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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214372/canonical-and-cellular-pathways-timing-gamete-release-in-acropora-digitifera-okinawa-japan
#1
Y Rosenberg, T Doniger, S Harii, F Sinniger, O Levy
Natural light cycles are important for synchronizing behavioral and physiological rhythms over varying time-periods in both plants and animals. An endogenous clock, regulated by positive and negative elements, interacting in feedback loops, control these rhythms. Many corals exhibit diel cycles of polyp expansion and contraction entrained by solar light patterns and monthly cycles of spawning or planulation that correspond to nocturnal lunar light cycles. However, despite considerable interest in studies of coral reproduction, there is currently not enough molecular information about the cellular pathways involved with synchronizing spawning/planulation in broadcast spawners and brooders...
February 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213657/the-roles-of-uvb-and-vitamin-d-in-reducing-risk-of-cancer-incidence-and-mortality-a-review-of-the-epidemiology-clinical-trials-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Meis Moukayed, William B Grant
Global cancer incidence and mortality rates are high and increasing. Thus, it is imperative to find novel solutions to preventing cancer incidence and treating it at an affordable yet efficacious manner. The solar UVB-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis was first proposed in 1980 based on a geographical ecological study. Since then, numerous ecological and observational studies as well as studies of mechanisms have provided support for the hypothesis. However, observational studies have not provided consistent support, in part due to using a single blood draw from any season to use for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration in prospective studies with long follow-up times...
February 17, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213142/extraction-preparation-and-application-of-pigments-from-cordyline-fruticosa-and-hylocereus-polyrhizus-as-sensitizers-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cells
#3
Mahmoud A M Al-Alwani, Norasikin A Ludin, Abu Bakar Mohamad, Abd Amir H Kadhum, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Current study employs mixture of chlorophyll-anthocyanin dye extracted from leaves of Cordyline fruticosa as new sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs), as well as betalains dye obtained from fruit of Hylocereus polyrhizus. Among ten pigments solvents, the ethanol and methanol extracts revealed higher absorption spectra of pigments extracted from C. fruticosa and H. polyrhizus respectively. A major effect of temperature increase was studied to increase the extraction yield. The results indicated that extraction temperature between 70 and 80°C exhibited a high dye concentration of each plant than other temperatures...
February 14, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212330/synthesis-of-8-aryl-o-methylcyanidins-and-their-usage-for-dye-sensitized-solar-cell-devices
#4
Yuki Kimura, Kin-Ichi Oyama, Yasujiro Murata, Atsushi Wakamiya, Kumi Yoshida
Anthocyanins as natural pigments are colorful and environmentally compatible dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). To increase the efficiency, we designed and synthesized unnatural O-methylflavonols and O-methylcyanidins that possess an aryl group at the 8-position. We synthesized per-O-methylquercetin from quercetin, then using selective demethylation prepared various O-methylquercetins. Using the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction, 8-arylation of per-O-methylquercetin was achieved. Using a LiAlH₄ reduction or Clemmensen reduction, these flavonols were transformed to the corresponding cyanidin derivatives in satisfactory yields...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211997/highly-conformal-ni-micromesh-as-a-current-collecting-front-electrode-for-reduced-cost-si-solar-cell
#5
Nikita Gupta, K D Mallikharjuna Rao, Ritu Gupta, Frederik C Krebs, Giridhar U Kulkarni
Despite relatively high manufacturing cost, crystalline-Si solar cell continues to hold promising future due to its high energy conversion efficiency and long life. As regards cost, one pertinent issue is the top electrode metallization of textured cell surface, which typically involves screen printing of silver paste. The associated disadvantages call for alternative methods that can lower the cost without compromising the solar cell efficiency. In the present work, a highly interconnected one dimensional (1D) metal wire network has been employed as front electrode on conventional Si wafers...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211919/high-performance-regular-perovskite-solar-cells-employing-low-cost-poly-ethylenedioxythiophene-as-a-hole-transporting-material
#6
Xiaoqing Jiang, Ze Yu, Yuchen Zhang, Jianbo Lai, Jiajia Li, Gagik G Gurzadyan, Xichuan Yang, Licheng Sun
Herein, we successfully applied a facile in-situ solid-state synthesis of conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) as a HTM, directly on top of the perovskite layer, in conventional mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) (n-i-p structure). The fabrication of the PEDOT film only involved a very simple in-situ solid-state polymerisation step from a monomer 2,5-dibromo-3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (DBEDOT) made from a commercially available and cheap starting material. The ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) demonstrated that the as-prepared PEDOT film possesses the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level of -5...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211893/superior-adsorption-and-photoinduced-carries-transfer-behaviors-of-dandelion-shaped-bi2s3-mos2-experiments-and-theory
