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Intertemporal choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929348/shallow-discounting-of-delayed-cocaine-by-male-rhesus-monkeys-when-immediate-food-is-the-choice-alternative
#1
Sally L Huskinson, Joel Myerson, Leonard Green, James K Rowlett, William L Woolverton, Kevin B Freeman
Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives...
December 2016: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929342/dread-sensitivity-in-decisions-about-real-and-imagined-electrical-shocks-does-not-vary-by-age
#2
Corinna E Löckenhoff, Joshua L Rutt, Gregory R Samanez-Larkin, Ted O'Donoghue, Valerie F Reyna, Barbara Ganzel
Previous research has found age differences in intertemporal choices that involve trade-offs among events or outcomes that occur at different points in time, but these findings were mostly limited to hypothetical financial and consumer choices. We examined whether age effects extend to unpleasant physical experiences that elicit states of dread which lead participants to speed up the outcomes just to get them over with. We asked participants of different ages to choose among electrical shocks that varied in timing and intensity...
December 2016: Psychology and Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909102/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#3
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE)-in the absence of choice-violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833538/impaired-decision-making-and-loss-of-inhibitory-control-in-a-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#4
Nicole El Massioui, Charlotte Lamirault, Sara Yagüe, Najia Adjeroud, Daniel Garces, Alexis Maillard, Lucille Tallot, Libo Yu-Taeger, Olaf Riess, Philippe Allain, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Stephan von Hörsten, Valérie Doyère
Cognitive deficits associated with Huntington disease (HD) are generally dominated by executive function disorders often associated with disinhibition and impulsivity/compulsivity. Few studies have directly examined symptoms and consequences of behavioral disinhibition in HD and its relation with decision-making. To assess the different forms of impulsivity in a transgenic model of HD (tgHD rats), two tasks assessing cognitive/choice impulsivity were used: risky decision-making with a rat gambling task (RGT) and intertemporal choices with a delay discounting task (DD)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806865/altered-neural-efficiency-of-decision-making-during-temporal-reward-discounting-in-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Joseph A King, Daniel Geisler, Fabio Bernardoni, Franziska Ritschel, Ilka Böhm, Maria Seidel, Eva Mennigen, Stephan Ripke, Michael N Smolka, Veit Roessner, Stefan Ehrlich
OBJECTIVE: The ability of individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) to resist hunger and restrict caloric intake is often believed to reflect an unusual amount of self-control. However, the underlying neural substrate is poorly understood, especially in adolescent patients. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used during an intertemporal choice task to probe the hemodynamic correlates of a common measurement of self-control-delayed (monetary) reward discounting-in a sample of acutely ill, predominately adolescent female patients with AN (n = 31) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 31)...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785126/temporal-dynamics-of-the-interaction-between-reward-and-time-delay-during-intertemporal-choice
#6
Dan-Yang Gui, Jin-Zhen Li, Xiaoli Li, Yue-Jia Luo
Intertemporal choice involves the processes of valuation and choice. Choice is often the result of subjective valuation, in which reward is integrated with time delay. Here, using event-related potential (ERP) signals as temporal hallmarks, we aim to investigate temporal dynamics of how reward interacts with time delay during a delayed discounting task. We found that participants preferred immediate rewards when delayed rewards were small or over long-term delays. Our ERP results suggested that the P200 component reflected an initial valuation of reward and time delay, while the frontal N2 component correlated with individual choices of immediate option of rewards...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779911/neural-systems-underlying-individual-differences-in-intertemporal-decision-making
#7
Amanda Elton, Christopher T Smith, Michael H Parrish, Charlotte A Boettiger
Excessively choosing immediate over larger future rewards, or delay discounting (DD), associates with multiple clinical conditions. Individual differences in DD likely depend on variations in the activation of and functional interactions between networks, representing possible endophenotypes for associated disorders, including alcohol use disorders. Numerous fMRI studies have probed the neural bases of DD, but investigations of large-scale networks remain scant. We addressed this gap by testing whether activation within large-scale networks during Now/Later decision-making predicts individual differences in DD...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777017/economic-preferences-and-fast-food-consumption-in-us-adults-insights-from-behavioral-economics
#8
Kerem Shuval, Michal Stoklosa, Mark C Pachucki, Amy L Yaroch, Jeffrey Drope, Matthew Harding
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between economic time preferences and frequency of fast food and full-service restaurant consumption among U.S. adults. METHODS: Participants included 5871U.S. adults who responded to a survey conducted in 2011 pertaining to the lifestyle behaviors of families and the social context of these behaviors. The primary independent variable was a measure of time preferences, an intertemporal choice assessing delay discounting. This was elicited via responses to preferences for an immediate dollar amount or a larger sum in 30 (30-day time horizon) or 60days (60-day time horizon)...
