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Intertemporal choice

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636527/evaluating-performance-over-time-is-improving-better-than-being-consistently-good
#1
Monica Soliman, Roger Buehler
In many decision contexts, people evaluate others based on intertemporal performance records, and commonly face a choice between two distinct profiles: performance that is consistently high versus performance that improves over time to that high level. We proposed that these two profiles could be appealing for different reasons, and thus evaluators' preferences will differ across decision contexts. In three studies, participants were presented with candidates (e.g., students, employees) displaying the two profiles, and evaluated each candidate in terms of performance, future expectations, and deservingness...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612049/episodic-tags-enhance-striatal-valuation-signals-during-temporal-discounting-in-pathological-gamblers
#2
Antonius Wiehler, Frederike Hermi Petzschner, Klaas Enno Stephan, Jan Peters
Similar to many addiction disorders, pathological gambling is associated with an increased preference for immediate rewards (steep temporal discounting). In healthy participants, episodic future thinking has been shown to reduce impulsivity during intertemporal choice. Here, we examine for the first time a modulation of temporal discounting via episodic future thinking in a group of pathological gamblers. We investigated a sample of 24 pathological gamblers and 24 matched healthy controls with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552943/if-you-want-to-save-focus-on-the-forest-rather-than-on-trees-the-effects-of-shifts-in-levels-of-construal-on-saving-decisions
#3
Joanna Rudzinska-Wojciechowska
Although financial decisions are expected to be rational, there is a growing body of experimental research indicating that small psychological changes in one's mind-set in the actual decision-making moment might affect saving ratios. In this article, another type of change in one's mind-set, which can influence saving decisions, is explored, namely the level of construal. Construal level is a key descriptor of people's cognitive representations of targets, and is a way of characterising the mental mind-sets people use...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536420/reliability-in-adolescent-fmri-within-two-years-a-comparison-of-three-tasks
#4
Nora C Vetter, Julius Steding, Sarah Jurk, Stephan Ripke, Eva Mennigen, Michael N Smolka
Longitudinal developmental fMRI studies just recently began to focus on within-subject reliability using the intraclass coefficient (ICC). It remains largely unclear which degree of reliability can be achieved in developmental studies and whether this depends on the type of task used. Therefore, we aimed to systematically investigate the reliability of three well-classified tasks: an emotional attention, a cognitive control, and an intertemporal choice paradigm. We hypothesized to find higher reliability in the cognitive task than in the emotional or reward-related task...
May 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504898/dissociable-contributions-of-imagination-and-willpower-to-the-malleability-of-human-patience
#5
Adrianna C Jenkins, Ming Hsu
The ability to exercise patience is important for human functioning. Although it is known that patience can be promoted by using top-down control, or willpower, to override impatient impulses, patience is also malleable-in particular, susceptible to framing effects-in ways that are difficult to explain using willpower alone. So far, the mechanisms underlying framing effects on patience have been elusive. We investigated the role of imagination in these effects. In a behavioral experiment (Experiment 1), a classic framing manipulation (sequence framing) increased self-reported and independently coded imagination during intertemporal choice...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459263/-cumulative-weighing-of-time-in-intertemporal-tradeoffs-correction-to-scholten-read-and-sanborn-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cumulative weighing of time in intertemporal tradeoffs" by Marc Scholten, Daniel Read and Adam Sanborn (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 2016[Sep], Vol 145[9], 1177-1205). In the article, there was an error in Table 1. The preference for faster accumulation read {1,000, 0, 1,000} > {0, 500, 0}. It should read {0, 1,000, 0} > {500, 0, 500}. In addition, in the section Descriptive Accuracy, all the equations with the inequality ">" should read "≥" instead. The impact of this change is that, when considering the best model for each participant, as measured by Bayes Factors, the absolute goodness of fit, as measured by Bayesian p-values, were better than reported in both Table A2 and the text...
