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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920491/consumer-satisfaction-with-antipsychotic-medication-monitoring-appointments-the-role-of-consumer-prescriber-communication-patterns
#1
Catherine M Reich, Samantha M Hack, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Clayton H Brown, Li Juan Fang, Lisa B Dixon, Danielle R Jahn, Julie A Kreyenbuhl
OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to explore patterns of prescriber communication behaviors as they relate to consumer satisfaction among a serious mental illness sample. METHODS: Recordings from 175 antipsychotic medication-monitoring appointments between veterans with psychiatric disorders and their prescribers were coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS) for communication behavioral patterns. RESULTS: The frequency of prescriber communication behaviors (i...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918822/a-theoretical-model-to-explain-the-smart-technology-adoption-behaviors-of-elder-consumers-elderadopt
#2
Stephen M Golant
A growing global population of older adults is potential consumers of a category of products referred to as smart technologies, but also known as telehealth, telecare, information and communication technologies, robotics, and gerontechnology. This paper constructs a theoretical model to explain whether older people will adopt smart technology options to cope with their discrepant individual or environmental circumstances, thereby enabling them to age in place. Its proposed constructs and relationships are drawn from multiple academic disciplines and professional specialties, and an extensive literature focused on the factors influencing the acceptance of these smart technologies...
August 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918605/food-or-threat-wild-capuchin-monkeys-sapajus-libidinosus-as-both-predators-and-prey-of-snakes
#3
Tiago Falótico, Michele P Verderane, Olívia Mendonça-Furtado, Noemi Spagnoletti, Eduardo B Ottoni, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Patrícia Izar
Snakes present a hazard to primates, both as active predators and by defensive envenomation. This risk might have been a selective pressure on the evolution of primate visual and cognitive systems, leading to several behavioral traits present in human and non-human primates, such as the ability to quickly learn to fear snakes. Primates seldom prey on snakes, and humans are one of the few primate species that do. We report here another case, the wild capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), which preys on snakes...
September 16, 2017: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918146/short-communication-automated-detection-of-behavioral-changes-from-respiratory-disease-in-pre-weaned-calves
#4
T H Swartz, A N Findlay, C S Petersson-Wolfe
Group housing of calves can pose a challenge in identifying respiratory disease; therefore, it is necessary to develop tools that can identify these disease events. In this experiment, pre-weaned calves (n = 30) were housed in groups with an automatic calf feeder and were fitted with an accelerometer. Step activity, lying behaviors, and feeding behaviors were recorded to determine the effect of respiratory disease. All calves were health scored twice daily, and calves with respiratory scores ≥5 were diagnosed with respiratory disease (n = 10)...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917238/qualitative-study-of-eating-habits-in-bruneian-primary-school-children
#5
Tajidah Talip, Rajiah Serudin, Salmah Noor, Nik Tuah
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling...
2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917070/consumption-and-correlates-of-sweet-foods-carbonated-beverages-and-energy-drinks-among-primary-school-children-in-saudi-arabia
#6
Ali Saad R Alsubaie
To assess the consumption of sweets, carbonated beverages, and energy drinks along with their correlates among primary school children.  Methods: A total of 725 children (7-12 years old) were randomly recruited from 10 elementary schools from Al-Baha city, Saudi Arabia in 2013, using a multi-stage stratified sampling technique and pre-tested validated questionnaire.  Results: Approximately 26.1% of children reported consuming sweets on daily basis, and 63.4% consumed sweets occasionally during the week...
October 2017: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913805/real-time-pcr-for-the-detection-of-precise-transgene-copy-number-in-wheat
#7
Angelica Giancaspro, Agata Gadaleta, Antonio Blanco
Despite the unceasing advances in genetic transformation techniques, the success of common delivery methods still lies on the behavior of the integrated transgenes in the host genome. Stability and expression of the introduced genes are influenced by several factors such as chromosomal location, transgene copy number and interaction with the host genotype. Such factors are traditionally characterized by Southern blot analysis, which can be time-consuming, laborious, and often unable to detect the exact copy number of rearranged transgenes...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912243/thirst-associated-preoptic-neurons-encode-an-aversive-motivational-drive
#8
William E Allen, Laura A DeNardo, Michael Z Chen, Cindy D Liu, Kyle M Loh, Lief E Fenno, Charu Ramakrishnan, Karl Deisseroth, Liqun Luo
Water deprivation produces a drive to seek and consume water. How neural activity creates this motivation remains poorly understood. We used activity-dependent genetic labeling to characterize neurons activated by water deprivation in the hypothalamic median preoptic nucleus (MnPO). Single-cell transcriptional profiling revealed that dehydration-activated MnPO neurons consist of a single excitatory cell type. After optogenetic activation of these neurons, mice drank water and performed an operant lever-pressing task for water reward with rates that scaled with stimulation frequency...