#7
Mengjiao Li, Junyong Wang, Peng Zhang, Qinglin Deng, Jinzhong Zhang, Kai Jiang, Zhigao Hu, Junhao Chu
The enhanced light-harvesting capacity and effective separation of photogenerated carriers in fantastic hierarchical heterostructures enjoy striking attention for potential applications in the field of solar cells and photocatalysis. A three-dimensional (3D) dandelion-shaped hierarchical Bi2S3 microsphere compactly decorated with wing-shaped few layered MoS2 lamella (D-BM) was fabricated via a facile hydrothermal self-assembly process. Especially, polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been proven as the vital template to form D-BM microsphere...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211690/understanding-the-cubic-phase-stabilization-and-crystallization-kinetics-in-mixed-cations-and-halides-perovskite-single-crystals
#8
Li-Qiang Xie, Liang Chen, Zi-Ang Nan, Hai-Xin Lin, Tan Wang, Dongping Zhan, Jia-Wei Yan, Bing-Wei Mao, Zhong-Qun Tian
The spontaneous α-to-δ phase transition of the Formamidinium-based (FA) lead halide perovskite hinders its large scale application in solar cells. Though this phase transition can be inhibited by alloying with Methylammonium-based (MA) perovskite, the underlying mechanism is largely unexplored. In this communication, we grow high quality mixed cations and halides perovskite single crystals (FAPbI3)1-x(MAPbBr3)x to understand the principles for maintaining pure perovskite phase, which is essential to device optimization...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211671/organic-solar-cells-based-on-wo2-72-nanowire-anode-buffer-layer-with-enhanced-power-conversion-efficiency-and-ambient-stability
#9
Longzhen You, Bin Liu, Tao Liu, Bingbing Fan, Yunhao Cai, Lin Guo, Yanming Sun
Tungsten oxide as an alternative to conventional acidic PEDOT:PSS has attracted much attention in organic solar cells (OSCs). However, the vacuum-processed WO3 layer and high temperature sol-gel hydrolyzed WOX are incompatible with large-scale manufacturing of OSCs. Here, we report for the first time that a specific tungsten oxide WO2.72 (W18O49) nanowire can function well as the anode buffer layer. The nw-WO2.72 film exhibits a high optical transparency. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSCs based on three typical polymer active layers PTB7:PC71BM, PTB7-Th:PC71BM, and PDBT-T1:PC71BM with nw-WO2...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211274/large-grain-based-hole-blocking-layer-free-planar-type-perovskite-solar-cell-with-best-efficiency-of-18-20
#10
Haejun Yu, Jaehoon Ryu, Jong Woo Lee, Jongmin Roh, Kisu Lee, Juyoung Yun, Jungsup Lee, Yun Ki Kim, Doyk Hwang, Jooyoun Kang, Seong Keun Kim, Jyongsik Jang
There remains tremendous interest in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in the solar energy field; the certified power conversion efficiency (PCE) now exceeds 20 %. Along with research focused on enhancing PCE, studies are also underway concerning PSC commercialization. It is crucial to simplify the fabrication process and reduce the production cost to facilitate commercialization. Herein, we successfully fabricated highly efficient hole-blocking layer (HBL)-free PSCs through vigorously interrupting penetration of hole-transport material (HTM) into FTO by large grain based-CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) film, thereby obtaining a PCE of 18...
February 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211039/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-epidemiological-review
#11
REVIEW
A C Green, C M Olsen
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common cancer in white populations and its disease burden is often substantially underestimated. SCC occurs more often in men than women and increases dramatically with age; those affected often develop multiple primaries over time, which increases the burden. The main external cause is solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), with immunosuppression being the other established risk factor, shown by the high SCC rates in organ transplant recipients. Sunbed use and certain genetic disorders and medical conditions are also associated with SCC, while associations with human papillomavirus infection and high bodyweight are not established...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210924/porphyrin-based-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-dsscs-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Özgül Birel, Said Nadeem, Hakan Duman
The current review aims to collect short information about photovoltaic performance and structure of porphyrin-based sensitizers used in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Sensitizer is the key component of the DSSC device. Structure of sensitizer is important to achieve high photovoltaic performance. Porphyrin derivatives are suitable for DSSC applications due to their thermal, electronic and photovoltaic properties. It describes some electrochemical and spectral properties as well as thestructure of porphyrin dyes used in dye based-solar cells...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209964/ge-nanopillar-solar-cells-epitaxially-grown-by-metalorganic-chemical-vapor-deposition
#13
Youngjo Kim, Nguyen Dinh Lam, Kangho Kim, Won-Kyu Park, Jaejin Lee
Radial junction solar cells with vertically aligned wire arrays have been widely studied to improve the power conversion efficiency. In this work, we report the first Ge nanopillar solar cell. Nanopillar arrays are selectively patterned on p-type Ge (100) substrates using nanosphere lithography and deep reactive ion etching processes. Nanoscale radial and planar junctions are realized by an n-type Ge emitter layer which is epitaxially grown by MOCVD using isobutylgermane. In situ epitaxial surface passivation is employed using an InGaP layer to avoid high surface recombination rates and Fermi level pinning...
