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Upper esophageal sphincter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337826/diagnostic-outcome-of-contrast-videofluoroscopic-swallowing-studies-in-216-dysphagic-dogs
#1
Rachel E Pollard, Stanley L Marks, Diane M Cheney, Cecily M Bonadio
Determining the anatomic and functional origin for dysphagia is critical for development of an appropriate therapeutic plan and determination of the prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to report the quantitative and qualitative outcome of contrast videofluoroscopic swallowing studies in a large cohort of dysphagic dogs presenting to a tertiary veterinary care hospital. The videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were reviewed to generate values for pharyngeal constriction ratio, timing of swallowing events (maximum pharyngeal contraction, opening of upper esophageal sphincter, closing of upper esophageal sphincter, and reopening of epiglottis), type of esophageal peristalsis generated, and esophageal transit time...
March 23, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289859/diagnosis-of-swallowing-disorders-how-we-interpret-pharyngeal-manometry
#2
REVIEW
Charles Cock, Taher Omari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of the clinical application of novel pharyngeal high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) with pressure flow analysis (PFA) in our hands with example cases. RECENT FINDINGS: In our Centre, we base our interpretation of HRIM recordings upon a qualitative assessment of pressure-impedance waveforms during individual swallows, as well as a quantitative assessment of averaged PFA swallow function variables. We provide a description of two global swallowing efficacy measures, the swallow risk index (SRI), reflecting global swallowing dysfunction (higher SRI = greater aspiration risk) and the post-swallow impedance ratio (PSIR) detecting significant post-swallow bolus residue...
March 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275351/botulinum-toxin-is-effective-in-the-management-of-neurogenic-dysphagia-clinical-electrophysiological-findings-and-tips-on-safety-in-different-neurological-disorders
#3
Enrico Alfonsi, Domenico A Restivo, Giuseppe Cosentino, Roberto De Icco, Giulia Bertino, Antonio Schindler, Massimiliano Todisco, Mauro Fresia, Andrea Cortese, Paolo Prunetti, Matteo C Ramusino, Arrigo Moglia, Giorgio Sandrini, Cristina Tassorelli
Background and Aims: Neurogenic dysphagia linked to failed relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) can be treated by injecting botulinum toxin (BTX) into the cricopharyngeal (CP) muscle. We compared the effects of this treatment in different neurological disorders with dysphagia, to evaluate its efficacy over time including the response to a second injection. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients with neurogenic dysphagia associated with incomplete or absent opening of the UES (24 with brainstem or hemispheric stroke, 21 with parkinsonian syndromes, 12 with multiple sclerosis, and 10 with spastic-dystonic syndromes secondary to post-traumatic encephalopathy) were treated with the injection of IncobotulinumtoxinA (dose 15-20 U) into the CP muscle under electromyographic guidance...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273277/esophageal-motility-in-men-and-women-evaluated-by-high-resolution-manometry
#4
Tarciana Vieira Costa, Roberto Oliveira Dantas
BACKGROUND: Esophageal motility has been described in the literature as having differences between men and women. Most of these investigations use the water perfusion method for esophageal manometry. In this investigation the esophageal motility of men and women was compared with high-resolution manometry of the esophagus. OBJECTIVE: To compare the esophageal motility of men and women with the high-resolution manometry method for esophageal manometry, performed in the sitting position...
February 23, 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268924/modeling-of-pharyngoesophageal-segment-during-tracheoesophageal-phonation-in-total-laryngectomy-patients-with-preliminary-validation
#5
Teng Zhang, Siwei Bai, Ian Cook, Michal Szczesniak, Julia Maclean, Socrates Dokos
For patients with large or recurrent laryngeal cancer, total laryngectomy surgery is usually performed. In the absence of a larynx, tracheoesophageal (TE) voice is the gold standard for alaryngeal phonation. The mechanisms underlying TE voice are unknown, but pharyngoesophageal (PE) segment vibration has been shown to play a key role. The aim of this study was to systematically explore the mechanics of PE segment vibration during TE phonation. A 2D axisymmetric finite-element model with two domains representing the air and PE wall was developed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267445/abdominal-compression-by-waist-belt-aggravates-gastroesophageal-reflux-primarily-by-impairing-esophageal-clearance
#6
David R Mitchell, Mohammad H Derakhshan, Angela A Wirz, Stuart A Ballantyne, Kenneth E L McColl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Central obesity promotes gastroesophageal reflux and this may be related to increased intra-abdominal pressure. We investigated the effect of increasing abdominal pressure by waist belt on reflux in patients with reflux disease. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of patients with esophagitis (n=8) or Barrett's esophagus (n=6); their median age was 56 years and their median body mass index, 26.8. Proton pump inhibitors were stopped at least 7 days before the study and H2 receptor antagonists were stopped for at least 24 hours before...
