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Intertemporal choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028956/age-differences-in-the-neural-mechanisms-of-intertemporal-choice-under-subjective-decision-conflict
#1
Ben Eppinger, Hauke R Heekeren, Shu-Chen Li
Older decision-makers may capitalize on their greater experiences in financial decisions and by this offset decline in cognitive abilities. However, this pattern of results should reverse in situations that place high demands on cognitive control functions. In this study, we investigated how decision conflict affects the neural mechanisms of intertemporal decision-making in younger and older adults. To individually adjust the level of decision conflict we determined the indifference point (IDP) in intertemporal decision-making for each participant...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021315/individual-ant-workers-show-self-control
#2
Stephanie Wendt, Tomer J Czaczkes
Often, the first option is not the best. Self-control can allow humans and animals to improve resource intake under such conditions. Self-control in animals is often investigated using intertemporal choice tasks-choosing a smaller reward immediately or a larger reward after a delay. However, intertemporal choice tasks may underestimate self-control, as test subjects may not fully understand the task. Vertebrates show much greater apparent self-control in more natural foraging contexts and spatial discounting tasks than in intertemporal choice tasks...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992268/propranolol-reduces-reference-dependence-in-intertemporal-choice
#3
Karolina M Lempert, Sandra F Lackovic, Russell H Tobe, Paul W Glimcher, Elizabeth A Phelps
In intertemporal choices between immediate and delayed rewards, people tend to prefer immediate rewards, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This is known as temporal discounting. It has been proposed that this tendency emerges because immediate rewards are more emotionally arousing than delayed rewards. However, in our previous research, we found no evidence for this but instead found that arousal responses (indexed with pupil dilation) in intertemporal choice are context-dependent. Specifically, arousal tracks the subjective value of the more variable reward option in the paradigm, whether it is immediate or delayed...
September 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988863/dorsal-raphe-serotonergic-neurons-control-intertemporal-choice-under-trade-off
#4
Sangyu Xu, Gishnu Das, Emily Hueske, Susumu Tonegawa
Appropriate choice about delayed reward is fundamental to the survival of animals. Although animals tend to prefer immediate reward, delaying gratification is often advantageous. The dorsal raphe (DR) serotonergic neurons have long been implicated in the processing of delayed reward, but it has been unclear whether or when their activity causally directs choice. Here, we transiently augmented or reduced the activity of DR serotonergic neurons, while mice decided between differently delayed rewards as they performed a novel odor-guided intertemporal choice task...
October 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977554/preferences-for-temporal-sequences-of-real-outcomes-differ-across-domains-but-do-not-vary-by-age
#5
Corinna E Löckenhoff, Joshua L Rutt, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Ted O'Donoghue, Valerie F Reyna
Objectives: People's preferences for temporal sequences of events have implications for life-long health and well-being. Prior research suggests that other aspects of intertemporal choice vary by age, but evidence for age differences in sequence-preferences is limited and inconclusive. In response, the present research examined age differences in sequence-preferences for real outcomes administered in a controlled laboratory setting. Methods: A pilot study examined sequence-preferences for aversive electrodermal shocks in 30 younger and 30 older adults...
July 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946018/decline-of-prefrontal-cortical-mediated-executive-functions-but-attenuated-delay-discounting-in-aged-fischer-344%C3%A2-%C3%A3-brown-norway-hybrid-rats
#6
Caesar M Hernandez, Lauren M Vetere, Caitlin A Orsini, Joseph A McQuail, Andrew P Maurer, Sara N Burke, Barry Setlow, Jennifer L Bizon
Despite the fact that prefrontal cortex (PFC) function declines with age, aged individuals generally show an enhanced ability to delay gratification, as evident by less discounting of delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. The present study was designed to evaluate relationships between 2 aspects of PFC-dependent cognition (working memory and cognitive flexibility) and intertemporal choice in young (6 months) and aged (24 months) Fischer 344 × brown Norway F1 hybrid rats. Rats were also evaluated for motivation to earn rewards using a progressive ratio task...
