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Intertemporal choice

Sara Coelho, Manuela Guerreiro, Catarina Chester, Dina Silva, João Maroco, Fabio Paglieri, Alexandre de Mendonça
INTRODUCTION: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) may make suboptimal decisions particularly in complex situations, and this could be due to temporal discounting, the tendency to prefer immediate rewards over delayed but larger rewards. The present study proposes to evaluate intertemporal preferences in MCI patients as compared to healthy controls. METHOD: Fifty-five patients with MCI and 57 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological evaluation and a delay discounting questionnaire, which evaluates three parameters: hyperbolic discounting (k), the percentage of choices for delayed and later rewards (%LL), and response consistency (Acc)...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Bo Shen, Yunlu Yin, Jiashu Wang, Xiaolin Zhou, Samuel M McClure, Jian Li
In intertemporal choice (ITC), people discount future rewards in proportion to the time delay until reward receipt. Despite recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies suggesting a general causal link between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity and ITC impulsivity, results regarding the functional specificity of dlPFC are mixed. We used high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) to map changes in causal impulsivity through bi-directional modulation of left and right dlPFC during ITC...
September 6, 2016: NeuroImage
Cheng-Ming Jiang, Hong-Yue Sun, Sheng-Hua Zheng, Liang-Jun Wang, Yu Qin
People generally tend to advance gains and postpone losses in intertemporal choice. Jiang et al. (2014) recently showed that adding upfront losses or gains to both smaller and sooner (SS) and larger and later (LL) rewards can decrease people's discounting. To account for this decrease, they proposed the salience hypothesis, which states that introducing upfront losses or gains makes the money dimension more salient than not, thus increasing people's preference for LL rewards. Considering that decreasing the discounting of delayed losses is imperative and that most previous studies have focused on intertemporal choices with gains, in the current paper we conducted two experiments and used hypothetical money outcomes to examine whether the effect of upfront money could be extended to intertemporal choices with losses...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jan Peters, Mark D'Esposito
Many decisions involve a trade-off between the temporal proximity of a reward and its magnitude. A range of clinical conditions are associated with poor self-control during such intertemporal choices, such that smaller rewards that are received sooner are preferred over larger rewards that are received later to a greater extent [1, 2]. According to a prominent neural model of self-control [3-6], subjective reward values are represented in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) at the time of choice [7-9]. Successful self-control in this model is then thought to depend on a modulation of these mOFC value representations via the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) [3, 6]...
October 10, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Marc Scholten, Daniel Read, Adam Sanborn
We examine preferences for sequences of delayed monetary gains. In the experimental literature, two prominent models have been advanced as psychological descriptions of preferences for sequences. In one model, the instantaneous utilities of the outcomes in a sequence are discounted as a function of their delays, and assembled into a discounted utility of the sequence. In the other model, the accumulated utility of the outcomes in a sequence is considered along with utility or disutility from improvement in outcome utilities and utility or disutility from the spreading of outcome utilities...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Marco Lucarelli, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Walter Adriani, Elsa Addessi, Silvia Pierandrei, Arianna Manciocco, Francesca Zoratto, Andrea Tamellini, Augusto Vitale, Giovanni Laviola, Jessica Lynch Alfaro, Esterina Pascale
Genetic polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene has been reported in both human and nonhuman primates, and the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism has been related to several neurological and psychiatric disorders. As New World primates have been employed as models in biomedical research in these fields, in the present study we assessed genetic variation in the DAT gene in 25 robust capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) and 39 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)...
August 8, 2016: Primates; Journal of Primatology
Vijay Mk Namboodiri, Marshall G Hussain Shuler
Making decisions that factor the cost of time is fundamental to survival. Yet, while it is readily appreciated that our perception of time is intimately involved in this process, theories regarding intertemporal decision-making and theories regarding time perception are treated, largely, independently. Even within these respective domains, models providing good fits to data fail to provide insight as to why, from a normative sense, those fits should take their apparent form. Conversely, normative models that proffer a rationalization for why an agent should weigh options in a particular way, or to perceive time in a particular way, fail to account for the full body of well-established experimental evidence...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Sreenath Kyathanahally, Ana Franco-Watkins, Xiaoxia Zhang, Vince Calhoun, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Human decision-making is a multidimensional construct, driven by a complex interplay between external factors, internal biases and computational capacity constraints. Here we propose a layered approach to experimental design in which multiple tasks - from simple to complex - with additional layers of complexity introduced at each stage, are incorporated for investigating decision-making. This is demonstrated using tasks involving intertemporal choice between immediate and future prospects. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) studies have separately investigated the spatial and temporal neural substrates, respectively, of specific factors underlying decision making...
July 12, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
D J Palombo, M M Keane, M Verfaellie
The capacity to envision the future plays an important role in many aspects of cognition, including our ability to make optimal, adaptive choices. Past work has shown that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is necessary for decisions that draw on episodic future thinking. By contrast, little is known about the role of the MTL in decisions that draw on semantic future thinking. Accordingly, the present study investigated whether the MTL contributes to one form of decision making, namely intertemporal choice, when such decisions depend on semantic consideration of the future...
