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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775837/predator-based-psychosocial-stress-model-of-ptsd-differentially-influences-voluntary-ethanol-consumption-depending-on-methodology
#1
Phillip R Zoladz, Eric D Eisenmann, Robert M Rose, Brooke A Kohls, Brandon L Johnson, Kiera L Robinson, Megan E Heikkila, Kasey E Mucher, Madelaine R Huntley
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychological disorder typified by diagnostic symptom clusters including hyperarousal, avoidance, negative cognitions and mood, and intrusive re-experiencing of the traumatic event. Patients with PTSD have been reported to self-medicate with alcohol to ameliorate hyperarousal symptoms associated with the disorder. Research utilizing rodent models of PTSD to emulate this behavioral phenomenon has thus far yielded inconsistent results. In the present study, we examined the effects of a predator-based psychosocial stress model of PTSD on voluntary ethanol consumption...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774825/dietary-zinc-modulates-matrix-metalloproteinases-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Angus Scrimgeour, Christopher Carrigan, Michelle Lynn Condlin, Maria L Urso, Roland M van den Berg, Herman P M van Helden, Scott J Montain, Marloes J A Joosen
Animal models of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) provide opportunity to examine the extent to which dietary interventions can be used to improve recovery after injury. Animal studies also suggest that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in tissue remodeling post-TBI. Because dietary zinc (Zn) improved recovery in non-blast mTBI models, and the MMPs are Zn-requiring enzymes, we evaluated the effects of low- and adequate Zn diets on MMP expression and behavioral responses, following exposure to a single blast...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774754/effect-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-on-the-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-reproduction-in-adult-male-rats-and-its-relationship-to-anxiogenic-behavior-participation-of-gabaergic-system
#3
S Carbone, O J Ponzo, N Gobetto, Y A Samaniego, R Reynoso, J A Moguilevsky, R A Cutrera
The endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used in a variety of consumer products made with polyvinyl chloride and also in the manufacture of medical devices. DEHP disrupts reproductive tract development in an antiandrogenic manner and also may induce neurobehavioral changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic postnatal exposure to DEHP (30 mg/kg body weight/day, orally from birth to day 60) on the neuroendocrine regulation of the gonadal axis and its impact on the anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats, as well as the probable participation of the GABAergic system in these effects...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773982/training-rats-using-water-rewards-without-water-restriction
#4
Pamela Reinagel
High-throughput behavioral training of rodents has been a transformative development for systems neuroscience. Water or food restriction is typically required to motivate task engagement. We hypothesized a gap between physiological water need and hedonic water satiety that could be leveraged to train rats for water rewards without water restriction. We show that when Citric Acid (CA) is added to water, female rats drink less, yet consume enough to maintain long term health. With 24 h/day access to a visual task with water rewards, rats with ad lib CA water performed 84% ± 18% as many trials as in the same task under water restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#5
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772293/consumer-and-product-specific-characteristics-influencing-the-effect-of-nutrition-health-and-risk-reduction-claims-on-preferences-and-purchase-behavior-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Johann Steinhauser, Ulrich Hamm
The research on nutrition, health, and risk reduction claims (NHR claims) shows a lack of consensus as to whether these claims have a positive or negative effect on consumer's preferences and purchase behavior. This issue has been highlighted by many authors. Therefore, a comprehensive literature review was performed to find reasons for contradictory results. First, a theoretical framework was developed which divided the determinants of the effects of NHR claims on consumers' preferences and purchase behavior into consumer and product-specific characteristics...
May 14, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772292/does-the-cost-of-a-meal-influence-the-portion-size-effect
#7
Faris M Zuraikat, Liane S Roe, Alissa D Smethers, Levi W Reihart, Barbara J Rolls
Serving larger portions leads to increased intake, but little is known about how the cost of a meal affects this response. Therefore, we tested whether the amount of money paid for a meal influenced the portion size effect at a lunch served in a controlled restaurant-style setting. In a crossover design, 79 adults (55 women; 24 men) came to the lab once a week for 4 weeks to eat a main dish of pasta with side dishes. Across weeks, the meal was varied in two factors: portion size of the main dish (400 g or 600 g) and cost of the meal (US$8 or $16)...
