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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161319/the-association-of-social-anxiety-disorder-alcohol-use-disorder-and-reproduction-results-from-four-nationally-representative-samples-of-adults-in-the-usa
#1
Beyon Miloyan, Adam Bulley, Ben Brilot, Thomas Suddendorf
Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) are highly prevalent and frequently co-occur. The results of population studies suggest that SAD tends to precede AUD, and the results of laboratory studies suggest that alcohol use facilitates social behaviors in socially anxious individuals. Therefore, we posited that, in a modern context, a tendency to consume alcohol may be positively selected for among socially anxious individuals by its effect on the likelihood of finding a partner and reproducing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160436/use-of-injected-heroin-and-risk-of-hepatitis-c-in-three-cities-in-colombia
#2
Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi-Fernández, Angela Maria Segura-Cardona, Liliana Patricia Montoya-Velez, Alexandra Ángel Santamaría
INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis C is one of the most neglected diseases by governments internationally. OBJECTIVE: Identify the prevalence of hepatitis C and associated injection drug users in three cities of factors Colombia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 668 injecting drug users recruited through respondent-driven sampling, inquired about demographic characteristics and risk behaviors. Laboratory testing was used on filter paper and cases of hepatitis C viral load tests with RNA were confirmed...
July 2017: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158359/are-cocaine-seeking-habits-necessary-for-the-development-of-addiction-like-behavior-in-rats
#3
Bryan F Singer, Monica Fadanelli, Alex B Kawa, Terry E Robinson
Drug self-administration models of addiction typically require animals to make the same response (e.g., a lever-press or nose-poke) over and over to procure and take drugs. By their design, such procedures often produce behavior controlled by stimulus-response (S-R) habits. This has supported the notion of addiction as a "drug habit", and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of such behavior. However, for addicts to procure drugs, like cocaine, often requires considerable ingenuity and flexibility in seeking behavior, which, by definition, precludes the development of habits...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156560/system-modeling-of-a-mems-vibratory-gyroscope-and-integration-to-circuit-simulation
#4
Hyukjin J Kwon, Seyeong Seok, Geunbae Lim
Recently, consumer applications have dramatically created the demand for low-cost and compact gyroscopes. Therefore, on the basis of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, many gyroscopes have been developed and successfully commercialized. A MEMS gyroscope consists of a MEMS device and an electrical circuit for self-oscillation and angular-rate detection. Since the MEMS device and circuit are interactively related, the entire system should be analyzed together to design or test the gyroscope. In this study, a MEMS vibratory gyroscope is analyzed based on the system dynamic modeling; thus, it can be mathematically expressed and integrated into a circuit simulator...
November 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155246/relatively-enriched-housing-conditions-delay-binge-onset-but-do-not-attenuate-binge-size
#5
Kerry E Preston, Rebecca L Corwin, Julia O Bader, Stephen L Crimmins
Housing and enrichment conditions are essential factors to consider when using animal models of behavior, as they can alter the behavior that is under investigation. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of the relatively enriched environment recommended by current animal care guidelines on development and maintenance of binge-type behavior in rats, using the limited access (LA) binge model. Non-food-deprived rats were divided into two groups, enriched and nonenriched, with all rats housed in shoebox cages...
November 15, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155173/domestic-food-practices-a-study-of-food-management-behaviors-and-the-role-of-food-preparation-planning-in-reducing-waste
#6
Simona Romani, Silvia Grappi, Richard P Bagozzi, Ada Maria Barone
Recent research has started to show the key role of daily food provision practices in affecting household food waste. Building on and extending these previous contributions, the objective of this paper is to investigate how individuals' everyday practices regarding food (e.g., shopping, cooking, eating, etc.) lead to food waste, and how policy makers and the food industry can implement effective strategies to influence such practices and ultimately help consumers reduce food waste. The research performs three Studies; a critical incident qualitative study (Study 1) and a quantitative, survey-based study (Study 2) to identify and examine relevant food management behaviors associated with domestic waste...
November 16, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154718/pesticide-residues-in-food-attitudes-beliefs-and-misconceptions-among-conventional-and-organic-consumers
#7
Severine Koch, Astrid Epp, Mark Lohmann, Gaby-Fleur Böl
Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154607/situation-specific-social-norms-as-mediators-of-social-influence-on-snacking
#8
Benjamin Schüz, Thalia Papadakis, Stuart G Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life...