May 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400516/community-trust-reduces-myopic-decisions-of-low-income-individuals
#7
Jon M Jachimowicz, Salah Chafik, Sabeth Munrat, Jaideep C Prabhu, Elke U Weber
Why do the poor make shortsighted choices in decisions that involve delayed payoffs? Foregoing immediate rewards for larger, later rewards requires that decision makers (i) believe future payoffs will occur and (ii) are not forced to take the immediate reward out of financial need. Low-income individuals may be both less likely to believe future payoffs will occur and less able to forego immediate rewards due to higher financial need; they may thus appear to discount the future more heavily. We propose that trust in one's community-which, unlike generalized trust, we find does not covary with levels of income-can partially offset the effects of low income on myopic decisions...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393099/reduced-future-oriented-decision-making-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-a-functional-mri-study
#8
Xiaochen Hu, Franziska Uhle, Klaus Fliessbach, Michael Wagner, Ying Han, Bernd Weber, Frank Jessen
INTRODUCTION: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) refers to an at-risk state of Alzheimer's disease and subtle cognitive deficits that have been observed in this condition. Currently, it is unknown whether complex cognitive processes relevant to everyday life, such as future-oriented choice behavior, are also altered in SCD. METHODS: Twenty SCD participants and 24 control (CO) participants took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging task on intertemporal decisions, with and without simultaneous episodic future imagination...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377299/some-properties-of-an-adjusting-magnitude-schedule-of-reinforcement-implications-for-models-of-choice
#9
C M Bradshaw
Rats were trained under a discrete-trials adjusting-magnitude schedule in which a response on lever A delivered either a larger or a smaller reinforcer (qA1 and qA2) with equal probability, while a response on B delivered a reinforcer whose size qB was adjusted according to the rats' choices. When A was preferred in a given block of trials, qB was increased in the following block; when B was preferred, qB was reduced in the following block. The oscillating changes in qB, analysed by the Fourier transform, could be described by a power spectrum with a dominant period of about 50 trial blocks...
April 2, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363134/dissociable-effects-of-age-and-testosterone-on-adolescent-impatience
#10
Corinna Laube, Ahna Ballonoff Suleiman, Megan Johnson, Ronald E Dahl, Wouter van den Bos
The onset of adolescence is associated with an increase in transgressive behaviours-from juvenile delinquency to substance use and unprotected sex-that are often attributed to increased impulsiveness. In the past, this increase was ascribed to "raging hormones"; more recently, to an imbalance in the maturation of different brain regions. However, it remains unclear how these large-scale biological changes impact specific processes that result in impulsive decisions, namely, sensitivity to immediate rewards and general discounting of future options...
June 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352226/cognitive-control-modulates-effects-of-episodic-simulation-on-delay-discounting-in-aging
#11
Laura K Sasse, Jan Peters, Stefanie Brassen
Enhancing prospective thinking by tagging the future with specific episodic events has been shown to reduce delay discounting in young age ("tag-effect"). So far, it is unclear whether such beneficial effect extends to old adulthood. Since the general ability of future thinking and cognitive control are crucial modulators of temporal discounting in young age, potential age-related decline in these functions might impact on the effect. We focused on this issue by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an established intertemporal choice task including episodic "tags" in healthy older participants...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344568/time-is-money-the-decision-making-of-smartphone-high-users-in-gain-and-loss-intertemporal-choice
#12
Zixuan Tang, Huijun Zhang, An Yan, Chen Qu
Nowadays the smartphone plays an important role in our lives. While it brings us convenience and efficiency, its overuse can cause problems. Although a great number of studies have demonstrated that people affected by substance abuse, pathological gambling, and internet addiction disorder have lower self-control than average, scarcely any study has investigated the decision making of smartphone high users by using a behavioral paradigm. The present study employed an intertemporal task, the Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11th version (BIS-11) to explore the decision control of smartphone high users in a sample of 125 college students...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334633/now-or-not-now-the-influence-of-alexithymia-on-intertemporal-decision-making
#13
Cristina Scarpazza, Manuela Sellitto, Giuseppe di Pellegrino
Optimal intertemporal decisions arise from the balance between an emotional-visceral component, signaling the need for immediate gratification, and a rational, long-term oriented component. Alexithymia, a personality construct characterized by amplified sensitivity to internal bodily signals of arousal, may result in enhanced activation of the emotional-visceral component over the cognitive-rational one. To test this hypothesis, participants with high- and low-alexithymia level were compared at an intertemporal decision-making task, and their choice behavior correlated with their interoceptive sensitivity...