May 14, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771544/the-effects-of-alcohol-on-positive-emotion-during-a-comedy-routine-a-facial-coding-analysis
#8
Michael A Sayette, Kasey G Creswell, Catharine E Fairbairn, John D Dimoff, Katlin Bentley, Talya Lazerus
There is considerable interest in understanding the emotional effects of alcohol. While a great deal of experimental research has focused on alcohol's ability to relieve negative emotions, there has been far less focus on the effects of alcohol on positive emotions. Further, the available research on positive emotion tends to test alcohol while participants are alone. Yet alcohol is often consumed in social settings, and enhancing social pleasure is consistently identified as being a primary motive for drinking...
May 17, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768617/a-study-about-the-young-consumers-consumption-behaviors-of-street-foods
#9
Nevin Sanlier, Aybuke Ceyhun Sezgin, Gulsah Sahin, Emine Yassibas
As in almost every country in the world, street foods are frequently used in Turkey. To determine the preferences for these foods, a questionnaire was given to 847 individuals constituted by randomly selected high school and university students. Of the participants, 43.4% were male and 56.6% were female; the majority of them were between 19 and 22 years of age. It was found that 40.1% of the young people ate street food 2-3 times per week, whereas 23.3% were found to eat it every day. Turkish bagels, döner, boiled corn in a cup and toast are most preferred street foods...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768191/loss-of-a-negative-regulator-of-mtorc1-induces-aerobic-glycolysis-and-altered-fiber-composition-in-skeletal-muscle
#10
Paul A Dutchak, Sandi J Estill-Terpack, Abigail A Plec, Xiaozheng Zhao, Chendong Yang, Jun Chen, Bookyung Ko, Ralph J Deberardinis, Yonghao Yu, Benjamin P Tu
The conserved GATOR1 complex consisting of NPRL2-NPRL3-DEPDC5 inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) in response to amino acid insufficiency. Here, we show that loss of NPRL2 and GATOR1 function in skeletal muscle causes constitutive activation of mTORC1 signaling in the fed and fasted states. Muscle fibers of NPRL2 knockout animals are significantly larger and show altered fiber-type composition, with more fast-twitch glycolytic and fewer slow-twitch oxidative fibers. NPRL2 muscle knockout mice also have altered running behavior and enhanced glucose tolerance...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766048/phasic-stimulation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neuron-activity-reduces-salt-consumption
#11
Eleanor C Sandhu, Anushka B P Fernando, Elaine E Irvine, Kyoko Tossell, Michelle Kokkinou, Justyna Glegola, Mark A Smith, Oliver D Howes, Dominic J Withers, Mark A Ungless
Salt intake is an essential dietary requirement, but excessive consumption is implicated in hypertension and associated conditions. Little is known about the neural circuit mechanisms that control motivation to consume salt, although the midbrain dopamine system, which plays a key role in other reward-related behaviors, has been implicated. We, therefore, examined the effects on salt consumption of either optogenetic excitation or chemogenetic inhibition of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in male mice...
March 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765342/mind-control-how-parasites-manipulate-cognitive-functions-in-their-insect-hosts
#12
Frederic Libersat, Maayan Kaiser, Stav Emanuel
Neuro-parasitology is an emerging branch of science that deals with parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the parasite) modifies a particular neural network, and thus particular behaviors, of another species (the host). Such parasite-host interactions, developed over millions of years of evolution, provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations, the parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765260/attitude-and-perception-of-undergraduate-medical-students-toward-the-problem-based-learning-in-chitwan-medical-college-nepal
#13
Ram Lochan Yadav, Rano Mal Piryani, Gopendra Prasad Deo, Dev Kumar Shah, Laxmi Kumari Yadav, Md Nazrul Islam
Background: Problem-based learning (PBL) was introduced into Basic Medical Sciences early in the 1980s at Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal, followed by other universities where didactic lecture method was still followed as the main teaching strategy. Despite gaining its popularity worldwide as integrated teaching learning method, PBL is not given importance in Nepal. This study aimed to assess the attitude and perceptions of undergraduate medical students regarding learning outcomes of PBL and to know their views about role and qualities of effective tutors for its successful implementation...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764414/patient-awareness-knowledge-towards-oral-cancer-a-cross-sectional-survey
#14
Neel Shimpi, Monica Jethwani, Aditi Bharatkumar, Po-Huang Chyou, Ingrid Glurich, Amit Acharya
BACKGROUND: Oral cancer (OC) is associated with multiple risk factors and high mortality rates and substantially contributes to the global cancer burden despite being highly preventable. This cross-sectional study sought to assess current knowledge, awareness, and behaviors of patients in rural communities surrounding OC risk. METHODS: An anonymous 21-question survey was distributed to patients in waiting rooms of a large integrated medical-dental health system serving north-central Wisconsin...
