contact between TiO2 and hole transport material on the interface...
April 25, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hua-Shang Rao, Bai-Xue Chen, Xu-Dong Wang, Dai-Bin Kuang, Cheng-Yong Su
Nowadays, obtaining a thin and large-area perovskite single-crystal (SC) is still challenging. Herein, we report a novel strategy to prepare a laminar MAPbBr3 SC with a controllable thickness of 16 μm and a size of 6 × 8 mm. Additionally, the SC solar cell achieves an intriguing efficiency of 7.11% with an impressive stability, maintaining 93% initial PCE after aging for 1000 h.
April 25, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Carrie L McCarthy, Richard L Brutchey
Macroelectronics is a major focus in electronics research and is driven by large area applications such as flat panel displays and thin film solar cells. Innovations for these technologies, such as flexible substrates and mass production, will require efficient and affordable semiconductor processing. Low-temperature solution processing offers mild deposition methods, inexpensive processing equipment, and the possibility of high-throughput processing. In recent years, the discovery that binary "alkahest" mixtures of ethylenediamine and short chain thiols possess the ability to dissolve bulk inorganic materials to yield molecular inks has lead to the wide study of such systems and the straightforward recovery of phase pure crystalline chalcogenide thin films upon solution processing and mild annealing of the inks...
April 25, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yuqin Liao, Hefei Liu, Wenjia Zhou, Dongwen Yang, Yuequn Shang, Zhifang Shi, Binghan Li, Xianyuan Jiang, Lijun Zhang, Li Na Quan, Rafael Quintero-Bermudez, Brandon R Sutherland, Qixi Mi, Edward H Sargent, Zhijun Ning
The low toxicity and a near-ideal choice of bandgap make tin (Sn) perovskite an attractive alternative to lead perovskite in low cost solar cells. However, the development of Sn perovskite solar cells has been impeded by their extremely poor stability when exposed to oxygen. We report low-dimensional Sn perovskites that exhibit markedly-enhanced air stability in comparison with their 3D counterparts. The reduced degradation under air exposure is attributed to the improved thermodynamic stability after dimensional reduction, the encapsulating organic ligands, and the compact perovskite film preventing oxygen ingress...
April 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Robin Vismara, Olindo Isabella, Miro Zeman
We present the optical investigation of a novel back-contacted architecture for solar cells based on a thin barium (di)silicide (BaSi<sub>2</sub>) absorber. First, through the analysis of absorption limits of different semiconducting materials, we show the potential of BaSi<sub>2</sub> for photovoltaic applications. Then, the proposed back contacted BaSi<sub>2</sub> solar cell design is investigated and optimized. An implied photocurrent density of 40.3 mA/cm<sup>2</sup> in a 1-μm thick absorber was achieved, paving the way for novel BaSi<sub>2</sub>-based thin-film solar cells...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Haejun Chung, Xingshu Sun, Aditya D Mohite, Rahul Singh, Lokendra Kumar, Muhammad A Alam, Peter Bermel
A key challenge in photovoltaics today is to develop cell technologies with both higher efficiencies and lower fabrication costs than incumbent crystalline silicon (c-Si) single-junction cells. While tandem cells have higher efficiencies than c-Si alone, it is generally challenging to find a low-cost, high-performance material to pair with c-Si. However, the recent emergence of 22% efficient perovskite photovoltaics has created a tremendous opportunity for high-performance, low-cost perovskite / crystalline silicon tandem photovoltaic cells...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Bikash Dev Choudhury, Srinivasan Anand
Radial junction nanopillar Si solar cells are interesting for cost effective efficiency improvement. Here, we address a convenient top-down fabrication of Si nanopillar solar cells using spin-on doping and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for conformal PN junction formation. Broadband suppressed reflection as low as an average of 5% in the 300-1100 nm wavelength range and un-optimized cell efficiency of 7.3% are achieved. The solar cell performance can be improved by optimization of spin-on-doping and suitable surface passivation...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Wei Chen, Shiqiang Luo, Zunyuan Wan, Xiyuan Feng, Xinke Liu, Zhubing He
As it already made huge effect in the commercialization of silicon and other photovoltaics, interface engineering is dispensable in the current and future evolution of hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) techniques. In order to solve carriers' recombination and detention at the cathode side of planar PSCs, in this work, Ruthenium acetylacetonate (RuAcac) was successfully adopted as a reliable and stable cathode interfacial layer (CIL) to improve the inverted planar PSCs. The power conversion efficiency of the optimal devices was enhanced from 12...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
David Ebner, Martin Bauch, Theodoros Dimopoulos
Transparent electrodes based on an ultrathin Cu layer, embedded between two dielectrics, are optimized by simulations and experiments. Different dielectrics are screened in transfer matrix simulations for maximizing the broad-band transmittance. Based on this, sputtered electrodes were developed with the Cu embedded between TiO<sub>X</sub>-coated glass or PET substrate and an Al-doped ZnO (AZO) top layer. It is found that, for ultrathin Cu layers, increased sputter power fosters island coalescence, leading to superior optical and electrical performance compared to previously reported Cu-based electrodes...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
Qilin Yu, Honggang Wang, Qi Peng, Ye Li, Zhe Liu, Mingchun Li
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are well-known nanomaterials (NMs), widely used in cosmetics, solar cells, photo-catalysts and additives. Anatase and rutile are the two main crystalline phases of TiO2 NPs and have distinct electrical and optical properties. However, their relative toxicity to organisms is a current topic of debate. In this study, we synthesize both anatase NPs (TiO2-A) and rutile NPs (TiO2-R) with similar particle sizes (20-40nm), surface areas (51-52m(2)/g) and Zeta potentials (-13.4 to -13.7mV), and investigate their toxicity to macrophages...
