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Mental accounting

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092565/a-passive-eeg-bci-for-single-trial-detection-of-changes-in-mental-state
#1
Andrew Myrden, Tom Chau
Traditional brain-computer interfaces often exhibit unstable performance over time. It has recently been proposed that passive brain-computer interfaces may provide a way to complement and stabilize these traditional systems. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of a passive brain-computer interface that uses electroencephalography to monitor changes in mental state on a single-trial basis. We recorded cortical activity from 15 locations while 11 able-bodied adults completed a series of challenging mental tasks...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092210/the-insights-of-health-and-welfare-professionals-on-hurdles-that-impede-economic-evaluations-of-welfare-interventions
#2
J Schepers, J Plaete, I De Bourdeaudhuij, L Annemans, S Simoens
OBJECTIVES: Four hurdles associated with economic evaluations in welfare interventions were identified and discussed in a previous published literature review. These hurdles include (i) 'Ignoring the impact of condition-specific outcomes', (ii) 'Ignoring the impact of QoL externalities', (iii) 'Calculation of costs from a too narrow perspective' and (iv) 'The lack of well-described & standardized interventions'. This study aims to determine how healthcare providers and social workers experience and deal with these hurdles in practice and what solutions or new insights they would suggest...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091762/good-jobs-good-pay-better-health-the-effects-of-job-quality-on-health-among-older-european-workers
#3
Golo Henseke
Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, this study presents new evidence on the effects of job quality on the occurrence of severe acute conditions, the level of cardiovascular risk factors, musculoskeletal disorders, mental health, functional disabilities and self-assessed health among workers aged 50+. By combining intrinsic job quality with job insecurity and pay the study maps out multiple potential pathways through which work may affect health and well-being. Levering longitudinal data and external information on early retirement ages allows for accounting of unobserved heterogeneity, selection bias and reverse causality...
January 13, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089437/systems-innovation-model-an-integrated-interdisciplinary-team-approach-pre-and-post-bariatric-surgery-at-a-veterans-affairs-va-medical-center
#4
Dan Eisenberg, Jessica A Lohnberg, Eric P Kubat, Cheryl C Bates, Lauren M Greenberg, Susan M Frayne
BACKGROUND: Provision of bariatric surgery in the Veterans Health Administration must account for obese veterans' co-morbidity burden and the geographically dispersed location of patients relative to Veterans Affairs (VA) bariatric centers. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate a collaborative, integrated, interdisciplinary bariatric team of surgeons, bariatricians, psychologists, dieticians, and physical therapists working in a hub-and-spokes care model, for pre- and post-bariatric surgery assessment and management...
November 15, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087266/assessment-of-sex-differences-in-body-composition-among-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Jason M Nagata, Neville H Golden, Rebecka Peebles, Jin Long, Stuart B Murray, Mary B Leonard, Jennifer L Carlson
PURPOSE: To compare deficits in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LM) among male and female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other covariates associated with body composition. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of all subjects aged 9-20 years with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of AN and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans after initial evaluation at Stanford between March 1997 and February 2011...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086827/mothers-accounts-of-the-impact-on-emotional-wellbeing-of-organised-peer-support-in-pregnancy-and-early-parenthood-a-qualitative-study
#6
Jenny McLeish, Maggie Redshaw
BACKGROUND: The transition to parenthood is a potentially vulnerable time for mothers' mental health and approximately 9-21% of women experience depression and/or anxiety at this time. Many more experience sub-clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as stress, low self-esteem and a loss of confidence. Women's emotional wellbeing is more at risk if they have little social support, a low income, are single parents or have a poor relationship with their partner. Peer support can comprise emotional, affirmational, informational and practical support; evidence of its impact on emotional wellbeing during pregnancy and afterwards is mixed...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086765/health-related-quality-of-life-hrqol-and-its-associated-factors-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-t1dm
#7
Marta Murillo, Joan Bel, Jacobo Pérez, Raquel Corripio, Gemma Carreras, Xavier Herrero, Josep-Maria Mengibar, Dolors Rodriguez-Arjona, Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer, Hein Raat, Luis Rajmil
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to describe the baseline health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and analyze its associated clinical and sociodemographic factors, assessing HRQOL through internet. METHODS: This was a descriptive study of 136 patients with T1DM from 5 hospitals in Catalonia, Spain (72 girls, mean age 13.4 years (range 8-19). Inclusion criteria were more than 6 months from diagnosis, more than 8 years old and without cognitive problems...