December 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768759/side-effects-in-time-discounting-procedures-fixed-alternatives-become-the-reference-point
#9
Przemysław Sawicki, Michał Białek
Typical research on intertemporal choice utilizes a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) paradigm requiring participants to choose between a smaller sooner and larger later payoff. In the adjusting-amount procedure (AAP) one of the alternatives is fixed and the other is adjusted according to particular choices made by the participant. Such a method makes the alternatives unequal in status and is speculated to make the fixed alternative a reference point for choices, thereby affecting the decision made. The current study shows that fixing different alternatives in the AAP influences discount rates in intertemporal choices...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617711/delay-discounting-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Sara Coelho, Manuela Guerreiro, Catarina Chester, Dina Silva, João Maroco, Fabio Paglieri, Alexandre de Mendonça
INTRODUCTION: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may make suboptimal decisions particularly in complex situations, and this could be due to temporal discounting, the tendency to prefer immediate rewards over delayed but larger rewards. The present study proposes to evaluate intertemporal preferences in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with MCI and 57 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and a delay discounting questionnaire, which evaluates three parameters: hyperbolic discounting (k), the percentage of choices for delayed and later rewards (%LL), and response consistency (Acc)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608604/high-definition-tdcs-alters-impulsivity-in-a-baseline-dependent-manner
#11
Bo Shen, Yunlu Yin, Jiashu Wang, Xiaolin Zhou, Samuel M McClure, Jian Li
In intertemporal choice (ITC), people discount future rewards in proportion to the time delay until reward receipt. Despite recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies suggesting a general causal link between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity and ITC impulsivity, results regarding the functional specificity of dlPFC are mixed. We used high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) to map changes in causal impulsivity through bi-directional modulation of left and right dlPFC during ITC...
December 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597839/introducing-upfront-money-can-decrease-discounting-in-intertemporal-choices-with-losses
#12
Cheng-Ming Jiang, Hong-Yue Sun, Sheng-Hua Zheng, Liang-Jun Wang, Yu Qin
People generally tend to advance gains and postpone losses in intertemporal choice. Jiang et al. (2014) recently showed that adding upfront losses or gains to both smaller and sooner (SS) and larger and later (LL) rewards can decrease people's discounting. To account for this decrease, they proposed the salience hypothesis, which states that introducing upfront losses or gains makes the money dimension more salient than not, thus increasing people's preference for LL rewards. Considering that decreasing the discounting of delayed losses is imperative and that most previous studies have focused on intertemporal choices with gains, in the current paper we conducted two experiments and used hypothetical money outcomes to examine whether the effect of upfront money could be extended to intertemporal choices with losses...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593380/effects-of-medial-orbitofrontal-cortex-lesions-on-self-control-in-intertemporal-choice
#13
Jan Peters, Mark D'Esposito
Many decisions involve a trade-off between the temporal proximity of a reward and its magnitude. A range of clinical conditions are associated with poor self-control during such intertemporal choices, such that smaller rewards that are received sooner are preferred over larger rewards that are received later to a greater extent [1, 2]. According to a prominent neural model of self-control [3-6], subjective reward values are represented in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) at the time of choice [7-9]. Successful self-control in this model is then thought to depend on a modulation of these mOFC value representations via the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) [3, 6]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560853/cumulative-weighing-of-time-in-intertemporal-tradeoffs
#14
Marc Scholten, Daniel Read, Adam Sanborn
We examine preferences for sequences of delayed monetary gains. In the experimental literature, two prominent models have been advanced as psychological descriptions of preferences for sequences. In one model, the instantaneous utilities of the outcomes in a sequence are discounted as a function of their delays, and assembled into a discounted utility of the sequence. In the other model, the accumulated utility of the outcomes in a sequence is considered along with utility or disutility from improvement in outcome utilities and utility or disutility from the spreading of outcome utilities...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503104/polymorphism-of-the-3-utr-of-the-dopamine-transporter-gene-dat-in-new-world-monkeys
#15
Marco Lucarelli, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Walter Adriani, Elsa Addessi, Silvia Pierandrei, Arianna Manciocco, Francesca Zoratto, Andrea Tamellini, Augusto Vitale, Giovanni Laviola, Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Esterina Pascale
Genetic polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene has been reported in both human and nonhuman primates, and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism has been related to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. As New World primates have been employed as models in biomedical research in these fields, in the present study we assessed genetic variation in the DAT gene in 25 robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and 39 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)...
