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Intertemporal choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151807/the-effect-of-acute-pain-on-risky-and-intertemporal-choice
#1
Lina Koppel, David Andersson, India Morrison, Kinga Posadzy, Daniel Västfjäll, Gustav Tinghög
Pain is a highly salient and attention-demanding experience that motivates people to act. We investigated the effect of pain on decision making by delivering acute thermal pain to participants' forearm while they made risky and intertemporal choices involving money. Participants (n = 107) were more risk seeking under pain than in a no-pain control condition when decisions involved gains but not when they involved equivalent losses. Pain also resulted in greater preference for immediate (smaller) over future (larger) monetary rewards...
2017: Experimental Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134457/thinking-about-others-and-the-future-neural-correlates-of-perspective-taking-relate-to-preferences-for-delayed-rewards
#2
Garret O'Connell, Chun-Ting Hsu, Anastasia Christakou, Bhismadev Chakrabarti
We infer the thoughts and feelings of others by taking their perspectives. Similar processes could be used to understand how we will be affected by future events, by allowing us to take the perspective of our future self. In this paper, we test this idea using a previously presented framework for guiding predictions. The framework proposes that a shared neural mechanism is involved in controlling egocentric bias, both while shifting our perspective away from self and towards others, and while shifting our perspective from immediate to future perspectives...
November 13, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127026/resource-forecasting-differential-effects-of-glucose-taste-and-ingestion-on-delay-discounting-and-self-control
#3
X T Wang, Ryan N Reed, Lee A Baugh, Kelene A Fercho
We tested a novel hypothesis that glucose taste acts as a signal for resource acquisition, motivating preference for immediate rewards while actual glucose ingestion prompts resource conservation, promoting future-orientated self-regulation. In Study 1, participants were engaged in a delay-discounting task and a grip-control task before and after a beverage intervention (glucose drink, water drink, or glucose mouth-rinse). Glucose ingestion decreased delay discounting, making larger-and-later rewards more attractive...
November 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119404/predicting-similarity-judgments-in-intertemporal-choice-with-machine-learning
#4
Jeffrey R Stevens, Leen-Kiat Soh
Similarity models of intertemporal choice are heuristics that choose based on similarity judgments of the reward amounts and time delays. Yet, we do not know how these judgments are made. Here, we use machine-learning algorithms to assess what factors predict similarity judgments and whether decision trees capture the judgment outcomes and process. We find that combining small and large values into numerical differences and ratios and arranging them in tree-like structures can predict both similarity judgments and response times...
November 8, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107773/midfrontal-theta-and-pupil-dilation-parametrically-track-subjective-conflict-but-also-surprise-during-intertemporal-choice
#5
Hause Lin, Blair Saunders, Cendri A Hutcherson, Michael Inzlicht
Many everyday choices are based on personal, subjective preferences. When choosing between two options, we often feel conflicted, especially when trading off costs and benefits occurring at different times (e.g., saving for later versus spending now). Although previous work has investigated the neurophysiological basis of conflict during inhibitory control tasks, less is known about subjective conflict resulting from competing subjective preferences. In this pre-registered study, we investigated subjective conflict during intertemporal choice, whereby participants chose between smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards (e...
October 28, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098670/similarities-and-differences-in-psychology
#6
Yu Chen, Yan Sun, Si-Zhi Ai, Jason J Li, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Addiction is marked by repeating a certain behavior while ignoring the potential physical or mental consequences. Non-substance addiction provides an ideal model for researching the emergence and development of addiction's basic mechanism. Comparative studies of substance and non-substance addiction are helpful to reveal the common basis of addiction development. This article explores this topic from a psychological angle, touching upon sensation seeking, inhibitory control, attentional bias, intertemporal choice and environment...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078303/search-predicts-and-changes-patience-in-intertemporal-choice
#7
Crystal Reeck, Daniel Wall, Eric J Johnson
Intertemporal choice impacts many important outcomes, such as decisions about health, education, wealth, and the environment. However, the psychological processes underlying decisions involving outcomes at different points in time remain unclear, limiting opportunities to intervene and improve people's patience. This research examines information-search strategies used during intertemporal choice and their impact on decisions. In experiment 1, we demonstrate that search strategies vary substantially across individuals...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#8
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021315/individual-ant-workers-show-self-control
#9
Stephanie Wendt, Tomer J Czaczkes
Often, the first option is not the best. Self-control can allow humans and animals to improve resource intake under such conditions. Self-control in animals is often investigated using intertemporal choice tasks-choosing a smaller reward immediately or a larger reward after a delay. However, intertemporal choice tasks may underestimate self-control, as test subjects may not fully understand the task. Vertebrates show much greater apparent self-control in more natural foraging contexts and spatial discounting tasks than in intertemporal choice tasks...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#10
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988863/dorsal-raphe-serotonergic-neurons-control-intertemporal-choice-under-trade-off
#11
Sangyu Xu, Gishnu Das, Emily Hueske, Susumu Tonegawa
Appropriate choice about delayed reward is fundamental to the survival of animals. Although animals tend to prefer immediate reward, delaying gratification is often advantageous. The dorsal raphe (DR) serotonergic neurons have long been implicated in the processing of delayed reward, but it has been unclear whether or when their activity causally directs choice. Here, we transiently augmented or reduced the activity of DR serotonergic neurons, while mice decided between differently delayed rewards as they performed a novel odor-guided intertemporal choice task...
