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solar cell

Xin Wang, Junjie He, Benqing Zhou, Youming Zhang, Jiatao Wu, Rui Hu, Liwei Liu, Jun Song, Junle Qu
As a highly stable bandgap semiconductor, antimonene is an intriguing two-dimensional (2D) material in optoelectronics. However, its short layer distance and strong binding energy make it challenging to prepare high-quality large 2D antimonene; therefore, its predicted tunable bandgap has not been experimentally confirmed. In this work, we used a novel and simple approach to prepare smooth and large 2D antimonene with uniform layers through a pregrinding and subsequent sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation process...
May 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Haoxuan Sun, Kaimo Deng, Yayun Zhu, Min Liao, Jie Xiong, Yanrong Li, Liang Li
Lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) typically use mesoporous metal oxide nanoparticles as the scaffold and electron-transport layers. However, the traditional mesoporous layer suffers from low electron conductivity and severe carrier recombination. Here, antimony-doped tin oxide nanorod arrays are proposed as novel transparent conductive mesoporous layers in PSCs. Such a mesoporous layer improves the electron transport as well as light utilization. To resolve the common problem of uneven growth of perovskite on rough surface, the dynamic two-step spin coating strategy is proposed to prepare highly smooth, dense, and crystallized perovskite films with micrometer-scale grains, largely reducing the carrier recombination ratio...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Seongrok Seo, Seonghwa Jeong, Changdeuck Bae, Nam-Gyu Park, Hyunjung Shin
Despite the high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), poor long-term stability is one of the main obstacles preventing their commercialization. Several approaches to enhance the stability of PSCs have been proposed. However, an accelerating stability test of PSCs at high temperature under the operating conditions in ambient air remains still to be demonstrated. Herein, interface-engineered stable PSCs with inorganic charge-transport layers are shown. The highly conductive Al-doped ZnO films act as efficient electron-transporting layers as well as dense passivation layers...
May 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Jong-Won Yun, Farman Ullah, Se-Jeong Jang, Do Hui Kim, Tri Khoa Nguyen, Ki Yeon Ryu, Shinuk Cho, Joon I Jang, Dooyong Lee, Sungkyun Park, Yong Soo Kim
Over the last decades, the spin coating (SC) technique has been widely used to prepare thin films of various materials in liquid phase on arbitrary substrates. The technique simply relies on centrifugal force to spread a coating solution radially outwards over the substrate. This mechanism works fairly well for solutions with low surface tension to form thin films of reasonable junctions on smooth substrates. Here, we present a modified SC technique, namely ultrasonic-assisted spin-coating (UASC), to form thin films of coating solution having high surface tension on rough substrates with excellent junctions...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Marinos Tountas, Apostolis Verykios, Ermioni Polydorou, Andreas Kaltzoglou, Anastasia Soultati, Nikolaos Balis, Panagiotis A Angaridis, Michael Papadakis, Vasilis Nikolaou, Florian Auras, Leonidas C Palilis, Dimitris Tsikritzis, Evangelos Evangelou, Spyros Gardelis, Matroni Koutsoureli, George Papaioannou, Ioannis D Petsalakis, Stella Kennou, Dimitris Davazoglou, Panagiotis Argitis, Polycarpos Falaras, Athanassios G Coutsolelos, Maria Vasilopoulou
In the present work, we effectively modify the TiO2 electron transport layer of organic solar cells with an inverted architecture by using appropriately engineered porphyrin molecules. The results show that the optimized porphyrin modifier bearing two carboxylic acids as the anchoring groups and a triazine electron-withdrawing spacer significantly reduces the work function of TiO2 thereby reducing the electron extraction barrier. Moreover, the lower surface energy of the porphyrin-modified substrate results in better physical compatibility between the latter and the photoactive blend...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yao Wang, Chenghao Duan, Jiangsheng Li, Wei Han, Min Zhao, Lili Yao, Yuanyuan Wang, Chao Yan, Tonggang Jiu
In this work, PC61BM:SnO2 electron transport layers (ETLs) were applied in inverted CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells and a high power conversion efficiency of 19.7% could be obtained. It increased by 49.0% in comparison with the device based on PC61BM-only ETL (13.2%). SnO2 nanocrystals with excellent dispersibility were employed here to fill the pin-holes and cover the valleys of PC61BM layer, forming smooth and compact PC61BM:SnO2 layers. Simultaneously, the electron traps caused by deep-level native defects of SnO2 were reduced by PC61BM proved by the space charge limited current analysis...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Peng Xu, Peng Liu, Yuanyuan Li, Bo Xu, Lars Kloo, Licheng Sun, Yong Hua