March 3, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264069/alcohol-and-tea-consumption-are-associated-with-asymptomatic-erosive-esophagitis-in-taiwanese-men
#7
Chung-Hsin Chang, Cheng-Pin Wu, Jung-Der Wang, Shou-Wu Lee, Chi-Sen Chang, Hong-Zen Yeh, Chung-Wang Ko, Han-Chung Lien
OBJECTIVE: Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis (AEE) is commonly found in men, and might be a risk factor of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aimed to determine if specific dietary habits increase the risk of AEE in asymptomatic Taiwanese men. METHODS: We recruited male adults undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for health check. We excluded subjects with reflux symptoms, or taking anti-reflux medications or drugs that potentially impair lower esophageal sphincter function or cause mucosal injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258931/the-effects-of-paroxetine-and-amitriptyline-on-the-upper-esophageal-sphincter-ues-pressure-and-its-natural-history-in-globus-pharyngeus
#8
Wen-Cong Zhou, Lin Jia, Dong-Yun Chen, Yao Liu, Jing Liu, Shu-Man Jiang, Meng Yang, Jian Xu
BACKGROUND: Antidepressant agents have been shown to be an effective and safe treatment method for patients with globus. However, there are few clinical trials dedicated to studying the effects of antidepressant agents on the natural history and upper oesophageal sphincter (UES) pressure of treated globus patients. AIMS: To evaluate the effect of paroxetine and amitriptyline to prevent relapses in patients with globus, the simultaneous relationship between changes in UES pressure and improvement of globus symptoms were measured...
February 28, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256028/pharyngeal-stimulus-induced-reflexes-are-impaired-in-infants-with-perinatal-asphyxia-does-maturation-modify
#9
P S Jensen, I K Gulati, T R Shubert, S Sitaram, M Sivalingam, K A Hasenstab, M A El-Mahdy, S R Jadcherla
BACKGROUND: Development of pharyngo-esophageal protective reflexes among infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is unclear. Our aim was to distinguish these reflexes from controls and examine the maturational changes in HIE infants. METHODS: We evaluated 14 HIE infants (seven males) at 41.4±0.6 (HIE Time-1) and 46.5±0.6 (HIE Time-2) weeks postmenstrual age (PMA). Seven controls (three males) were evaluated at 43.5±1.3 weeks PMA. Graded pharyngeal stimulation with liquids (0...
March 3, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227129/modeling-of-pharyngoesophageal-segment-during-tracheoesophageal-phonation-in-total-laryngectomy-patients-with-preliminary-validation
#10
Teng Zhang, Siwei Bai, Ian Cook, Michal Szczesniak, Julia Maclean, Socrates Dokos, Teng Zhang, Siwei Bai, Ian Cook, Michal Szczesniak, Julia Maclean, Socrates Dokos, Siwei Bai, Michal Szczesniak, Socrates Dokos, Ian Cook, Julia Maclean, Teng Zhang
For patients with large or recurrent laryngeal cancer, total laryngectomy surgery is usually performed. In the absence of a larynx, tracheoesophageal (TE) voice is the gold standard for alaryngeal phonation. The mechanisms underlying TE voice are unknown, but pharyngoesophageal (PE) segment vibration has been shown to play a key role. The aim of this study was to systematically explore the mechanics of PE segment vibration during TE phonation. A 2D axisymmetric finite-element model with two domains representing the air and PE wall was developed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220362/the-role-of-impedance-planimetry-in-the-evaluation-of-esophageal-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Nitin K Ahuja, John O Clarke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Impedance planimetry measures tissue wall distensibility as a function of pressure and cross-sectional area. Recent interest in this technique's relevance to the gastrointestinal tract has been accelerated by the availability of the functional lumen imaging probe, a catheter-based system that dynamically quantitates these biomechanical properties. Herein, we review the device's particular utility in the setting of esophageal pathology, including processes affecting the esophageal body as well as the upper and lower esophageal sphincters...
February 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163259/effects-of-age-on-esophageal-motility-use-of-high-resolution-esophageal-impedance-manometry
#12
Young Kwang Shim, Nayoung Kim, Yo Han Park, Jong-Chan Lee, Jihee Sung, Yoon Jin Choi, Hyuk Yoon, Cheol Min Shin, Young Soo Park, Dong Ho Lee
Background/Aims: Disturbances of esophageal motility have been reported to be more frequent in aged population. However, the physiology of disturbances in esophageal motility during aging is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of age on the esophageal motility using high-resolution esophageal impedance manometry (HRIM). Methods: Esophageal motor function of 268 subjects were measured using HRIM in 3 age groups, < 40 years (n = 32), 40-65 years (n = 185), and > 65 years (n = 62)...
February 5, 2017: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147382/-effect-of-bolus-volume-on-pharyngeal-swallowing-dynamics-evaluated-with-small-high-resolution-manometry-catheters
#13
Michael Jungheim, Johanna Kallusky, Martin Ptok
The bolus volume has a modulating effect on the swallowing dynamics, but previously reported adaptations of the pharyngeal function have been inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate changes of pressure and time parameters in the pharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) in relation to the swallowed bolus volume with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine the normal swallowing physiology, particularly thin HRM probes were used, which were expected to influence the investigated structures only minimally...