January 13, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080971/interoceptive-dimensions-across-cardiac-and-respiratory-axes
#8
Sarah N Garfinkel, Miranda F Manassei, Giles Hamilton-Fletcher, Yvo In den Bosch, Hugo D Critchley, Miriam Engels
Interoception refers to the sensing of signals concerning the internal state of the body. Individual differences in interoceptive sensitivity are proposed to account for differences in affective processing, including the expression of anxiety. The majority of investigations of interoceptive accuracy focus on cardiac signals, typically using heartbeat detection tests and self-report measures. Consequently, little is known about how different organ-specific axes of interoception relate to each other or to symptoms of anxiety...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080969/an-active-inference-theory-of-allostasis-and-interoception-in-depression
#9
Lisa Feldman Barrett, Karen S Quigley, Paul Hamilton
In this paper, we integrate recent theoretical and empirical developments in predictive coding and active inference accounts of interoception (including the Embodied Predictive Interoception Coding model) with working hypotheses from the theory of constructed emotion to propose a biologically plausible unified theory of the mind that places metabolism and energy regulation (i.e. allostasis), as well as the sensory consequences of that regulation (i.e. interoception), at its core. We then consider the implications of this approach for understanding depression...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080967/affective-touch-and-attachment-style-modulate-pain-a-laser-evoked-potentials-study
#10
Charlotte Krahé, Marianne M Drabek, Yannis Paloyelis, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Affective touch and cutaneous pain are two sub-modalities of interoception with contrasting affective qualities (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and social meanings (care/harm), yet their direct relationship has not been investigated. In 50 women, taking into account individual attachment styles, we assessed the role of affective touch and particularly the contribution of the C tactile (CT) system in subjective and electrophysiological responses to noxious skin stimulation, namely N1 and N2-P2 laser-evoked potentials...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080962/-bodily-precision-a-predictive-coding-account-of-individual-differences-in-interoceptive-accuracy
#11
REVIEW
Vivien Ainley, Matthew A J Apps, Aikaterini Fotopoulou, Manos Tsakiris
Individuals differ in their awareness of afferent information from within their bodies, which is typically assessed by a heartbeat perception measure of 'interoceptive accuracy' (IAcc). Neural and behavioural correlates of this trait have been investigated, but a theoretical explanation has yet to be presented. Building on recent models that describe interoception within the free energy/predictive coding framework, this paper applies similar principles to IAcc, proposing that individual differences in IAcc depend on 'precision' in interoceptive systems, i...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078784/rumination-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-associations-with-eating-disorder-psychopathology-and-weight-bias-internalization
#12
Shirley B Wang, Janet A Lydecker, Carlos M Grilo
Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity...
January 12, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078477/information-sharing-challenges-between-adolescents-with-cancer-their-parents-and-health-care-providers-a-qualitative-study
#13
Masoud Bahrami, Mahboobeh Namnabati, Fariborz Mokarian, Parastoo Oujian, Paul Arbon
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the viewpoints, experiences, and preferences within the clinical communication triangle (parent, adolescent, health care team) concerning the information-sharing process for adolescents with cancer. METHODS: This is a qualitative descriptive-exploratory study. Overall, 33 participants were recruited (adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 15-20 years, their parents, oncologists, and nurses). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis...
January 11, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077063/gendered-health-inequalities-in-mental-well-being-the-nordic-countries-in-a-comparative-perspective
#14
Sigrun Olafsdottir
AIMS: The aims of this study were to: (a) compare gender differences in mental well-being in the Nordic countries with gender differences in 28 other countries around the world; and (b) evaluate whether gender differences in the Nordic countries remain when other social and lifestyle factors are taken into account. METHODS: Data were obtained from 32 countries around the world that participated in the 2011 health module of the International Social Survey Programme...