Two D-A-D structured hole-transport materials (YN1 and YN2) have been synthesized and used in perovskite solar cells. The two HTMs have low-lying HOMO levels and impressive mobility. PSCs fabricated with YN2 showed a PCE value of 19.27% in ambient air, which is significantly higher than that of Spiro-OMeTAD (17.80%). PSCs based on YN1 showed an inferior PCE of 16.03%. We found that the incorporation of the stronger electron-withdrawing group in the HTM YN2 improves the PCE of PSCs. Furthermore, the YN2-based PSCs exhibit good long-term stability retaining 91...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Edison Castro, Gerardo Zavala, Sairaman Seetharaman, Francis D'Souza, Luis Echegoyen
The effect of utilizing a pure cis -α-dimethoxy carbonyl fulleropyrrolidine C70 (DMEC70 ) isomer as the electron transporting material (ETM) in inverted perovskite solar cells (PSCs) was evaluated. The as-prepared C70 mono-adduct products are mixtures of regioisomers and the interest was to evaluate them independently as ETMs. Three different cis -DMEC70 isomers (α, β- endo and β- exo ) (mix-DMEC70 ) were synthesized and purified by HPLC. It was found that PSCs based on the pure α-DMEC70 exhibit a substantially enhanced maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 18...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. A, Materials for Energy and Sustainability
Romain Carron, Enrico Avancini, Thomas Feurer, Benjamin Bissig, Paolo A Losio, Renato Figi, Claudia Schreiner, Melanie Bürki, Emilie Bourgeois, Zdenek Remes, Milos Nesladek, Stephan Buecheler, Ayodhya N Tiwari
Cu(In,Ga)Se2 based solar cells have reached efficiencies close to 23%. Further knowledge-driven improvements require accurate determination of the material properties. Here, we present refractive indices for all layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with high efficiency. The optical bandgap of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 does not depend on the Cu content in the explored composition range, while the absorption coefficient value is primarily determined by the Cu content. An expression for the absorption spectrum is proposed, with Ga and Cu compositions as parameters...
2018: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials
Yi-Jiun Huang, Hsiu-Cheng Chen, Hsi-Kuei Lin, Kung-Hwa Wei
In this study, we incorporated molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets into sol-gel processing of zinc oxide (ZnO) to form ZnO:MoS2 composites for use as electron transport layers (ETLs) in inverted polymer solar cells featuring a binary bulk heterojunction active layer. We could effectively tune the energy band of the ZnO:MoS2 composite film from 4.45 to 4.22eV by varying the content of MoS2 up to 0.5 wt%, such that the composite was suitable for use in bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices based on poly[bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thien-2-yl)benzodithiophene-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-fluorothienothiophene)-2-carboxylate-2,6-diyl)] (PTB7-TH):phenyl-C71-butryric acid methyl ester (PC71BM)...
May 22, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wen-Jeng Ho, Bang-Jin You, Jheng-Jie Liu, Wen-Bin Bai, Hong-Jhang Syu, Ching-Fuh Lin
This paper presents a scheme for the enhancement of silicon solar cells in terms of luminescent emission band and photovoltaic performance. The proposed devices are coated with an luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layer comprising three species of europium (Eu)-doped phosphors mixed within a silicate film (SiO₂) using a spin-on film deposition. The three species of phosphor were mixed at ratios of 0.5:1:1.5, 1:1:1, or 1.5:1:0.5 in weight percentage (wt %). The total quantity of Eu-doped phosphors in the silicate solution was fixed at 3 wt %...
May 18, 2018: Materials
Xiu Gong, Qiang Sun, Shuangshuang Liu, Peizhe Liao, Yan Shen, Carole Graetzel, Shaik Mohammed Zakeeruddin, Michael Grätzel, Mingkui Wang
Electron transport layers (ETLs) with suitable energy level alignment for facilitating charge carrier transport as well as electron extraction are essential for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells (PSCs) to achieve high open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current. Herein we systematically investigate band offset between ETL and perovskite absorber by tuning F doping level in SnO2 nanocrystal. We demonstrate that gradual substitution of F- into the SnO2 ETL can effectively reduce the band offset and result in a substantial increase in device VOC...