February 2017: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110513/effect-of-methylnaltrexone-and-naloxone-on-esophageal-motor-function-in-man
#14
E Scarpellini, A Pauwels, R Vos, N Rommel, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Endogenous opioids (EO) acting on μ-opiod receptors in central and enteric nervous system (ENS) control gastrointestinal motility but it is still unclear whether EO in ENS may control esophageal function in man, thus we will study the effects of methylnaltrexone (MNTX), a peripherally selective, and naloxone (NA), a non-selective μ-opiod receptor antagonist, on esophageal motility in healthy subjects. METHODS: Fifteen HV (6 M; 34.1 ± 0.6 years; BMI: 22...
March 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965007/effects-of-chin-down-maneuver-on-the-parameters-of-swallowing-function-after-esophagectomy-with-3-field-lymphadenectomy-examined-by-videofluoroscopy
#15
Yoshihiko Kumai, Naoya Yoshida, Yuta Kamenosono, Keigo Matsubara, Yasuhiro Samejima, Hideo Baba, Eiji Yumoto
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of the chin-down maneuver after esophagectomy with 3-field lymphadenectomy (3FL) on pharyngeal residue, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening, and laryngeal closure. DESIGN: Prospective data were collected from a pharyngeal videofluoroscopic swallowing study. SETTING: Dysphagia clinics. PARTICIPANTS: Patients selected according to the inclusion criteria (N=14; mean age, 65.9y) from a total of 43 patients who underwent esophagectomy with 3FL from May to December 2014 were enrolled...
December 10, 2016: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935079/high-resolution-manometry-in-patients-with-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathy-elevated-prevalence-of-esophageal-involvement-and-differences-according-to-autoantibody-status-and-clinical-subset
#16
Maria Casal-Dominguez, Iago Pinal-Fernandez, Marianela Mego, Anna Accarino, Lluis Jubany, Fernando Azpiroz, Albert Selva-O'Callaghan
INTRODUCTION: We studied the high-resolution manometry (HRM) findings in patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis. METHODS: From 2008 to 2015, we performed a cross-sectional study of myositis patients. A survey of esophageal symptoms and a HRM were analyzed and compared among different clinical and serologic groups. RESULTS: Twenty-four (45%) of the 53 patients that were included in the study had manometric involvement that was not correlated with any esophageal symptom (P =0...
December 9, 2016: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883179/evidence-that-an-internal-schema-adapts-swallowing-to-upper-airway-requirements
#17
Seng Mun Wong, Rickie J Domangue, Sidney Fels, Christy L Ludlow
KEY POINTS: To swallow food and liquid safely, airway protection is essential. Upward and forward movements of the hyoid and larynx in the neck during swallowing vary in magnitude between individuals. In healthy human adults, hyoid and laryngeal movements during swallowing were scaled by differences in initial upper airway area before swallowing. Individuals increased laryngeal elevation during swallowing in response to increased airway opening before swallowing. We show that when upper airway protection requirements change, individuals use an internal sensorimotor scaling system to adapt movements to maintain swallow safety...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862648/accuracy-of-the-air-flow-sphincter-locator-system-in-identifying-the-lower-esophageal-sphincter-for-placement-of-ph-catheters
#18
Joan W Chen, Jason R Baker, Jessica M Compton, Mark McDermott, Joel H Rubenstein
The Air Flow Sphincter Locator (AFSL) is marketed as an alternative method to manometry for localizing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) for pH probe placement. Such a system is desirable due to the additional time, cost, and discomfort associated with dual nasal intubation, but its accuracy has never been assessed. To assess the accuracy of the AFSL in localizing the LES. Fifty consecutive outpatients presenting for pH and manometry studies were included. The upper border of the LES was determined using HRM and the AFSL by two technicians independently...
November 9, 2016: Diseases of the Esophagus: Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833390/oropharyngeal-acid-reflux-and-motility-abnormalities-of-the-proximal-esophagus
#19
Sandro Passaretti, Giorgia Mazzoleni, Cristian Vailati, Pier Alberto Testoni
AIM: To investigate the relationship between pathological oropharyngeal (OP) acid exposure and esophageal motility in patients with extra-esophageal syndromes. METHODS: In this prospective study we enrolled consecutive outpatients with extra-esophageal symptoms suspected to be related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We enrolled only patients with a reflux symptom index (RSI) score-higher than 13 and with previous lung, allergy and ear, nose and throat evaluations excluding other specific diagnoses...
October 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825384/inhibiting-the-proton-pump-mechanisms-benefits-harms-and-questions
#20
Jeffrey K Aronson
Inhibition of the H(+)/K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (the proton pump) is the final common mechanistic pathway in reducing gastric acid secretion pharmacologically. Proton pump inhibitors are widely used in upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric and duodenal ulcers, eradication of Helicobacter pylori in combination with antibiotics, gastroesophageal reflux disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, eosinophilic esophagitis, and prevention of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulceration...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medicine
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