June 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315626/cross-cultural-comparisons-of-delay-discounting-of-gain-and-loss
#14
Keiko Ishii, Lili Gang, Taiki Takahashi
OBJECTIVES: People generally tend to discount future outcomes in favor of smaller but immediate gains (i.e., delay discounting). The present research examined cultural similarities and differences in delay discounting of gain and loss between Chinese and Japanese, based on a q-exponential model of intertemporal choice. METHOD: Using a hypothetical situation, we asked 65 Japanese participants and 51 Chinese participants to choose between receiving (or paying) a different amount of money immediately or with a specified delay (1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, 5 years, and 25 years)...
November 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265901/are-intertemporal-preferences-contagious-evidence-from-collaborative-decision-making
#15
Michael T Bixter, Elizabeth M Trimber, Christian C Luhmann
Prior research has provided substantial insight into individuals' intertemporal preferences (i.e., preferences about delayed rewards). In the present study, we instead investigated the preferences of small groups of individuals asked to express collective intertemporal decisions. The paradigm consisted of three phases. During the precollaboration and postcollaboration phases, participants completed an intertemporal decision task individually. During the collaboration phase, participants completed a similar task in small groups, reaching mutually-agreed-upon decisions...
March 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225034/simulating-future-value-in-intertemporal-choice
#16
Alec Solway, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
The laboratory study of how humans and other animals trade-off value and time has a long and storied history, and is the subject of a vast literature. However, despite a long history of study, there is no agreed upon mechanistic explanation of how intertemporal choice preferences arise. Several theorists have recently proposed model-based reinforcement learning as a candidate framework. This framework describes a suite of algorithms by which a model of the environment, in the form of a state transition function and reward function, can be converted on-line into a decision...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224457/elevated-outcome-anticipation-and-outcome-evaluation-erps-associated-with-a-greater-preference-for-larger-but-delayed-rewards
#17
Narun Pornpattananangkul, Ajay Nadig, Storm Heidinger, Keegan Walden, Robin Nusslock
Although waiting for a reward reduces or discounts its value, some people have a stronger tendency to wait for larger rewards and forgo smaller-but-immediate rewards. This ability to delay gratification is captured by individual differences in so-called intertemporal choices in which individuals are asked to choose between larger-but-delayed versus smaller-but-immediate rewards. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine whether enhancement in two neurocognitive processes, outcome anticipation and outcome evaluation, modulate individual variability in intertemporal responses...
June 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130716/individual-differences-in-long-range-time-representation
#18
Camila S Agostino, Marcelo S Caetano, Fuat Balci, Peter M E Claessens, Yossi Zana
On the basis of experimental data, long-range time representation has been proposed to follow a highly compressed power function, which has been hypothesized to explain the time inconsistency found in financial discount rate preferences. The aim of this study was to evaluate how well linear and power function models explain empirical data from individual participants tested in different procedural settings. The line paradigm was used in five different procedural variations with 35 adult participants. Data aggregated over the participants showed that fitted linear functions explained more than 98% of the variance in all procedures...
January 27, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077716/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#19
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065715/a-framework-for-understanding-and-advancing-intertemporal-choice-research-using-rodent-models
#20
REVIEW
Wambura C Fobbs, Sheri J Y Mizumori
Intertemporal choices are common and consequential to private and public life. Thus, there is considerable interest in understanding the neural basis of intertemporal decision making. In this minireview, we briefly describe conceptual and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice and then provide a comprehensive evaluation of the neural structures and signals that comprise the underlying cortico-limbic-striatal circuit. Even though great advances have been made, our understanding of the neurobiology of intertemporal choice is still in its infancy because of the complex and dynamic nature of this form of decision making...
March 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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