January 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076919/use-of-treatment-and-counseling-services-and-mind-body-techniques-by-students-with-emotional-and-behavioral-difficulties
#15
Wasantha Jayawardene, Ryan Erbe, David Lohrmann, Mohammad Torabi
BACKGROUND: School-based treatment and counseling services (TCSs) can integrate mind-body techniques (MBTs) to improve children's health, wellness, and academic performance. We aimed to describe the effect of school-based TCS on MBT-use among students experiencing difficulties with concentration, emotions, behaviors, and getting along (DCEBG). METHODS: National Health Interview Survey data were utilized (N2007  = 1225; N2012  = 1835). Logistic regression examined associations between TCS-type and MBT-use, while propensity score matching controlled for confounders in the prematch sample...
February 2017: Journal of School Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075692/comparing-emergency-department-use-among-medicaid-and-commercial-patients-using-all-payer-all-claims-data
#16
Hyunjee Kim, K John McConnell, Benjamin C Sun
The high rate of emergency department (ED) use by Medicaid patients is not fully understood. The objective of this paper is (1) to provide context for ED service use by comparing Medicaid and commercial patients' differences across ED and non-ED health service use, and (2) to assess the extent to which Medicaid-commercial differences in ED use can be explained by observable factors in administrative data. Statistical decomposition methods were applied to ED, mental health, and inpatient care using 2011-2013 Medicaid and commercial insurance claims from the Oregon All Payer All Claims database...
January 11, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075001/-proposed-model-of-executive-functions-based-on-factorial-analyses
#17
REVIEW
J Tirapu-Ustarroz, P Cordero-Andres, P Luna-Lario, P Hernaez-Goni
INTRODUCTION: Since Lezak coined the term executive functions to refer to the mental capabilities that are considered essential for performing efficacious, creative and socially acceptable behaviour, they have gradually grown in importance in neuropsychological research. Different models have been proposed to explain their nature, but there is no general agreement as to whether we are dealing with a unitary construct or a multimodal processing system with independent, but interconnected, components...
January 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074561/substance-use-outcomes-of-patients-served-by-a-large-us-implementation-of-screening-brief-intervention-and-referral-to-treatment-sbirt
#18
Arnie Aldridge, Robyn Linford, Jeremy Bray
AIMS: To estimate changes in the substance use behaviors of patients who received services as part of the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) grant program. METHODS: We use a pre-post design and performance monitoring data collected by SBIRT organizations. For a sample of 17 575 patients, we compare pre-SBIRT substance use with substance use 6 months after receipt of SBIRT services...
February 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073330/the-eyes-as-windows-into-other-minds
#19
Tobias Grossmann
Eyes have been shown to play a key role during human social interactions. However, to date, no comprehensive cross-discipline model has provided a framework that can account for uniquely human responses to eye cues. In this review, I present a framework that brings together work on the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and neural bases of perceiving and responding to eyes. Specifically, I argue for a two-process model: a first process that ensures privileged attention to information encoded in the eyes and is important for the detection of other minds and a second process that permits the decoding of information contained in the eyes concerning another person's emotional and mental states...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073085/effect-of-investigator-observation-on-gait-parameters-in-individuals-with-and-without-chronic-low-back-pain
#20
Joshua Vickers, Austin Reed, Robert Decker, Bryan P Conrad, Marissa Olegario-Nebel, Heather K Vincent
Despite the ubiquity of gait assessment in clinic and research, it is unclear how observation impacts gait, particularly in persons with chronic pain and psychological stress. We compared temporal spatial gait patterns in people with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP) when they were aware and unaware of being observed. This was a repeated-measures, deception study in 55 healthy persons (32.0±12.4 yr, 24.2±2.7kg/m(2)) and persons with CLBP (51.9±17.9 yr, 27.8±4.4kg/m(2)). Participants performed one condition in which they were unaware of observation (UNW), and three conditions under investigator observation: (1) aware of observation (AWA), (2) investigators watching cadence, (3) investigators watching step length...
January 3, 2017: Gait & Posture
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