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Intertemporal choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400516/community-trust-reduces-myopic-decisions-of-low-income-individuals
#1
Jon M Jachimowicz, Salah Chafik, Sabeth Munrat, Jaideep C Prabhu, Elke U Weber
Why do the poor make shortsighted choices in decisions that involve delayed payoffs? Foregoing immediate rewards for larger, later rewards requires that decision makers (i) believe future payoffs will occur and (ii) are not forced to take the immediate reward out of financial need. Low-income individuals may be both less likely to believe future payoffs will occur and less able to forego immediate rewards due to higher financial need; they may thus appear to discount the future more heavily. We propose that trust in one's community-which, unlike generalized trust, we find does not covary with levels of income-can partially offset the effects of low income on myopic decisions...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393099/reduced-future-oriented-decision-making-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-a-functional-mri-study
#2
Xiaochen Hu, Franziska Uhle, Klaus Fliessbach, Michael Wagner, Ying Han, Bernd Weber, Frank Jessen
INTRODUCTION: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) refers to an at-risk state of Alzheimer's disease and subtle cognitive deficits that have been observed in this condition. Currently, it is unknown whether complex cognitive processes relevant to everyday life, such as future-oriented choice behavior, are also altered in SCD. METHODS: Twenty SCD participants and 24 control (CO) participants took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task on intertemporal decisions, with and without simultaneous episodic future imagination...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377299/some-properties-of-an-adjusting-magnitude-schedule-of-reinforcement-implications-for-models-of-choice
#3
C M Bradshaw
Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever A delivered either a larger or a smaller reinforcer (qA1 and qA2) with equal probability, while a response on B delivered a reinforcer whose size qB was adjusted according to the rats' choices. When A was preferred in a given block of trials, qB was increased in the following block; when B was preferred, qB was reduced in the following block. The oscillating changes in qB, analysed by the Fourier transform, could be described by a power spectrum with a dominant period of about 50 trial blocks...
April 2, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363134/dissociable-effects-of-age-and-testosterone-on-adolescent-impatience
#4
Corinna Laube, Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Megan Johnson, Ronald E Dahl, Wouter van den Bos
The onset of adolescence is associated with an increase in transgressive behaviours-from juvenile delinquency to substance use and unprotected sex-that are often attributed to increased impulsiveness. In the past, this increase was ascribed to "raging hormones"; more recently, to an imbalance in the maturation of different brain regions. However, it remains unclear how these large-scale biological changes impact specific processes that result in impulsive decisions, namely, sensitivity to immediate rewards and general discounting of future options...
March 14, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352226/cognitive-control-modulates-effects-of-episodic-simulation-on-delay-discounting-in-aging
#5
Laura K Sasse, Jan Peters, Stefanie Brassen
Enhancing prospective thinking by tagging the future with specific episodic events has been shown to reduce delay discounting in young age ("tag-effect"). So far, it is unclear whether such beneficial effect extends to old adulthood. Since the general ability of future thinking and cognitive control are crucial modulators of temporal discounting in young age, potential age-related decline in these functions might impact on the effect. We focused on this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an established intertemporal choice task including episodic "tags" in healthy older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344568/time-is-money-the-decision-making-of-smartphone-high-users-in-gain-and-loss-intertemporal-choice
#6
Zixuan Tang, Huijun Zhang, An Yan, Chen Qu
Nowadays the smartphone plays an important role in our lives. While it brings us convenience and efficiency, its overuse can cause problems. Although a great number of studies have demonstrated that people affected by substance abuse, pathological gambling, and internet addiction disorder have lower self-control than average, scarcely any study has investigated the decision making of smartphone high users by using a behavioral paradigm. The present study employed an intertemporal task, the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11) to explore the decision control of smartphone high users in a sample of 125 college students...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334633/now-or-not-now-the-influence-of-alexithymia-on-intertemporal-decision-making
#7
Cristina Scarpazza, Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Optimal intertemporal decisions arise from the balance between an emotional-visceral component, signaling the need for immediate gratification, and a rational, long-term oriented component. Alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by amplified sensitivity to internal bodily signals of arousal, may result in enhanced activation of the emotional-visceral component over the cognitive-rational one. To test this hypothesis, participants with high- and low-alexithymia level were compared at an intertemporal decision-making task, and their choice behavior correlated with their interoceptive sensitivity...
June 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315626/cross-cultural-comparisons-of-delay-discounting-of-gain-and-loss
#8
Keiko Ishii, Lili Gang, Taiki Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: People generally tend to discount future outcomes in favor of smaller but immediate gains (i.e., delay discounting). The present research examined cultural similarities and differences in delay discounting of gain and loss between Chinese and Japanese, based on a q-exponential model of intertemporal choice. METHOD: Using a hypothetical situation, we asked 65 Japanese participants and 51 Chinese participants to choose between receiving (or paying) a different amount of money immediately or with a specified delay (1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 5 years, and 25 years)...