August 8, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27479656/the-hunt-for-the-perfect-discounting-function-and-a-reckoning-of-time-perception
#16
REVIEW
Vijay Mk Namboodiri, Marshall G Hussain Shuler
Making decisions that factor the cost of time is fundamental to survival. Yet, while it is readily appreciated that our perception of time is intimately involved in this process, theories regarding intertemporal decision-making and theories regarding time perception are treated, largely, independently. Even within these respective domains, models providing good fits to data fail to provide insight as to why, from a normative sense, those fits should take their apparent form. Conversely, normative models that proffer a rationalization for why an agent should weigh options in a particular way, or to perceive time in a particular way, fail to account for the full body of well-established experimental evidence...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27416610/a-realistic-framework-for-investigating-decision-making-in-the-brain-with-high-spatio-temporal-resolution-using-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-and-joint-ica
#17
Sreenath Kyathanahally, Ana Franco-Watkins, Xiaoxia Zhang, Vince Calhoun, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Human decision-making is a multidimensional construct, driven by a complex interplay between external factors, internal biases and computational capacity constraints. Here we propose a layered approach to experimental design in which multiple tasks - from simple to complex - with additional layers of complexity introduced at each stage, are incorporated for investigating decision-making. This is demonstrated using tasks involving intertemporal choice between immediate and future prospects. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have separately investigated the spatial and temporal neural substrates, respectively, of specific factors underlying decision making...
July 12, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27384755/using-future-thinking-to-reduce-temporal-discounting-under-what-circumstances-are-the-medial-temporal-lobes-critical
#18
D J Palombo, M M Keane, M Verfaellie
The capacity to envision the future plays an important role in many aspects of cognition, including our ability to make optimal, adaptive choices. Past work has shown that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is necessary for decisions that draw on episodic future thinking. By contrast, little is known about the role of the MTL in decisions that draw on semantic future thinking. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether the MTL contributes to one form of decision making, namely intertemporal choice, when such decisions depend on semantic consideration of the future...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27363005/the-procrastinators-want-it-now-behavioral-and-event-related-potential-evidence-of-the-procrastination-of-intertemporal-choices
#19
Haiyan Wu, Danyang Gui, Wenzheng Lin, Ruolei Gu, Xiangru Zhu, Xun Liu
Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing...
August 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27359127/rats-value-time-differently-on-equivalent-foraging-and-delay-discounting-tasks
#20
Evan C Carter, A David Redish
All organisms have to consider consequences that vary through time. Theories explaining how animals handle intertemporal choice include delay-discounting models, in which the value of future rewards is discounted by the delay until receipt, and foraging models, which predict that decision-makers maximize rate of reward. We measured the behavior of rats on a 2-option delay-discounting task and a stay/go foraging task that were equivalent for rate of reward and physical demand. Despite the highly shared features of the tasks, rats were willing to wait much longer on the foraging task than on the delay-discounting task...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
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