April 9, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Miki Osaka, Daisuke Mori, Hiroaki Benten, Hiroki Ogawa, Hideo Ohkita, Shinzaburo Ito
Charge transport in intermixed regions of all-polymer solar cells based on a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT; electron donor) with poly[2,7-(9,9-didodecylfluorene)-alt-5,5-(4',7'-bis(2-thienyl)-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole)] (PF12TBT; electron acceptor) was studied by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). For a blend film fabricated from a chlorobenzene solution, intermixed regions were detected between the P3HT-rich and PF12TBT-rich domains. The overall hole current in the intermixed regions remained almost constant, both before and after thermal annealing at 80 C, but it increased in the P3HT-rich domains...
April 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Renee Kroon, David Kiefer, Dominik Stegerer, Liyang Yu, Michael Sommer, Christian Müller
Molecular doping of organic semiconductors is critical for optimizing a range of optoelectronic devices such as field-effect transistors, solar cells, and thermoelectric generators. However, many dopant:polymer pairs suffer from poor solubility in common organic solvents, which leads to a suboptimal solid-state nanostructure and hence low electrical conductivity. A further drawback is the poor thermal stability through sublimation of the dopant. The use of oligo ethylene glycol side chains is demonstrated to significantly improve the processability of the conjugated polymer p(g4 2T-T)-a polythiophene-in polar aprotic solvents, which facilitates coprocessing of dopant:polymer pairs from the same solution at room temperature...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Stavros Athanasopoulos, Steffen Tscheuschner, Heinz Bässler, Anna Köhler
We demonstrate that efficient and nearly field-independent charge separation of electron-hole pairs in organic planar heterojunction solar cells can be described by an incoherent hopping mechanism. Using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations that include the effect of on-chain delocalization as well as entropic contributions, we simulate the dissociation of the charge-transfer state in polymer-fullerene bilayer solar cells. The model further explains experimental results of almost field independent charge separation in bilayers of molecular systems with fullerenes and provides important guidelines at the molecular level for maximizing the efficiencies of organic solar cells...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Yiying Li, Peicheng Li, Zheng-Hong Lu
An organic semiconductor thin film is a solid-state matter comprising one or more molecules. For applications in electronics and photonics, several distinct functional organic thin films are stacked together to create a variety of devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells. The energy levels at these thin-film junctions dictate various electronic processes such as the charge transport across these junctions, the exciton dissociation rates at donor-acceptor molecular interfaces, and the charge trapping during exciton formation in a host-dopant system...
April 24, 2017: Advanced Materials
Mohammad Mahdi Tavakoli, Aashir Waleed, Leilei Gu, Daquan Zhang, Rouhollah Tavakoli, Bingbing Lei, Wenjun Su, Fang Fang, Zhiyong Fan
In this work, a novel and facile synthesis process to fabricate single crystalline organometal halide perovskite nanowires has been successfully developed. Nanowires were grown in a high density ordered array from metal nanoclusters inside anodic aluminum oxide templates using a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition method. Specifically, perovskite NWs were grown as a result of the reaction between methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the Pb/Sn (Pb or Sn) metal in anodic aluminum oxide templates under optimal conditions...
April 24, 2017: Nanoscale
Nicklas Anttu, Vilgailė Dagytė, Xulu Zeng, Gaute Otnes, Magnus Borgström
III-V semiconductor nanowires are a platform for next-generation photovoltaics. An interesting research direction is to embed a nanowire array in a transparent polymer, either to act as a stand-alone flexible solar cell, or to be stacked on top of a conventional Si bottom cell to create a tandem structure. To optimize the tandem cell performance, high energy photons should be absorbed in the nanowires whereas low energy photons should be transmitted to and absorbed in the Si cell. Here, through optical measurements on 1...
April 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
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