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Mental accounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334488/the-metacognition-assessment-scale-mas-a-results-of-a-pilot-study-applying-a-german-translation-to-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#1
Anna-Lena Bröcker, Samuel Bayer, Frauke Stuke, Patrick Giemsa, Andreas Heinz, Felix Bermpohl, Paul H Lysaker, Christiane Montag
OBJECTIVES: Metacognition, the capacity 'to think about thinking' and thus to reflect and to master interpersonal problems on a mentalistic basis, is often impaired among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and has been suggested as a potential treatment target. However, little is known about the reliability of its measurement and links with related phenomena. The aim of this study was to validate a German translation of the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS-A) as a measure to assess metacognition from free narratives of patients' personally relevant episodes and relationships...
March 23, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334149/higher-striatal-iron-concentration-is-linked-to-frontostriatal-underactivation-and-poorer-memory-in-normal-aging
#2
Grégoria Kalpouzos, Benjamín Garzón, Rouslan Sitnikov, Carmel Heiland, Alireza Salami, Jonas Persson, Lars Bäckman
In the brain, intracellular iron is essential for cellular metabolism. However, an overload of free iron is toxic, inducing oxidative stress and cell death. Although an increase of striatal iron has been related to atrophy and impaired cognitive performance, the link between elevated iron and altered brain activity in aging remains unexplored. In a sample of 37 younger and older adults, we examined whether higher striatal iron concentration could underlie age-related differences in frontostriatal activity induced by mental imagery of motor and non-motor scenes, and poorer recall of the scenes...
February 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330589/ethnicity-and-excess-mortality-in-severe-mental-illness-a-cohort-study
#3
Jayati Das-Munshi, Chin-Kuo Chang, Rina Dutta, Craig Morgan, James Nazroo, Robert Stewart, Martin J Prince
BACKGROUND: Excess mortality in severe mental illness (defined here as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorders, and bipolar affective disorders) is well described, but little is known about this inequality in ethnic minorities. We aimed to estimate excess mortality for people with severe mental illness for five ethnic groups (white British, black Caribbean, black African, south Asian, and Irish) and to assess the association of ethnicity with mortality risk. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal cohort study of individuals with a valid diagnosis of severe mental illness between Jan 1, 2007, and Dec 31, 2014, from the case registry of the South London and Maudsley Trust (London, UK)...
March 16, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329815/recent-improvements-in-cognitive-functioning-among-older-u-s-adults-how-much-does-increasing-educational-attainment-explain
#4
Amanda Leggett, Philippa Clarke, Kara Zivin, Ryan J McCammon, Michael R Elliott, Kenneth M Langa
Objectives: Recent interest has been generated about reports of declining incidence in cognitive impairment among more recently born cohorts. At the same time, attained education, which is related to cognition, has increased in recent cohorts of older adults. We examined cohort differences in cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of Americans aged 25 and older followed for 25 years (1986-2011) and considered the extent to which cohort differences in education account for differences...
January 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329808/lifecourse-activity-participation-from-early-mid-and-later-adulthood-as-determinants-of-cognitive-aging-the-lothian-birth-cohort-1921
#5
Alan J Gow, Alison Pattie, Ian J Deary
Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129)...
October 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328994/physical-activity-is-independently-associated-with-reduced-mortality-15-years-follow-up-of-the-hordaland-health-study-husk
#6
Øyvind Kopperstad, Jens Christoffer Skogen, Børge Sivertsen, Grethe S Tell, Solbjørg Makalani Myrtveit Sæther
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for non-communicable diseases and mortality. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between PA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and the impact of other potentially contributing factors. METHOD: Data from the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 1997-99) were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The study included 20,506 individuals born 1950-1957 and 2,225 born in 1925-1927 (baseline age 40-49 and 70-74)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326556/digital-atmospheres-affective-practices-of-care-in-elefriends
#7
Ian M Tucker, Lewis Goodings
This article develops the concept of digital atmosphere to analyse the affective power of social media to shape practices of care and support for people living with mental distress. Using contemporary accounts of affective atmospheres, the article focuses on feelings of distress, support and care that unfold through digital atmospheres. The power of social media intersects with people's support and care-seeking practices in multiple ways and not in a straightforward model of 'accessing or providing support'...