September 15, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906303/relationship-of-low-doses-of-alcohol-voluntarily-consumed-during-adolescence-and-early-adulthood-with-subsequent-behavioral-flexibility
#9
Hayley Fisher, Nicholas Bright, Mark Gallo, Alisa Pajser, Charles L Pickens
Previous alcohol use is associated with impaired decision-making and impulsivity in humans, but the relationship between alcohol use and decision-making/impulsivity is unclear. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol during adolescence and early adulthood would alter or be correlated with performance in a go/no-go reversal task, a devaluation task, or operant extinction. Rats received 6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol or water from postnatal day 26 to 66 and then behavioral testing was initiated 1...
October 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905152/a-controlled-trial-to-reduce-the-risk-of-human-nipah-virus-exposure-in-bangladesh
#10
Nazmun Nahar, Repon C Paul, Rebeca Sultana, Shariful Amin Sumon, Kajal Chandra Banik, Jaynal Abedin, Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Fernando Garcia, Susan Zimicki, Mahmudur Rahman, Emily S Gurley, Stephen P Luby
Human Nipah virus (NiV) infection, often fatal in Bangladesh, is primarily transmitted by drinking raw date palm sap contaminated by Pteropus bats. We assessed the impact of a behavior change communication intervention on reducing consumption of potentially NiV-contaminated raw sap. During the 2012-2014 sap harvesting seasons, we implemented interventions in two areas and compared results with a control area. In one area, we disseminated a "do not drink raw sap" message and, in the other area, encouraged only drinking sap if it had been protected from bat contamination by a barrier ("only safe sap")...
September 13, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904288/alpha-pvp-induces-the-rewarding-effect-via-activating-dopaminergic-neuron
#11
Kyoko Hataoka, Asuka Kaizaki-Mitsumoto, Satoshi Numazawa
A synthetic cathinone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (α-PVP), was occasionally found in the "bath salt" type of designer drugs, as an active ingredient. It has been reported that drivers who consumed α-PVP were in an excited state and incapable of controlling their behavior, causing traffic accidents. Despite its acute excitatory effects, there is no information on the psychological dependency elicited by α-PVP use. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether the reward pathway is activated with repeated doses of α-PVP in experimental animals...
2017: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903773/nutritional-quality-of-meals-and-snacks-assessed-by-the-food-standards-agency-nutrient-profiling-system-in-relation-to-overall-diet-quality-body-mass-index-and-waist-circumference-in-british-adults
#12
Kentaro Murakami
BACKGROUND: Studies examining meal and snack eating behaviors in relation to overall diet and health markers are limited, at least partly because there is no definitive consensus about what constitutes a snack, a meal, or an eating occasion. This cross-sectional study examined how nutritional quality of meals and snacks is associated with overall diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference. METHODS: Based on 7-d weighed dietary record data, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks based on time (meals: 0600-1000, 1200-1500, and 1800-2100 h; snacks: others) or contribution to energy intake (EI) (meals: ≥15%; snacks: <15%) in 1451 British adults aged 19-64 years participating in the National Diet and Nutrition Survey...
September 13, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903700/motivational-differences-in-seeking-out-evaluative-categorization-information
#13
Rachel Smallman, Brittney Becker
Previous research shows that people draw finer evaluative distinctions when rating liked versus disliked objects (e.g., wanting a 5-point scale to evaluate liked cuisines and a 3-point scale to rate disliked cuisines). Known as the preference-categorization effect, this pattern may exist not only in how individuals form evaluative distinctions but also in how individuals seek out evaluative information. The current research presents three experiments that examine motivational differences in evaluative information seeking (rating scales and attributes)...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903109/does-breastfeeding-shape-food-preferences-links-to-obesity
#14
Alison K Ventura
The first 2 years of life have been recognized as a critical window for obesity prevention efforts. This period is characterized by rapid growth and development and, in a relatively short period of time, a child transitions from a purely milk-based diet to a more varied solid-food diet. Much learning about food and eating occurs during this critical window, and it is well-documented that early feeding and dietary exposures predict later food preferences, eating behaviors, and dietary patterns. The focus of this review will be on the earliest feeding experiences - breast- and formula-feeding - and the unique role of breastfeeding in shaping children's food preferences...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902461/behavioral-responses-of-pest-mole-crickets-neoscapteriscus-spp-orthoptera-gryllotalpidae-to-selected-insecticides
#15
Olga S Kostromytska, Michael E Scharf, Eileen A Buss
BACKGROUND: Mole crickets (Neoscapteriscus spp.) consume turfgrasses and pasture grasses and uproot plants by their tunneling, which decreases turf aesthetics and decreases forage quantity and quality. Insecticides are frequently used to prevent damage. In typical field trials, damage symptoms, not percent of mortality or achieved level of control, are used to assess treatment efficacy. Here however, we evaluated the direct effect of key insecticides on Neoscapteriscus mole cricket behavior...