September 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877515/neural-congruence-between-intertemporal-and-interpersonal-self-control-evidence-from-delay-and-social-discounting
#7
Paul F Hill, Richard Yi, R Nathan Spreng, Rachel A Diana
Behavioral studies using delay and social discounting as indices of self-control and altruism, respectively, have revealed functional similarities between farsighted and social decisions. However, neural evidence for this functional link is lacking. Twenty-five young adults completed a delay and social discounting task during fMRI scanning. A spatiotemporal partial least squares analysis revealed that both forms of discounting were well characterized by a pattern of brain activity in areas comprising frontoparietal control, default, and mesolimbic reward networks...
September 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858559/more-is-meaningful-the-magnitude-effect-in-intertemporal-choice-depends-on-self-control
#8
Ian C Ballard, Bokyung Kim, Anthony Liatsis, Gökhan Aydogan, Jonathan D Cohen, Samuel M McClure
Impulsivity is a variable behavioral trait that depends on numerous factors. For example, increasing the absolute magnitude of available choice options promotes farsighted decisions. We argue that this magnitude effect arises in part from differential exertion of self-control as the perceived importance of the choice increases. First, we demonstrated that frontal executive-control areas were more engaged for more difficult decisions and that this effect was enhanced for high-magnitude rewards. Second, we showed that increased hunger, which is associated with lower self-control, reduced the magnitude effect...
October 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844008/delay-discounting-is-predicted-by-scale-free-dynamics-of-default-mode-network-and-salience-network
#9
Zhiyi Chen, Yiqun Guo, Tingyong Feng
Resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) is frequently used as a powerful technology to detect individual differences in many cognitive functions. Recently, some studies have explored the association between scale-free dynamic properties of resting-state brain activation and individual personality traits. However, little is known about whether the scale-free dynamics of resting-state function networks is associated with delay discounting. To address this question, we calculated the Hurst exponent which quantifies long-term memory of the time series in resting-state networks (RSNs) identified via independent component analysis (ICA) and examined what relationship between delay discounting and the Hurst exponent of RSNs is...
August 24, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841663/valuation-of-opportunity-costs-by-rats-working-for-rewarding-electrical-brain-stimulation
#10
Rebecca Brana Solomon, Kent Conover, Peter Shizgal
Pursuit of one goal typically precludes simultaneous pursuit of another. Thus, each exclusive activity entails an "opportunity cost:" the forgone benefits from the next-best activity eschewed. The present experiment estimates, in laboratory rats, the function that maps objective opportunity costs into subjective ones. In an operant chamber, rewarding electrical brain stimulation was delivered when the cumulative time a lever had been depressed reached a criterion duration. The value of the activities forgone during this duration is the opportunity cost of the electrical reward...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833400/how-cross-linguistic-differences-in-the-grammaticalization-of-future-time-reference-influence-intertemporal-choices
#11
Dieter Thoma, Agnieszka E Tytus
According to Chen's (2013) Linguistic Savings Hypothesis (LSH), our native language affects our economic behavior. We present three studies investigating how cross-linguistic differences in the grammaticalization of future-time reference (FTR) affect intertemporal choices. In a series of decision scenarios about finance and health issues, we let speakers of altogether five languages that represent FTR with increasing strength, that is, Chinese, German, Danish, Spanish, and English, choose between hypothetical sooner-smaller and later-larger reward options...
August 22, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711810/cocaine-dependence-modulates-the-effect-of-hiv-infection-on-brain-activation-during-intertemporal-decision-making
#12
Christina S Meade, Andrea L Hobkirk, Sheri L Towe, Nan-Kuei Chen, Ryan P Bell, Scott A Huettel
BACKGROUND: Both HIV infection and chronic cocaine use alter the neural circuitry of decision making, but the interactive effects of these commonly comorbid conditions have not been adequately examined. This study tested how cocaine moderates HIV-related neural activation during an intertemporal decision-making task. METHODS: The sample included 73 participants who differed on cocaine and HIV status (18 COC+/HIV+, 19 COC+/HIV-, 19 COC-/HIV+, 17 COC-/HIV-). Participants made choices between smaller, sooner and larger, delayed rewards while undergoing functional MRI...