March 22, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326160/the-neural-correlates-of-childhood-maltreatment-and-the-ability-to-understand-mental-states-of-others
#8
Charlotte C van Schie, Anne-Laura van Harmelen, Kirsten Hauber, Albert Boon, Eveline A Crone, Bernet M Elzinga
Background: Emotional abuse and emotional neglect are related to impaired interpersonal functioning. One underlying mechanism could be a developmental delay in mentalizing, the ability to understand other people's thoughts and emotions. Objective: This study investigates the neural correlates of mentalizing and the specific relationship with emotional abuse and neglect whilst taking into account the level of sexual abuse, physical abuse and physical neglect. Method: The RMET was performed in an fMRI scanner by 46 adolescents (Age: M = 18...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323166/neural-foundations-of-overt-and-covert-actions
#9
Panagiotis G Simos, Eleftherios Kavroulakis, Thomas Maris, Efrosini Papadaki, Themistoklis Boursianis, Giorgos Kalaitzakis, Helen E Savaki
We used fMRI to assess the human brain areas activated for execution, observation and 1(st) person motor imagery of a visually guided tracing task with the index finger. Voxel-level conjunction analysis revealed several cortical areas activated in common across all three motor conditions, namely, the upper limb representation of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, the dorsal and ventral premotor, the superior and inferior parietal cortices as well as the posterior part of the superior and middle temporal gyrus including the temporo-parietal junction (TPj) and the extrastriate body area (EBA)...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322629/promoting-the-wellbeing-of-lesbian-gay-bisexual-and-transgender-forced-migrants-in-canada-providers-perspectives
#10
Sarilee Kahn, Edward Alessi, Leah Woolner, Hanna Kim, Christina Olivieri
Researchers are beginning to document the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) forced migrants in settlement. However, studies exploring the perceptions of service providers working with this vulnerable population are limited. These may shed light on the challenges of meeting the needs of LGBT forced migrants, especially mental health issues and problems. This qualitative study elicited the views of 22 Canadian service providers, including advocates, lawyers and mental health practitioners, who serve LGBT forced migrants...
March 21, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322284/genomic-resources-for-the-study-of-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
G Senthil, T Dutka, L Bingaman, T Lehner
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has made sustained investments in the development of genomic resources over the last two decades. These investments have led to the development of the largest biorepository for psychiatric genetics as a centralized national resource. In the realm of genomic resources, NIMH has been supporting large team science (TS) consortia focused on gene discovery, fine mapping of loci, and functional genomics using state-of-the-art technologies. The scientific output from these efforts has not only begun to transform our understanding of the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disorders, but it has also led to a broader cultural change among the investigator community towards deeper collaborations and broad pre-publication sharing of data and resources...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321793/psychological-distress-in-parents-and-school-functioning-of-adolescents-results-from-the-world-trade-center-registry
#12
Lisa M Gargano, Tenzin Dechen, James E Cone, Steven D Stellman, Robert M Brackbill
Poor school-functioning can be indicative of parent and adolescent mental health and adolescent behavior problems. This study examined 472 adolescents enrolled in the World Trade Center (WTC) Health Registry, with a two-step path analysis, using regression-based models, to unravel the relationships between parent and adolescent mental health, adolescent behavior problems, and adolescent unmet healthcare need (UHCN) on the outcome school-functioning. WTC exposure was associated with UHCN and parental mental health was a significant mediator...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320560/complicated-grief-knowledge-attitudes-skills-and-training-of-mental-health-professionals-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Anne Dodd, Suzanne Guerin, Susan Delaney, Philip Dodd
OBJECTIVE: A systematic review and qualitative synthesis was undertaken to deduce the knowledge, attitudes, skills and training of mental health professionals regarding complicated grief (CG). METHODS: PsychInfo, Embase, Medline, CINAHL, PBSC, Web of Science and ERIC databases were used to identify relevant literature. Searches were executed from inception to September 2014. RESULTS: The electronic search yielded 305 results. Forty-one papers were selected for full text review, 20 were included for analysis...