November 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265901/are-intertemporal-preferences-contagious-evidence-from-collaborative-decision-making
#9
Michael T Bixter, Elizabeth M Trimber, Christian C Luhmann
Prior research has provided substantial insight into individuals' intertemporal preferences (i.e., preferences about delayed rewards). In the present study, we instead investigated the preferences of small groups of individuals asked to express collective intertemporal decisions. The paradigm consisted of three phases. During the precollaboration and postcollaboration phases, participants completed an intertemporal decision task individually. During the collaboration phase, participants completed a similar task in small groups, reaching mutually-agreed-upon decisions...
March 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#10
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224457/elevated-outcome-anticipation-and-outcome-evaluation-erps-associated-with-a-greater-preference-for-larger-but-delayed-rewards
#11
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ajay Nadig, Storm Heidinger, Keegan Walden, Robin Nusslock
Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses...
February 21, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130716/individual-differences-in-long-range-time-representation
#12
Camila S Agostino, Marcelo S Caetano, Fuat Balci, Peter M E Claessens, Yossi Zana
On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures...
January 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077716/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#13
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065715/a-framework-for-understanding-and-advancing-intertemporal-choice-research-using-rodent-models
#14
REVIEW
Wambura C Fobbs, Sheri J Y Mizumori
Intertemporal choices are common and consequential to private and public life. Thus, there is considerable interest in understanding the neural basis of intertemporal decision making. In this minireview, we briefly describe conceptual and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice and then provide a comprehensive evaluation of the neural structures and signals that comprise the underlying cortico-limbic-striatal circuit. Even though great advances have been made, our understanding of the neurobiology of intertemporal choice is still in its infancy because of the complex and dynamic nature of this form of decision making...
January 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003681/poverty-and-economic-decision-making-evidence-from-changes-in-financial-resources-at-payday
#15
Leandro S Carvalho, Stephan Meier, Stephanie W Wang
We study the effect of financial resources on decision-making. Low-income U.S. households are randomly assigned to receive an online survey before or after payday. The survey collects measures of cognitive function and administers risk and intertemporal choice tasks. The study design generates variation in cash, checking and savings balances, and expenditures. Before-payday participants behave as if they are more present-biased when making intertemporal choices about monetary rewards but not when making intertemporal choices about non-monetary real-effort tasks...
February 2016: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940144/glucose-specific-signaling-effects-on-delay-discounting-in-intertemporal-choice
#16
X T Xiao-Tian Wang, Gang Huangfu
We propose that decisions related to resource management (e.g., intertemporal choice between a smaller-and-sooner reward and a larger-and-later reward) are sensitive to and regulated by fluctuating blood glucose levels. Circulating glucose affects intertemporal choice by means of signaling body energy condition instead of serving as a replenishing resource for effortful cognitive processing. We intend to dissociate calorie-supplying functions from glucose-unique anticipatory effects on behavioral resource management, measured by delay discounting in making intertemporal choices...
February 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929348/shallow-discounting-of-delayed-cocaine-by-male-rhesus-monkeys-when-immediate-food-is-the-choice-alternative
#17
Sally L Huskinson, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, James K Rowlett, William L Woolverton, Kevin B Freeman
Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929342/dread-sensitivity-in-decisions-about-real-and-imagined-electrical-shocks-does-not-vary-by-age
#18
Corinna E Löckenhoff, Joshua L Rutt, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Ted O'Donoghue, Valerie F Reyna, Barbara Ganzel
Previous research has found age differences in intertemporal choices that involve trade-offs among events or outcomes that occur at different points in time, but these findings were mostly limited to hypothetical financial and consumer choices. We examined whether age effects extend to unpleasant physical experiences that elicit states of dread which lead participants to speed up the outcomes just to get them over with. We asked participants of different ages to choose among electrical shocks that varied in timing and intensity...
December 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909102/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#19
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE)-in the absence of choice-violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833538/impaired-decision-making-and-loss-of-inhibitory-control-in-a-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#20
Nicole El Massioui, Charlotte Lamirault, Sara Yagüe, Najia Adjeroud, Daniel Garces, Alexis Maillard, Lucille Tallot, Libo Yu-Taeger, Olaf Riess, Philippe Allain, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Stephan von Hörsten, Valérie Doyère
Cognitive deficits associated with Huntington disease (HD) are generally dominated by executive function disorders often associated with disinhibition and impulsivity/compulsivity. Few studies have directly examined symptoms and consequences of behavioral disinhibition in HD and its relation with decision-making. To assess the different forms of impulsivity in a transgenic model of HD (tgHD rats), two tasks assessing cognitive/choice impulsivity were used: risky decision-making with a rat gambling task (RGT) and intertemporal choices with a delay discounting task (DD)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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