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977554/preferences-for-temporal-sequences-of-real-outcomes-differ-across-domains-but-do-not-vary-by-age
#12
Corinna E Löckenhoff, Joshua L Rutt, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Ted O'Donoghue, Valerie F Reyna
Objectives: People's preferences for temporal sequences of events have implications for life-long health and well-being. Prior research suggests that other aspects of intertemporal choice vary by age, but evidence for age differences in sequence-preferences is limited and inconclusive. In response, the present research examined age differences in sequence-preferences for real outcomes administered in a controlled laboratory setting. Methods: A pilot study examined sequence-preferences for aversive electrodermal shocks in 30 younger and 30 older adults...
July 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946018/decline-of-prefrontal-cortical-mediated-executive-functions-but-attenuated-delay-discounting-in-aged-fischer-344%C3%A2-%C3%A3-brown-norway-hybrid-rats
#13
Caesar M Hernandez, Lauren M Vetere, Caitlin A Orsini, Joseph A McQuail, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke, Barry Setlow, Jennifer L Bizon
Despite the fact that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function declines with age, aged individuals generally show an enhanced ability to delay gratification, as evident by less discounting of delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. The present study was designed to evaluate relationships between 2 aspects of PFC-dependent cognition (working memory and cognitive flexibility) and intertemporal choice in young (6 months) and aged (24 months) Fischer 344 × brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. Rats were also evaluated for motivation to earn rewards using a progressive ratio task...
December 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877515/neural-congruence-between-intertemporal-and-interpersonal-self-control-evidence-from-delay-and-social-discounting
#14
Paul F Hill, Richard Yi, R Nathan Spreng, Rachel A Diana
Behavioral studies using delay and social discounting as indices of self-control and altruism, respectively, have revealed functional similarities between farsighted and social decisions. However, neural evidence for this functional link is lacking. Twenty-five young adults completed a delay and social discounting task during fMRI scanning. A spatiotemporal partial least squares analysis revealed that both forms of discounting were well characterized by a pattern of brain activity in areas comprising frontoparietal control, default, and mesolimbic reward networks...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858559/more-is-meaningful-the-magnitude-effect-in-intertemporal-choice-depends-on-self-control
#15
Ian C Ballard, Bokyung Kim, Anthony Liatsis, Gökhan Aydogan, Jonathan D Cohen, Samuel M McClure
Impulsivity is a variable behavioral trait that depends on numerous factors. For example, increasing the absolute magnitude of available choice options promotes farsighted decisions. We argue that this magnitude effect arises in part from differential exertion of self-control as the perceived importance of the choice increases. First, we demonstrated that frontal executive-control areas were more engaged for more difficult decisions and that this effect was enhanced for high-magnitude rewards. Second, we showed that increased hunger, which is associated with lower self-control, reduced the magnitude effect...
October 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844008/delay-discounting-is-predicted-by-scale-free-dynamics-of-default-mode-network-and-salience-network
#16
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) is frequently used as a powerful technology to detect individual differences in many cognitive functions. Recently, some studies have explored the association between scale-free dynamic properties of resting-state brain activation and individual personality traits. However, little is known about whether the scale-free dynamics of resting-state function networks is associated with delay discounting. To address this question, we calculated the Hurst exponent which quantifies long-term memory of the time series in resting-state networks (RSNs) identified via independent component analysis (ICA) and examined what relationship between delay discounting and the Hurst exponent of RSNs is...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841663/valuation-of-opportunity-costs-by-rats-working-for-rewarding-electrical-brain-stimulation
#17
Rebecca Brana Solomon, Kent Conover, Peter Shizgal
Pursuit of one goal typically precludes simultaneous pursuit of another. Thus, each exclusive activity entails an "opportunity cost:" the forgone benefits from the next-best activity eschewed. The present experiment estimates, in laboratory rats, the function that maps objective opportunity costs into subjective ones. In an operant chamber, rewarding electrical brain stimulation was delivered when the cumulative time a lever had been depressed reached a criterion duration. The value of the activities forgone during this duration is the opportunity cost of the electrical reward...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833400/how-cross-linguistic-differences-in-the-grammaticalization-of-future-time-reference-influence-intertemporal-choices
#18
Dieter Thoma, Agnieszka E Tytus
According to Chen's (2013) Linguistic Savings Hypothesis (LSH), our native language affects our economic behavior. We present three studies investigating how cross-linguistic differences in the grammaticalization of future-time reference (FTR) affect intertemporal choices. In a series of decision scenarios about finance and health issues, we let speakers of altogether five languages that represent FTR with increasing strength, that is, Chinese, German, Danish, Spanish, and English, choose between hypothetical sooner-smaller and later-larger reward options...
August 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#19
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680410/do-the-powerful-discount-the-future-less-the-effects-of-power-on-temporal-discounting
#20
Jinyun Duan, Sherry J Wu, Luying Sun
Individuals have the tendency to discount rewards in the future, known as temporal discounting, and we find that sense of power (the felt capacity to influence the thinking and behavior of others) reduces such tendency. In Studies 1 and 2, we used both an experiment and a survey with organizational employees to demonstrate that power reduced temporal discounting. In Study 3, we replicated study 1 while exploring a unique cultural trait of Danbo, or indifference to fame and wealth, across two ethnic groups (Han and Tibetan groups) in China...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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