September 13, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900415/perinatal-western-diet-consumption-leads-to-profound-plasticity-and-gabaergic-phenotype-changes-within-hypothalamus-and-reward-pathway-from-birth-to-sexual-maturity-in-rat
#16
Julie Paradis, Pierre Boureau, Thomas Moyon, Sophie Nicklaus, Patricia Parnet, Vincent Paillé
Perinatal maternal consumption of energy dense food increases the risk of obesity in children. This is associated with an overconsumption of palatable food that is consumed for its hedonic property. The underlying mechanism that links perinatal maternal diet and offspring preference for fat is still poorly understood. In this study, we aim at studying the influence of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding [western diet (WD)] during gestation and lactation on the reward pathways controlling feeding in the rat offspring from birth to sexual maturity...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900223/accurate-design-of-low-backscattering-metasurface-using-iterative-fourier-transform-algorithm
#17
Dan Wang, Zhen Guo Liu, Jie Zhao, Qiang Cheng, Tie Jun Cui
An accurate method is proposed to design low-backscattering metasurfaces efficiently using an iterative Fourier transform algorithm, which avoids the large amount of time-consuming numerical simulations of complicated electromagnetic problems and provides satisfactory performance to reduce the backward scattering. As an example of the application, a broadband low-backscattering metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized. Both full-wave simulation and measured results reveal that the proposed method offers a rapid and efficient tool to manipulate the scattering behaviors of the metasurface, and thus realizes significant scattering reductions...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899366/effects-of-physical-activity-calorie-expenditure-pace-labeling-study-design-and-baseline-sample-characteristics
#18
Anthony J Viera, Laura Tuttle, Emily Olsson, Julie Gras-Najjar, Ziya Gizlice, Derek Hales, Laura Linnan, Feng-Chang Lin, Seth M Noar, Alice Ammerman
BACKGROUND: Obesity and physical inactivity are responsible for more than 365,000 deaths per year and contribute substantially to rising healthcare costs in the US, making clear the need for effective public health interventions. Calorie labeling on menus has been implemented to guide consumer ordering behaviors, but effects on calories purchased has been minimal. METHODS: In this project, we tested the effect of physical activity calorie expenditure (PACE) food labels on actual point-of-decision food purchasing behavior as well as physical activity...
September 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899028/street-audits-to-measure-neighborhood-disorder-virtual-or-in-person
#19
Stephen J Mooney, Michael D M Bader, Gina S Lovasi, Julien O Teitler, Karestan C Koenen, Allison E Aiello, Sandro Galea, Emily Goldmann, Daniel M Sheehan, Andrew G Rundle
Neighborhood conditions may influence a broad range of health indicators, including obesity, injury, and psychopathology. In particular, neighborhood physical disorder-a measure of urban deterioration-is thought to encourage crime and high-risk behaviors, leading to poor mental and physical health. In studies to assess neighborhood physical disorder, investigators typically rely on time-consuming and expensive in-person systematic neighborhood audits. We compared 2 audit-based measures of neighborhood physical disorder in the city of Detroit, Michigan: One used Google Street View imagery from 2009 and the other used an in-person survey conducted in 2008...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895803/-otis-a-case-study-of-an-online-attempt-to-purchase-children-for-sex
#20
Stacey Diane A Litam, Jesse Bach
The researchers analyzed court documents to develop a case study of an individual convicted of buying sexual services from exploited children. Findings indicate that the subject deviates from preexisting victim selection processes and demonstrates characteristics inconsistent with existing sexual offender typologies that likens offender behaviors to the hunting techniques and behaviors of predatory animals. As evidenced in the case study, the individual perceived the victims solely as a means of deviant sexual satiation and did not participate in traditionally established victim acquisition techniques...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
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