May 15, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764334/obesity-physical-activity-and-dietary-behaviors-in-an-ethnically-diverse-sample-of-cancer-survivors-with-early-onset-disease
#15
Beth A Glenn, Ann S Hamilton, Narissa J Nonzee, Annette E Maxwell, Catherine M Crespi, A Blythe Ryerson, L Cindy Chang, Dennis Deapen, Roshan Bastani
PURPOSE: To assess weight status, physical activity, and dietary behaviors in an ethnically-diverse sample of breast and colorectal cancer survivors with early onset disease (≤ 50 years). METHODS: Breast and colorectal cancer survivors, diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 with early-stage cancer diagnosed by 50 years of age, were identified through a population-based cancer registry and surveyed. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted to characterize the sample and identify correlates of lifestyle behaviors...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764155/fluctuation-dissipation-relation-and-stationary-distribution-of-an-exactly-solvable-many-particle-model-for-active-biomatter-far-from-equilibrium
#16
Roland R Netz
An exactly solvable, Hamiltonian-based model of many massive particles that are coupled by harmonic potentials and driven by stochastic non-equilibrium forces is introduced. The stationary distribution and the fluctuation-dissipation relation are derived in closed form for the general non-equilibrium case. Deviations from equilibrium are on one hand characterized by the difference of the obtained stationary distribution from the Boltzmann distribution; this is possible because the model derives from a particle Hamiltonian...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764114/accelerating-the-worldwide-adoption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverage-taxes-strengthening-commitment-and-capacity-comment-on-the-untapped-power-of-soda-taxes-incentivizing-consumers-generating-revenue-and-altering-corporate-behavior
#17
Phillip Baker, Alexandra Jones, Anne Marie Thow
In their recent article Roache and Gostin outline why governments and public health advocates should embrace soda taxes. The evidence is strong and continues to grow: such taxes can change consumer behavior, generate significant revenue and incentivize product reformulation. In essence, such taxes are an important and now well-established instrument of fiscal and public health policy. In this commentary we expand on their arguments by considering how the worldwide adoption of such taxes might be further accelerated...
October 29, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759957/a-mobile-health-intervention-to-reduce-pain-and-improve-health-morph-in-older-adults-with-obesity-protocol-for-the-morph-trial
#18
Jason Fanning, Amber K Brooks, Edward Ip, Barbara J Nicklas, W Jack Rejeski
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a complex, age-related health issue that affects both physical functioning and quality of life. Because the impact of chronic pain is worsened by obesity and inactivity, nonpharmacological interventions that promote movement, reduce sitting, and aid in weight loss are needed to help manage pain symptoms among older adults with chronic pain. OBJECTIVE: The Mobile Intervention to Reduce Pain and Improve Health (MORPH) pilot trial aims to develop and test the feasibility and acceptability of a novel, patient-centered intervention to reduce chronic pain and improve physical functioning in older adults, leveraging the combination of telecoaching and individually adaptive mHealth tools to decrease both body mass and sedentary behavior...
May 14, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759953/acceptability-of-a-mobile-phone-app-for-measuring-time-use-in-breast-cancer-survivors-life-in-a-day-mixed-methods-study
#19
Matthew Cole Ainsworth, Dori Pekmezi, Heather Bowles, Diane Ehlers, Edward McAuley, Kerry S Courneya, Laura Q Rogers
BACKGROUND: Advancements in mobile technology allow innovative data collection techniques such as measuring time use (ie, how individuals structure their time) for the purpose of improving health behavior change interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the acceptability of a 5-day trial of the Life in a Day mobile phone app measuring time use in breast cancer survivors to advance technology-based measurement of time use. METHODS: Acceptability data were collected from participants (N=40; 100% response rate) using a self-administered survey after 5 days of Life in a Day use...
May 14, 2018: JMIR Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758859/food-web-contaminant-dynamics-of-a-large-atlantic-slope-river-implications-for-common-and-imperiled-species
#20
Tiffany N Penland, Casey A Grieshaber, Thomas J Kwak, W Gregory Cope, Ryan J Heise, Forrest W Sessions
Persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants often reach concentrations that threaten aquatic life by causing alterations in organism behavior and development, disruption of biological processes, reproductive abnormalities, and mortality. The objectives of this research were to determine the aquatic food web structure and trophic transfer and accumulation of contaminants within a riverine ecosystem and identify potential stressors to the health of an imperiled fish, the robust redhorse (Moxostoma robustum) and other species of conservation concern in a large Atlantic Slope (USA) river...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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