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Intertemporal choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587183/dynamic-cognitive-models-of-intertemporal-choice
#1
Junyi Dai, Timothy J Pleskac, Thorsten Pachur
Traditionally, descriptive accounts of intertemporal choice have relied on static and deterministic models that assume alternative-wise processing of the options. Recent research, by contrast, has highlighted the dynamic and probabilistic nature of intertemporal choice and provided support for attribute-wise processing. Currently, dynamic models of intertemporal choice-which account for both the resulting choice and the time course over which the construction of a choice develops-rely exclusively on the framework of evidence accumulation...
March 24, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512152/decision-makers-are-resilient-in-the-face-of-social-exclusion
#2
Marie Juanchich, Lukasz Walasek, Miroslav Sirota
A growing body of evidence suggests that social exclusion impairs people's capacity for active deliberation and logical reasoning. Building on this finding and on the postulate from the dual-process theory that analytical thinking is essential in order to make good judgements and decisions, we hypothesized that social exclusion will alter judgement and choice behaviour. We tested this hypothesis in three experiments in which social exclusion was manipulated using the Cyberball paradigm, an online ball-tossing game in which participants either received the ball a fair number of times or were excluded by the other two players...
March 6, 2018: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475103/increased-delayed-reward-during-intertemporal-decision-making-in-schizophrenic-patients-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#3
Lu Wang, Shengchun Jin, Kongliang He, Xingui Chen, Gongjun Ji, Xiaomeng Bai, Guixian Xiao, Huijuan Ma, Kai Wang
Intertemporal choices are decisions with consequences in multiple time periods and constitute a significant part of social cognition. The shared neuropathological characteristics of patients with schizophrenia and their siblings might express intermediate phenotypes in behavior that could be used to further characterize the illness. Schizophrenic patients, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls underwent a computerized version of the "Intertemporal Choice Task". All participants could choose between sooner-smaller (SS) and later-larger (LL) options in now-trials and in not-now-trials...
December 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463327/past-trauma-and-future-choices-differences-in-discounting-in-low-income-urban-african-americans
#4
Carissa van den Berk-Clark, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, Richard A Grucza
BACKGROUND: Exposure to traumatic events is surprisingly common, yet little is known about its effect on decision making beyond the fact that those with post-traumatic stress disorder are more likely to have substance-abuse problems. We examined the effects of exposure to severe trauma on decision making in low-income, urban African Americans, a group especially likely to have had such traumatic experiences. METHOD: Participants completed three decision-making tasks that assessed the subjective value of delayed monetary rewards and payments and of probabilistic rewards...
February 21, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446968/aging-and-altruism-in-intertemporal-choice
#5
Erika P Sparrow, Julia Spaniol
In addition to making decisions about gains and losses that affect only ourselves, we often make decisions that affect others. Research on life span changes in motivation suggests that altruistic motives become stronger with age, but no prior research has examined how altruism affects tolerance for temporal delays. Experiment 1 used a realistic financial decision making task involving choices for gains, losses, and donations. Each decision required an intertemporal choice between a smaller-immediate and a larger-later option...
February 15, 2018: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415644/a-bird-in-the-hand-isn-t-good-for-long
#6
Stefan Scherbaum, Simon Frisch, Maja Dshemuchadse
Folk wisdom tells us that additional time to make a decision helps us to refrain from the first impulse to take the bird in the hand. However, the question why the time to decide plays an important role is still unanswered. Here we distinguish two explanations, one based on a bias in value accumulation that has to be overcome with time, the other based on cognitive control processes that need time to set in. In an intertemporal decision task, we use mouse tracking to study participants' responses to options' values and delays which were presented sequentially...
January 2018: Experimental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382543/coupling-and-segregation-of-large-scale-brain-networks-predict-individual-differences-in-delay-discounting
#7
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Decision-making about rewards, which requires us to choose between different time points, generally refers to intertemporal choice. Converging evidence suggests that some of the brain networks recruited in the delay discounting task have been well characterized for intertemporal choice. However, little is known about how the connectivity patterns of these large-scale brain networks are associated with delay discounting. Here, we use a resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) and a graph theoretical analysis to address this question...
January 27, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380679/effect-of-motion-perception-on-intertemporal-choice-is-associated-with-the-altered-time-perception
#8
Xianchun Li, Di Yuan, Ying Fan, Chao Yan, Liangcai Gao
Intertemporal choice refers to the choice between receiving a small immediate reward or a large delayed one. Previous studies have indicated that time perception plays a critical role in the intertemporal choice, and it could be affected by the features of the target stimulus in the time reproduction task, such as speed of movement and state of motion. However, there is no evidence about whether backward or forward motion perception could alter the intertemporal choice. Thus, in our current study, 29 participants were asked to perform two tasks in a random order...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373633/on-the-neural-and-mechanistic-bases-of-self-control
#9
Brandon M Turner, Christian A Rodriguez, Qingfang Liu, M Fiona Molloy, Marjolein Hoogendijk, Samuel M McClure
Intertemporal choice requires a dynamic interaction between valuation and deliberation processes. While evidence identifying candidate brain areas for each of these processes is well established, the precise mechanistic role carried out by each brain region is still debated. In this article, we present a computational model that clarifies the unique contribution of frontoparietal cortex regions to intertemporal decision making. The model we develop samples reward and delay information stochastically on a moment-by-moment basis...