May 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Xiaopeng Xu, Zuojia Li, Zhaozhao Bi, Ting Yu, Wei Ma, Kui Feng, Ying Li, Qiang Peng
A novel wide-bandgap copolymer of PBDT-ODZ based on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b' ]dithiophene (BDT) and 1,3,4-oxadiazole (ODZ) blocks is developed for efficient nonfullerene polymer solar cells (NF-PSCs). PBDT-ODZ exhibits a wide bandgap of 2.12 eV and a low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of -5.68 eV, which could match well with the low-bandgap acceptor of 3,9-bis(2-methylene-(3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-indanone)-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylthienyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']-dithiophene (ITIC-Th), inducing a good complementary absorption from 300 to 800 nm and a minimal HOMO level offset (0...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Taehyo Kim, Saewon Kang, Jungwoo Heo, Seungse Cho, Jae Won Kim, Ayoung Choe, Bright Walker, Ravi Shanker, Hyunhyub Ko, Jin Young Kim
Improved performance in plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) and organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) via strong plasmon-coupling effects generated by aligned silver nanowire (AgNW) transparent electrodes decorated with core-shell silver-silica nanoparticles (Ag@SiO2 NPs) is demonstrated. NP-enhanced plasmonic AgNW (Ag@SiO2 NP-AgNW) electrodes enable substantially enhanced radiative emission and light absorption efficiency due to strong hybridized plasmon coupling between localized surface plasmons (LSPs) and propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) modes, which leads to improved device performance in organic optoelectronic devices (OODs)...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Haijun Bin, Jia Yao, Yankang Yang, Indunil Angunawela, Chenkai Sun, Liang Gao, Long Ye, Beibei Qiu, Lingwei Xue, Chenhui Zhu, Chunhe Yang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Harald Ade, Yongfang Li
Two medium-bandgap p-type organic small molecules H21 and H22 with an alkylsily-thienyl conjugated side chain on benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene central units are synthesized and used as donors in all-small-molecule organic solar cells (SM-OSCs) with a narrow-bandgap n-type small molecule 2,2'-((2Z,2'Z)-((4,4,9,9-tetrahexyl-4,9-dihydro-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene-2,7-diyl)bis(methanylylidene))bis(3-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-indene-2,1-diylidene))dimalononitrile (IDIC) as the acceptor. In comparison to H21 with 3-ethyl rhodanine as the terminal group, H22 with cyanoacetic acid esters as the terminal group shows blueshifted absorption, higher charge-carrier mobility and better 3D charge pathway in blend films...
May 21, 2018: Advanced Materials
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Benigno Monteagudo, Miguel Cabanillas, Pilar Iriarte, Aquilina Ramírez-Santos, Elvira León-Muinos, Daniel González-Vilas, Óscar Suárez-Amor
Clindamycin is a lincomycin-derived antibiotic useful for the treatment of anaerobic and Gram-positive aerobic bacterial infections. Cutaneous adverse reactions are usually maculopapular exanthemas, although hypersensitivity syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have also been reported (1). We report the case of a patient with a maculopapular rash triggered by clindamycin who developed cutaneous lesions on striae distensae (SD). A 47-year-old woman was referred to our clinic for pruritic cutaneous lesions which had started 6 days earlier...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Griffin Canning, Alan K Thomas, David H Dunlap, John K Grey
Non-geminate charge recombination occurs over a broad range of time scales in polymer solar cells and represents a serious loss channel for the performance and lifetime of devices. Multiple factors influence this process, including changes in morphology and formation of permanent defects, but individual contributions are often difficult to resolve from conventional experiment. We use intensity modulated photocurrent/photovoltage spectroscopy (IMPS/IMVS) to investigate non-geminate charge recombination in blends of poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b']dithiophene)-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)] (PCPDTBT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, PCBM) solar cells...
May 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wouter Vijselaar, Roald M Tiggelaar, Han Gardeniers, Jurriaan Huskens
Most photoanodes commonly applied in solar fuel research (e.g., of Fe2 O3 , BiVO4 , TiO2 , or WO3 ) are only active and stable in alkaline electrolytes. Silicon (Si)-based photocathodes on the other hand are mainly studied under acidic conditions due to their instability in alkaline electrolytes. Here, we show that the in-diffusion of nickel into a 3D Si structure, upon thermal annealing, yields a thin (sub-100 nm), defect-free nickel silicide (NiSi) layer. This has allowed us to design and fabricate a Si microwire photocathode with a NiSi interlayer between the catalyst and the Si microwires...
May 11, 2018: ACS Energy Letters
Hayato Ouchi, Takahiro Kizaki, Masaki Yamato, Xu Lin, Nagahiro Hoshi, Fabien Silly, Takashi Kajitani, Takanori Fukushima, Ken-Ichi Nakayama, Shiki Yagai
Helical self-assembly of functional π-conjugated molecules offers unique photochemical and electronic properties in the spectroscopic level, but there are only a few examples that demonstrate their positive impact on the optoelectronic device level. Here, we demonstrate that hydrogen-bonded tapelike supramolecular polymers of a barbiturated oligo(alkylthiophene) show notable improvement in their photovoltaic properties upon organizing into helical nanofibers. A tapelike hydrogen-bonded supramolecular array of barbiturated oligo(butylthiophene) molecules was directly visualized by STM at a liquid-solid interface...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
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