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Shuo Jia, Chao Bian, Jizhou Sun, Jianhua Tong, Shanhong Xia
The study presented herein investigated an easy preparation, high performance, wavelength-modulated LSPR optical fiber chemosensor coated by gold nanospheres(AuNS) for Hg2+ detection based on thymine-Hg2+ -thymine base pair mismatches and the coupled plasmonic resonance effect.Utilizing electrostatic self-assembly method, the high density and dispersivity monolayer AuNS coated LSPR fiber sensor had the near field refractive index sensitivity up to 2016 nm/RIU. The single-strand probe DNA served as a binding element for free AuNS labelled-target DNA conjugates was attached to the monolayer AuNS by Au-S bond...
May 8, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Tao Liu, Lijun Huo, Sreelakshmi Chandrabose, Kai Chen, Guangchao Han, Feng Qi, Xiangyi Meng, Dongjun Xie, Wei Ma, Yuanping Yi, Justin M Hodgkiss, Feng Liu, Jing Wang, Chuluo Yang, Yanming Sun
A polymer fibril assembly can dictate the morphology framework, in forming a network structure, which is highly advantageous in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs). A fundamental understanding of how to manipulate such a fibril assembly and its influence on the BHJ morphology and device performance is crucially important. Here, a series of donor-acceptor polymers, PBT1-O, PBT1-S, and PBT1-C, is used to systematically investigate the relationship between molecular structure, morphology, and photovoltaic performance...
May 18, 2018: Advanced Materials
N A M Araújo, R A da Costa, S N Dorogovtsev, J F F Mendes
Three-dimensional shells can be synthesized from the spontaneous self-folding of two-dimensional templates of interconnected panels, called nets. However, some nets are more likely to self-fold into the desired shell under random movements. The optimal nets are the ones that maximize the number of vertex connections, i.e., vertices that have only two of its faces cut away from each other in the net. Previous methods for finding such nets are based on random search, and thus, they do not guarantee the optimal solution...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Karim Raafat Gadelrab, Yi Ding, Ricardo Pablo-Pedro, Hsieh Chen, Kevin W Gotrik, David G Tempel, Caroline A Ross, Alfredo Alexander-Katz
Understanding the conditions under which defects appear in self-assembling soft-matter systems is of great importance, for example, in the development of block-copolymer (BCP) nanolithography. Here, we explore the limits of directed self-assembly of BCPs by deliberately adding random imperfections in the template. Our results show that defects emerge due to local "shear-like" distortions of the polymer-template system, a new mechanism that is fundamentally different from canonical mechanisms of 2D melting...
May 18, 2018: Nano Letters
Hongbin Wang, Lijia Liu, Runwei Wang, Xiao Yan, Ziqi Wang, Jiangtao Hu, Haibiao Chen, Shang Jiang, Ling Ni, Hailong Qiu, Haitong Tang, Yingjin Wei, Zongtao Zhang, Qiu Shilun, Feng Pan
LiFePO4@C/rGO hierarchical microspheres with superior electrochemical activity and high tap density were first synthesized using a Fe3+-based single inorganic precursor (LiFePO4OH@RF/GO) obtained from a template-free self-assembly synthesis, following with direct calcination. The synthesis process requires no physical mixing step. The phase transformation path way from tavorite LiFePO4OH to olivine LiFePO4 upon calcination was determined by the in situ high temperature XRD technique. Benefitted from the unique structure of the material, these microspheres can be densely packed together, giving a high tap density of 1...
May 18, 2018: ChemSusChem
Zhanqiang Xu, Kazuaki Oniwa, Hiromasa Kikuchi, Ming Bao, Yoshinori Yamamoto, Tienan Jin, Masahiro Terada
Star-shaped π-extended molecules comprising discotic aromatic cores and peripheral π-conjugated arms have attracted significant attention as diverse optoelectronic materials in terms of their large π-surface, tunable self-assembly, enhanced charge transport and fluorescence, and liquid crystallinity. Although many efforts have been made in construction of various aromatic discotic cores, a new class of C3-symmetric star-shaped discotic π-molecules consisting of electron-deficient benzotristhiazole and benzotrisoxazole cores remains unexplored owing to the unachievable synthetic approaches, which are expected to exhibit distinct optoelectronic properties...