February 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209056/bulk-heterojunction-morphologies-with-atomistic-resolution-from-coarse-grain-solvent-evaporation-simulations
#14
Riccardo Alessandri, Jaakko J Uusitalo, Alex H De Vries, Remco W A Havenith, Siewert J Marrink
Control over the morphology of the active layer of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells is paramount to achieve high efficiency devices. However, no method currently available can predict morphologies for a novel donor:acceptor blend. An approach which allows to reach relevant length scales, retain chemical specificity, mimic experimental fabrication conditions, and which is suited for high-throughput schemes has been proven challenging to find. Here, we propose a method to generate atom-resolved morphologies of BHJs which conforms to these requirements...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209035/electrospun-perovskite-nanofibers
#15
Dongsheng Chen, Yanyan Zhu
CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite nanofibers were synthesized by versatile electrospinning techniques. The synthetic CH3NH3PbI3 nanofibers were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and photoluminescence. As counter electrodes, the synthesized nanofibers increased the performance of the dye-sensitized solar cells from 1.58 to 2.09%. This improvement was attributed to the enhanced smoothness and efficiency of the electron transport path. Thus, CH3NH3PbI3 perovskites nanofibers are potential alternative to platinum counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208783/influence-of-weak-base-addition-to-hole-collecting-buffer-layers-in-polymer-fullerene-solar-cells
#16
Jooyeok Seo, Soohyeong Park, Myeonghun Song, Jaehoon Jeong, Chulyeon Lee, Hwajeong Kim, Youngkyoo Kim
We report the effect of weak base addition to acidic polymer hole-collecting layers in normal-type polymer:fullerene solar cells. Varying amounts of the weak base aniline (AN) were added to solutions of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The acidity of the aniline-added PEDOT:PSS solutions gradually decreased from pH = 1.74 (AN = 0 mol% ) to pH = 4.24 (AN = 1.8 mol %). The electrical conductivity of the PEDOT:PSS-AN films did not change much with the pH value, while the ratio of conductivity between out-of-plane and in-plane directions was dependent on the pH of solutions...
February 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208016/highly-efficient-and-exceptionally-durable-co2-photoreduction-to-methanol-over-freestanding-defective-single-unit-cell-bismuth-vanadate-layers
#17
Shan Gao, Bingchuan Gu, Xingchen Jiao, Yongfu Sun, Xiaolong Zu, Fan Yang, Wenguang Zhu, Chengming Wang, Zimou Feng, Bangjiao Ye, Yi Xie
Unearthing an ideal model for disclosing the role of defect sites in solar CO2 reduction remains a great challenge. Here, freestanding gram-scale single-unit-cell o-BiVO4 layers are successfully synthesized for the first time. Positron annihilation spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence unveil their distinct vanadium vacancy concentrations. Density functional calculations reveal the introduction of vanadium vacancies brings a new defect level and higher hole concentration near Fermi level, resulting in increased photoabsorption and superior electronic conductivity...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207241/zero-thermal-expansion-and-semiconducting-properties-in-pbtio3-bi-co-ti-o3-ferroelectric-solid-solutions
#18
Zhao Pan, Jun Chen, Xingxing Jiang, Zheshuai Lin, Linxing Zhang, Longlong Fan, Yangchun Rong, Lei Hu, Hui Liu, Yang Ren, Xiaojun Kuang, Xianran Xing
Zero thermal expansion (ZTE) behavior is rare but important for both fundamental studies and practical applications of functional materials. Until now, most available ZTE materials are either electrical insulating oxides or conductive metallic compounds. Very few ZTE materials exhibit the semiconductor feature. Here we report a ZTE in a semiconducting ferroelectric of 0.6PbTiO3-0.4Bi(Co0.55Ti0.45)O3-δ. Its unit cell volume exhibits a negligible change over a broad temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C...
February 16, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203516/solar-to-fuels-conversion-technologies-a-perspective
#19
Harry L Tuller
To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store...
2017: Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198628/protection-of-photosynthetic-algae-against-ultraviolet-radiation-by-one-step-ceo2-shellization
#20
Pengqiang Duan, Tingting Huang, Wei Xiong, Lei Shu, Yuling Yang, Changyu Shao, Xurong Xu, Weimin Ma, Ruikang Tang
Photosynthetic microalgae play an important role in solar-to-chemical energy conversion on Earth but the increasing solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation seriously reduces the biological photosynthesis. Here we developed a one-step approach to construct cell-in-shell hybrid structure by using direct adsorption of CeO2 nanoparticles onto cells. The engineered CeO2 nanoshell can efficiently protect the enclosed Chlorella cell due to its excellent UV filter property, which can also eliminate UV-induced oxidative stress...
February 15, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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