March 6, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319689/using-a-hybrid-subtyping-model-to-capture-patterns-and-dimensionality-of-depressive-and-anxiety-symptomatology-in-the-general-population
#14
Klaas J Wardenaar, Rob B K Wanders, Margreet Ten Have, Ron de Graaf, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Researchers have tried to identify more homogeneous subtypes of major depressive disorder (MDD) with latent class analyses (LCA). However, this approach does no justice to the dimensional nature of psychopathology. In addition, anxiety and functioning-levels have seldom been integrated in subtyping efforts. Therefore, this study used a hybrid discrete-dimensional approach to identify subgroups with shared patterns of depressive and anxiety symptomatology, while accounting for functioning-levels...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317329/predicting-psychological-distress-of-informal-carers-of-individuals-with-major-depression-or-bipolar-disorder
#15
David Wasley, Samantha Eden
Caring for someone with a mental illness is associated with high levels of burden and psychological distress. Understanding these factors could be important to prevent the development of physical and mental health problems in carers. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of coping styles and social support in predicting the psychological distress reported by informal carers (IC) of individuals with major depression or bipolar disorder. IC (n = 72) of adults with a diagnosed depressive illness were recruited from mental health organizations within the community setting...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315130/relationships-between-quality-of-life-in-the-psychological-domain-acceptance-of-illness-and-healthcare-services-in-patients-with-asthma
#16
Bożena Mroczek, Katarzyna Parzuchowska, Maria Jasińska-Starczewska, Tomasz Grodzki, Donata Kurpas
Asthma patients should be considered not only in terms of the medical aspects, but also the nonmedical issues associated with the psychological domain, since these are factors that can significantly improve patients' health state, quality of life, and illness acceptance, and can contribute to the reduction of healthcare utilization. The purpose of this study was to assess the acceptance of illness among asthma patients and their quality of life in the psychological domain, as well as to identify factors that influence illness acceptance and quality of life in the psychological domain...
March 18, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315074/placement-and-delinquency-outcomes-among-system-involved-youth-referred-to-multisystemic-therapy-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#17
Sarah Vidal, Christine M Steeger, Colleen Caron, Leanne Lasher, Christian M Connell
Multisystemic therapy (MST) was developed to help youth with serious social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Research on the efficacy and effectiveness of MST has shown positive outcomes in different domains of development and functioning among various populations of youth. Nonetheless, even with a large body of literature investigating the treatment effects of MST, few studies have focused on the effectiveness of MST through large-scale dissemination efforts. Utilizing a large sample of youth involved in a statewide dissemination of MST (n = 740; 43% females; 14% Black; 29% Hispanic; 49% White; Mage = 14...
March 17, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303749/-spontaneous-visual-perspective-taking-mediated-by-attention-orienting-that-is-voluntary-and-not-reflexive
#18
Mark R Gardner, Zainabb Hull, Donna Taylor, Caroline J Edmonds
Experiments revealing 'spontaneous' visual perspective-taking are conventionally interpreted as demonstrating that adults have the capacity to track simple mental states in a fast and efficient manner ('implicit mentalising'). A rival account suggests that these experiments can be explained by the general purpose mechanisms responsible for reflexive attentional orienting. Here, we report two experiments designed to distinguish between these competing accounts. In Experiment 1, we assessed whether reflexive attention orienting was sufficient to yield findings interpreted as spontaneous perspective taking in the 'avatar task' (Samson et al...
March 17, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302992/subjective-experiences-of-a-yogo-teacher-with-reference-to-health-support-activities-carried-out-in-the-first-year-after-the-great-east-japan-earthquake-a-case-study-based-on-a-narrative-approach
#19
Chiharu Aoyagi, Shiomi Kanaizumi, Kumiko Shikama, Keiko Sakou
Objectives To offer an empirical lens-based on the account of a yogo teacher employed at a temporary school in the community where she was relocated after experiencing the Great East Japan Earthquake alongside her students-into the subjective experience of health support activities carried out during the year immediately following the disaster.Method An interview was conducted with one yogo teacher who experienced the Great East Japan Earthquake, employed at a public junior high school in the region to where she was evacuated...
2017: [Nihon Kōshū Eisei Zasshi] Japanese Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300998/psychological-assistance-provided-to-patients-diagnosed-with-depression-in-primary-care
#20
Cibele Cunha Lima da Motta, Carmen Leontina Ojeda Ocampo Moré, Carlos Henrique Sancineto da Silva Nunes
The scope of this research was to understand the assistance provided by psychologists to patients diagnosed with depression in the municipal health care network. In this study, the phenomenon is examined from its broader perspective, taking the psychosocial dimensions of health into account. A group of 22 psychologists participated in this study of a qualitative nature. Data collection began with participant in-field observation of the institutional context followed by semi-structured interviews. Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze information, thereby facilitating its integration and categorization...
March 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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