May 18, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Mohammad Aref Khalily, Hakan Usta, Mehmet Ozdemir, Gokhan Bakan, F Begum Dikecoglu, Charlotte Edwards-Gayle, Jessica A Hutchinson, Ian W Hamley, Aykutlu Dana, Mustafa O Guler
π-Conjugated small molecules based on a [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) unit are of great research interest in the development of solution-processable semiconducting materials owing to their excellent charge-transport characteristics. However, the BTBT π-core has yet to be demonstrated in the form of electro-active one-dimensional (1D) nanowires that are self-assembled in aqueous media for potential use in bioelectronics and tissue engineering. Here we report the design, synthesis, and self-assembly of benzothienobenzothiophene (BTBT)-peptide conjugates, the BTBT-peptide (BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am) and the C8-BTBT-peptide (C8-BTBT-C3-COHN-Ahx-VVAGKK-Am), as β-sheet forming amphiphilic molecules, which self-assemble into highly uniform nanofibers in water with diameters of 11-13(±1) nm and micron-size lengths...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Yifei Han, Yukui Tian, Zijian Li, Feng Wang
The bottom-up self-assembly of donor-acceptor (D-A) units has received tremendous attention in recent years. Charge-transfer interactions, which are inherently embedded in D-A pairs, have suffered from some disadvantages such as erratic arrangements and weak binding affinity, thus hampering the precise arrangement of D-A units into long-range-ordered supramolecular polymers. To address this issue, a feasible protocol is to incorporate D-A units into molecular tweezers/guest recognition motifs, which concurrently feature high complexation directionality, strong binding affinity and stimuli-responsiveness...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Daniel Morales Salazar, Arvind Kumar Gupta, Andreas Orthaber
A P[double bond, length as m-dash]C heavy-alkene analogue that is unreactive towards the addition of strong acids on its double-bond is presented; instead, a strategically located imine nitrogen on the periphery forms protonated adducts displaying hydrogen bonding interactions. These materials are significantly more stable than the parent species, demonstrating an unprecedented approach towards the stabilisation of a multiple-bonded heavy main group fragment, in this case, a phosphaalkene. An HCl adduct self-assembles with H2O into a dimeric network displaying a discrete quadrilateral hydrogen-bonded arrangement...
May 18, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Katharina Brassat, Daniel Kool, Julius Bürger, Jörg K N Lindner
Bottom-up patterning techniques allow for the creation of surfaces with ordered arrays of nanoscale features on large areas. Two bottom-up techniques suitable for the formation of regular nanopatterns on different length scales are nanosphere lithography (NSL) and block copolymer (BCP) lithography. In this paper it is shown that NSL and BCP lithography can be combined to easily design hierarchically nanopatterned surfaces of different materials. Nanosphere lithography is used for the pre-patterning of surfaces with antidots, i...
May 18, 2018: Nanoscale
Kevin M Burridge, Thaiesha A Wright, Richard C Page, Dominik Konkolewicz
This review article highlights recent developments in the field of photochemistry and photochemical reversible deactivation radical polymerization applied to aqueous polymerizations. Photochemistry is a topic of significant interest in the fields of organic, polymer, and materials chemistry because it allows challenging reactions to be performed under mild conditions. Aqueous polymerization is of significant interest because water is an environmentally benign solvent, and the use of water enables complex polymer self-assembly and bioconjugation processes to occur...
May 17, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Xiao Zhang, Xianghui Xu, Yachao Li, Cheng Hu, Zhijun Zhang, Zhongwei Gu
Poor drug penetration into tumor cells and tissues is a worldwide difficulty in cancer therapy. A strategy is developed for virion-like membrane-breaking nanoparticles (MBNs) to smoothly accomplish tumor-activated cell-and-tissue dual-penetration for surmounting impermeable drug-resistant cancer. Tailor-made dendritic arginine-rich peptide prodrugs are designed to mimic viral protein transduction domains and globular protein architectures. Attractively, these protein mimics self-assemble into virion-like nanoparticles in aqueous solution, having highly ordered secondary structure...
May 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Shiyu Dai, Tao Zhang, Yanfang Zhang, Hualin Wang, Fei Deng
The newly emerged mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) strains pose a global challenge owing to its ability to cause microcephaly and neurological disorders. Several ZIKV vaccine candidates have been proposed, including inactivated and live attenuated virus vaccines, vector-based vaccines, DNA and RNA vaccines. These have been shown to be efficacious in preclinical studies in mice and nonhuman primates, but their use will potentially be a threat to immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are empty particles composed merely of viral proteins, which can serve as a safe and valuable tool for clinical prevention and treatment strategies...