August 2016: Neuropsychologia
Haiyan Wu, Danyang Gui, Wenzheng Lin, Ruolei Gu, Xiangru Zhu, Xun Liu
Much past research has focused on the correlation between procrastination and personality traits (e.g., impulsivity). According to the temporal motivation theory, procrastinators are impulsive and sensitive to delays in time. However, there is still a lack of direct evidence of the tendency of procrastinators to prefer immediate over future rewards. To investigate this question, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in the brain while participants performed an intertemporal choice task involving both time delay and reward processing...
August 2016: Brain and Cognition
Evan C Carter, A David Redish
All organisms have to consider consequences that vary through time. Theories explaining how animals handle intertemporal choice include delay-discounting models, in which the value of future rewards is discounted by the delay until receipt, and foraging models, which predict that decision-makers maximize rate of reward. We measured the behavior of rats on a 2-option delay-discounting task and a stay/go foraging task that were equivalent for rate of reward and physical demand. Despite the highly shared features of the tasks, rats were willing to wait much longer on the foraging task than on the delay-discounting task...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Nowadays, the increasing incidence of eating disorders due to poor self-control has given rise to increased obesity and other chronic weight problems, and ultimately, to reduced life expectancy. The capacity to refrain from automatic responses is usually high in situations in which making errors is highly likely. The protocol described here aims at reducing imprudent preference in women during hypothetical intertemporal choices about appetitive food by associating it with errors. First, participants undergo an error task where two different edible stimuli are associated with two different error likelihoods (high and low)...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Maria Kekic, Savani Bartholdy, Jiumu Cheng, Jessica McClelland, Elena Boysen, Peter Musiat, Owen G O'Daly, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence that people with eating disorders display altered intertemporal choice behavior (the degree of preference for immediate rewards over delayed rewards). Compared to healthy controls (HC), individuals with anorexia nervosa and binge-eating disorder show decreased and increased rates of temporal discounting (TD; the devaluation of delayed rewards), respectively. This is the first study to investigate TD in people with bulimia nervosa (BN). METHOD: Thirty-nine individuals with BN (2 men) and 53 HC (9 men) completed a hypothetical monetary TD task...
June 15, 2016: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Bastien Blain, Guillaume Hollard, Mathias Pessiglione
The ability to exert self-control is key to social insertion and professional success. An influential literature in psychology has developed the theory that self-control relies on a limited common resource, so that fatigue effects might carry over from one task to the next. However, the biological nature of the putative limited resource and the existence of carry-over effects have been matters of considerable controversy. Here, we targeted the activity of the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) as a common substrate for cognitive control, and we prolonged the time scale of fatigue induction by an order of magnitude...
June 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maayke Seinstra, Lars Wojtecki, Lena Storzer, Alfons Schnitzler, Tobias Kalenscher
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a widely used treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). DBS or pharmacological treatment is believed to modulate the tendency to, or reverse, impulse control disorders. Several brain areas involved in impulsivity and reward valuation, such as the prefrontal cortex and striatum, are linked to the STN, and activity in these areas might be affected by STN-DBS. To investigate the effect of STN-DBS on one type of impulsive decision-making--delay discounting (i...
March 2016: ENeuro
Fabio Paglieri
When faced with an intertemporal choice between a smaller short-term reward and a larger long-term prize, is opting for the latter always indicative of delay tolerance? And is delay tolerance always to be regarded as a manifestation of self-control, and thus as a rational solution to intertemporal dilemmas? I argue in favor of a negative answer to both questions, based on evidence collected in the delay discounting literature. This highlights the need for a nuanced understanding of rationality in intertemporal choice, to capture also situations in which waiting is not the optimal strategy...
June 2016: Behavioural Processes
Jessica McClelland, Maria Kekic, Natali Bozhilova, Steffen Nestler, Tracy Dew, Frederique Van den Eynde, Anthony S David, Katya Rubia, Iain C Campbell, Ulrike Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). METHODS: In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN...
2016: PloS One
Wojciech Białaszek, Piotr Bakun, Elton McGoun, Piotr Zielonka
It is often a good strategy to "stand in the other person's shoes" to see a situation from a different perspective. People frequently attempt to infer what someone else would recommend when no advisor is available to help with a decision. Such situations commonly concern intertemporal or risky choices, and the usual assumption is that lay people make such decisions differently than experts do. The aim of our study was to determine what intertemporal and risky decisions people make when they take their own perspective, the perspective of a peer, and the perspectives of an expert or an entrepreneur...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Salvador Cruz Rambaud, María José Muñoz Torrecillas
In general terms, decreasing impatience means decreasing discount rates. This property has been usually referred to as hyperbolic discounting, although there are other discount functions which also exhibit decreasing discount rates. This paper focuses on the measurement of the impatience associated with a discount function with the aim of establishing a methodology to compare this characteristic for two different discount functions. In this way, first we define the patience associated with a discount function in an interval as its corresponding discount factor and consequently we deduce that the impatience at a given moment is the corresponding instantaneous discount rate...
2016: PloS One
Karolina M Lempert, Eli Johnson, Elizabeth A Phelps
People generally prefer immediate rewards to rewards received after a delay, often even when the delayed reward is larger. This phenomenon is known as temporal discounting. It has been suggested that preferences for immediate rewards may be due to their being more concrete than delayed rewards. This concreteness may evoke an enhanced emotional response. Indeed, manipulating the representation of a future reward to make it more concrete has been shown to heighten the reward's subjective emotional intensity, making people more likely to choose it...
August 2016: Emotion
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