January 24, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373590/risk-preferences-impose-a-hidden-distortion-on-measures-of-choice-impulsivity
#10
Silvia Lopez-Guzman, Anna B Konova, Kenway Louie, Paul W Glimcher
Measuring temporal discounting through the use of intertemporal choice tasks is now the gold standard method for quantifying human choice impulsivity (impatience) in neuroscience, psychology, behavioral economics, public health and computational psychiatry. A recent area of growing interest is individual differences in discounting levels, as these may predispose to (or protect from) mental health disorders, addictive behaviors, and other diseases. At the same time, more and more studies have been dedicated to the quantification of individual attitudes towards risk, which have been measured in many clinical and non-clinical populations using closely related techniques...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366699/a-meta-analytical-review-of-brain-activity-associated-with-intertemporal-decisions-evidence-for-an-anterior-posterior-tangibility-axis
#11
REVIEW
Benjamin J Smith, John R Monterosso, Cheryl J Wakslak, Antoine Bechara, Stephen J Read
In temporal discounting experiments, subjects are repeatedly presented with option sets in which they must choose between receiving a small amount of money sooner (SmallerSooner) or a larger amount of money at a more distant point in time (LargerLater). Although over 50 temporal discounting experiments using fMRI are described in literature, there has not been a meta-analysis identifying regions activated when subjects choose SmallerSooner versus LargerLater alternatives. Evidence suggests a prefrontal cortex 'abstraction hierarchy', from abstract planning in more anterior regions to concrete processing in posterior regions...
January 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306836/the-effect-of-hydrocortisone-administration-on-intertemporal-choice
#12
Michala Iben Riis-Vestergaard, Vanessa van Ast, Sandra Cornelisse, Marian Joëls, Johannes Haushofer
Intertemporal choices - decisions involving trade-offs of outcomes at different points in time - are often made under stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the release of corticosteroids. Recent studies provide evidence that corticosteroids can induce rapid non-genomic effects focused on immediate resolution of the stressful situation, followed by slower genomic effects focused on long-term recovery after stress. It remains unknown, however, how corticosteroids affect intertemporal choice...
February 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151807/the-effect-of-acute-pain-on-risky-and-intertemporal-choice
#13
Lina Koppel, David Andersson, India Morrison, Kinga Posadzy, Daniel Västfjäll, Gustav Tinghög
Pain is a highly salient and attention-demanding experience that motivates people to act. We investigated the effect of pain on decision making by delivering acute thermal pain to participants' forearm while they made risky and intertemporal choices involving money. Participants (n = 107) were more risk seeking under pain than in a no-pain control condition when decisions involved gains but not when they involved equivalent losses. Pain also resulted in greater preference for immediate (smaller) over future (larger) monetary rewards...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#14
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127026/resource-forecasting-differential-effects-of-glucose-taste-and-ingestion-on-delay-discounting-and-self-control
#15
X T Wang, Ryan N Reed, Lee A Baugh, Kelene A Fercho
We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive...
February 1, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119404/predicting-similarity-judgments-in-intertemporal-choice-with-machine-learning
#16
Jeffrey R Stevens, Leen-Kiat Soh
Similarity models of intertemporal choice are heuristics that choose based on similarity judgments of the reward amounts and time delays. Yet, we do not know how these judgments are made. Here, we use machine-learning algorithms to assess what factors predict similarity judgments and whether decision trees capture the judgment outcomes and process. We find that combining small and large values into numerical differences and ratios and arranging them in tree-like structures can predict both similarity judgments and response times...
November 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107773/midfrontal-theta-and-pupil-dilation-parametrically-track-subjective-conflict-but-also-surprise-during-intertemporal-choice
#17
Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri A Hutcherson, Michael Inzlicht
Many everyday choices are based on personal, subjective preferences. When choosing between two options, we often feel conflicted, especially when trading off costs and benefits occurring at different times (e.g., saving for later versus spending now). Although previous work has investigated the neurophysiological basis of conflict during inhibitory control tasks, less is known about subjective conflict resulting from competing subjective preferences. In this pre-registered study, we investigated subjective conflict during intertemporal choice, whereby participants chose between smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards (e...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098670/similarities-and-differences-in-psychology
#18
Yu Chen, Yan Sun, Si-Zhi Ai, Jason J Li, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Addiction is marked by repeating a certain behavior while ignoring the potential physical or mental consequences. Non-substance addiction provides an ideal model for researching the emergence and development of addiction's basic mechanism. Comparative studies of substance and non-substance addiction are helpful to reveal the common basis of addiction development. This article explores this topic from a psychological angle, touching upon sensation seeking, inhibitory control, attentional bias, intertemporal choice and environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078303/search-predicts-and-changes-patience-in-intertemporal-choice
#19
Crystal Reeck, Daniel Wall, Eric J Johnson
Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#20
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
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