September 1, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680410/do-the-powerful-discount-the-future-less-the-effects-of-power-on-temporal-discounting
#13
Jinyun Duan, Sherry J Wu, Luying Sun
Individuals have the tendency to discount rewards in the future, known as temporal discounting, and we find that sense of power (the felt capacity to influence the thinking and behavior of others) reduces such tendency. In Studies 1 and 2, we used both an experiment and a survey with organizational employees to demonstrate that power reduced temporal discounting. In Study 3, we replicated study 1 while exploring a unique cultural trait of Danbo, or indifference to fame and wealth, across two ethnic groups (Han and Tibetan groups) in China...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653040/prospective-thinking-and-decision-making-in-primary-school-age-children
#14
Elisabetta Lombardi, Cinzia Di Dio, Ilaria Castelli, Davide Massaro, Antonella Marchetti
In this study, we seek to widen our understanding of the developmental processes underlying bargaining behaviour in children addressing the concept of prospective thinking. We argue that the emergence of the capacity to think prospectively about future outcomes or behaviours in response to current actions is a required precedent to strategic decision making. To test this idea, we compared 6, 8 and 10 years old children's performance on three tasks: the ultimatum game assessing fairness/inequality aversion, the marshmallow task, an intertemporal choice task evaluating the ability to delay gratification, and the dictator game assessing altruism...
June 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636527/evaluating-performance-over-time-is-improving-better-than-being-consistently-good
#15
Monica Soliman, Roger Buehler
In many decision contexts, people evaluate others based on intertemporal performance records and commonly face a choice between two distinct profiles: performance that is consistently high versus performance that improves over time to that high level. We proposed that these two profiles could be appealing for different reasons, and thus evaluators' preferences will differ across decision contexts. In three studies, participants were presented with candidates (e.g., students, employees) displaying the two profiles, and evaluated each candidate in terms of performance, future expectations, and deservingness...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#16
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552943/if-you-want-to-save-focus-on-the-forest-rather-than-on-trees-the-effects-of-shifts-in-levels-of-construal-on-saving-decisions
#17
Joanna Rudzinska-Wojciechowska
Although financial decisions are expected to be rational, there is a growing body of experimental research indicating that small psychological changes in one's mind-set in the actual decision-making moment might affect saving ratios. In this article, another type of change in one's mind-set, which can influence saving decisions, is explored, namely the level of construal. Construal level is a key descriptor of people's cognitive representations of targets, and is a way of characterising the mental mind-sets people use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536420/reliability-in-adolescent-fmri-within-two-years-a-comparison-of-three-tasks
#18
Nora C Vetter, Julius Steding, Sarah Jurk, Stephan Ripke, Eva Mennigen, Michael N Smolka
Longitudinal developmental fMRI studies just recently began to focus on within-subject reliability using the intraclass coefficient (ICC). It remains largely unclear which degree of reliability can be achieved in developmental studies and whether this depends on the type of task used. Therefore, we aimed to systematically investigate the reliability of three well-classified tasks: an emotional attention, a cognitive control, and an intertemporal choice paradigm. We hypothesized to find higher reliability in the cognitive task than in the emotional or reward-related task...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504898/dissociable-contributions-of-imagination-and-willpower-to-the-malleability-of-human-patience
#19
Adrianna C Jenkins, Ming Hsu
The ability to exercise patience is important for human functioning. Although it is known that patience can be promoted by using top-down control, or willpower, to override impatient impulses, patience is also malleable-in particular, susceptible to framing effects-in ways that are difficult to explain using willpower alone. So far, the mechanisms underlying framing effects on patience have been elusive. We investigated the role of imagination in these effects. In a behavioral experiment (Experiment 1), a classic framing manipulation (sequence framing) increased self-reported and independently coded imagination during intertemporal choice...
July 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459263/-cumulative-weighing-of-time-in-intertemporal-tradeoffs-correction-to-scholten-read-and-sanborn-2016
#20
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cumulative weighing of time in intertemporal tradeoffs" by Marc Scholten, Daniel Read and Adam Sanborn (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Sep], Vol 145[9], 1177-1205). In the article, there was an error in Table 1. The preference for faster accumulation read {1,000, 0, 1,000} > {0, 500, 0}. It should read {0, 1,000, 0} > {500, 0, 500}. In addition, in the section Descriptive Accuracy, all the equations with the inequality ">" should read "≥" instead. The impact of this change is that, when considering the best model for each participant, as measured by Bayes Factors, the absolute goodness of fit, as measured by Bayesian p-values, were better than reported in both Table A2 and the text...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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