May 17, 2018: Virologica Sinica
Asena Goren, Daniel Ashlock, Ian J Tetlow
Starch is a water-insoluble polyglucan synthesized inside the plastid stroma within plant cells, serving a crucial role in the carbon budget of the whole plant by acting as a short-term and long-term store of energy. The highly complex, hierarchical structure of the starch granule arises from the actions of a large suite of enzyme activities, in addition to physicochemical self-assembly mechanisms. This review outlines current knowledge of the starch biosynthetic pathway operating in plant cells in relation to the micro- and macro-structures of the starch granule...
May 17, 2018: Protoplasma
Qingchen Dong, Zhengong Meng, Cheuk-Lam Ho, Hongen Guo, Weiyou Yang, Ian Manners, Linli Xu, Wai-Yeung Wong
In recent years, metallopolymers have attracted much attention as precursors to generate magnetic metal/metal alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through pyrolysis or photolysis because they offer the advantages of ease of solution processability, atomic level mixing and stoichiometric control over composition. The as-generated NPs usually possess narrow size distributions with precise control of composition and density per unit area. Moreover, patterned NPs can be achieved on various substrates in this way owing to the good film-forming property of metallopolymers and such work is important for many applications based on metal nanostructures...
May 18, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Cheol Am Hong, Ho Yeon Son, Yoon Sung Nam
For tissue engineering applications, small interfering RNA (siRNA) is an attractive agent for controlling cellular functions and differentiation. Although polyionic condensation of nucleic acids with polycations has been widely used for gene delivery, siRNA is not strongly associated with cationic carriers due to its low charge density and rigid molecular structures. The use of an excess amount of cationic carriers is often used for siRNA condensation, though they can induce severe cytotoxicity. Here we introduce the self-assembly of siRNA with mild polyelectrolytes into multilayers for efficient gene silencing during cell proliferation...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Krishnashish Bose, Christopher J Lech, Brahim Heddi, Anh Tuân Phan
We investigate the self-assembly of short pieces of the Tetrahymena telomeric DNA sequence d[G4 T2 G4 ] in physiologically relevant aqueous solution using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Wire-like structures (G-wires) of 3.0 nm height with well-defined surface periodic features were observed. Analysis of high-resolution AFM images allowed their classification based on the periodicity of these features. A major species is identified with periodic features of 4.3 nm displaying left-handed ridges or zigzag features on the molecular surface...
May 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Martin Gericke, Lars Gabriel, Katja Geitel, Stefan Benndorf, Poonam Trivedi, Pedro Fardim, Thomas Heinze
Xylan phenyl carbonate (XPC) derivatives were prepared and characterized comprehensively. By conversion of xylan with phenyl chloroformate either in dipolar aprotic solvents with LiCl or in an ionic liquid, XPC with degrees of substitution (DS) of up to 2.0, i.e., fully functionalized derivatives, could be obtained. The synthesis was studied with respect to the influence of different reaction parameters. It was found that the reaction medium as well as the type of starting xylan strongly affected the efficiency of the derivatization...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Gönül Yavuz, Andrea Zille, Necdet Seventekin, Antonio P Souto
The structural coloration of a chitosan-coated woven cotton fabric obtained by glutaraldehyde-stabilized deposition of electrostatic self-assembled monodisperse and spherically uniform (250 nm) poly (styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) photonic crystal nanospheres (P(St-MMA-AA)) was investigated. Bright iridescent coatings displaying different colors in function of the viewing angle were obtained. The SEM, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, TGA, DSC and FTIR analyses confirm the presence of structural color and the glutaraldehyde and chitosan ability to provide durable chemical bonding between cotton fabric and photonic crystal (PCs) coating with the highest degradation temperature and the lowest enthalpy...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Chien-Ho Chen, Yung-Song Lin, Shao-Jung Wu, Fwu-Long Mi
Self-assembled nanoparticles (NPs) from arginine-modified chitosan (CS-N-Arg) and thiolated fucoidan (THL-fucoidan) were synthesized to enhance the transport of dextran and curcumin across intestinal epithelial cell layer. CS-N-Arg/THL-fucoidan NPs exhibited a pH-sensitive assembly-disassembly and drug release property. Evaluations of the NPs in enhancing the transport of a hydrophilic macromolecule (FITC-dextran) and a hydrophobic drug (curcumin) were investigated in Caco-2 cell monolayers. The cationic CS-N-Arg in the NPs induced disruption of intestinal epithelial tight junctions as indicated by the decrease of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER)...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
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