November 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153992/to-drink-or-to-drink-less-distinguishing-between-effects-of-implementation-intentions-on-decisions-to-drink-and-how-much-to-drink-in-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Lara N Moody, Allison N Tegge, Lindsey M Poe, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Warren K Bickel
INTRODUCTION: For many people with alcohol use disorders, alcohol drinking is a highly ingrained and automatized behavior with negative long-term health consequences. Implementation intentions, a behavioral intervention that links high-risk drinking situations with alternative, healthier responses, provide a means to intervene on habitual drinking behaviors. Here, a pilot treatment using implementation intentions was assessed with remote assessments and treatment prompts. METHODS: Treatment-seeking individuals with alcohol use disorder between the ages of 18 and 65 were recruited from the community from October 2014 to November 2016...
November 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153180/a-100-year-review-progress-on-the-chemistry-of-milk-and-its-components
#10
John A Lucey, Don Otter, David S Horne
Understanding the chemistry of milk and its components is critical to the production of consistent, high-quality dairy products as well as the development of new dairy ingredients. Over the past 100 yr we have gone from believing that milk has only 3 protein fractions to identifying all the major and minor types of milk proteins as well as discovering that they have genetic variants. The structure and physical properties of most of the milk proteins have been extensively studied. The structure of the casein micelle has been the subject of many studies, and the initial views on submicelles have given way to the current model of the micelle as being assembled as a result of the concerted action of several types of interactions (including hydrophobic and the formation of calcium phosphate nanoclusters)...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153174/a-100-year-review-animal-welfare-in-the-journal-of-dairy-science-the-first-100-years
#11
Marina A G von Keyserlingk, Daniel M Weary
This paper outlines the history and development of research in the area of animal welfare as reflected in the 100 yr that the Journal of Dairy Science has been published. The first paper using the term "animal welfare" was published in 1983; since then (to May 2017), 244 papers that reflect growing interest regarding how farm animals are cared for have been published. Much of the scientific work to date has focused on issues related to cow health, such as lameness, and methodologically many papers use behavioral measures...
December 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153124/nutrition-label-use-and-sodium-intake-in-the-u-s
#12
Donglan Zhang, Yan Li, Guijing Wang, Andrew E Moran, José A Pagán
INTRODUCTION: High sodium intake is a major risk factor for hypertension, but evidence is limited on which interventions are effective in reducing sodium consumption. This study examined the associations between frequent use of nutrition labels and daily sodium intake and the consumption of high-sodium foods in the U.S. METHODS: Using the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 Flexible Consumer Behavior Survey, this study compared sodium intake measured from the 24-hour dietary recalls, availability of salty snacks at home, and frequencies of eating frozen meals/pizzas between frequent (i...
December 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153074/is-being-punished-at-school-an-indicator-of-psychosocial-risk
#13
Ana Isabel Corchado, María José Díaz-Aguado Jalón, Rosario Martínez-Arias
Research carried out in different cultural contexts shows that the use of exclusively coercive disciplinary measures does not improve the behavior of those punished, and may even increase the risks underpinning those behaviors. The aim of this research was to study whether there is a link between repeatedly suffering punishment at school and psychosocial risks in adolescence. A non-experimental design was implemented with selected groups. The participants were 507 adolescents from four groups with different risk levels: in social protection (n = 189); subject to court measures (n = 104); in treatment for drug abuse (n = 25); and comparison group (n = 189)...
November 20, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152204/prozac-in-the-water-chronic-fluoxetine-exposure-and-predation-risk-interact-to-shape-behaviors-in-an-estuarine-crab
#14
Joseph R Peters, Elise F Granek, Catherine E de Rivera, Matthew Rollins
Predators exert considerable top-down pressure on ecosystems by directly consuming prey or indirectly influencing their foraging behaviors and habitat use. Prey is, therefore, forced to balance predation risk with resource reward. A growing list of anthropogenic stressors such as rising temperatures and ocean acidification has been shown to influence prey risk behaviors and subsequently alter important ecosystem processes. Yet, limited attention has been paid to the effects of chronic pharmaceutical exposure on risk behavior or as an ecological stressor, despite widespread detection and persistence of these contaminants in aquatic environments...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152179/flight-is-the-key-to-postprandial-blood-glucose-balance-in-the-fruit-bats-eonycteris-spelaea-and-cynopterus-sphinx
#15
Xingwen Peng, Xiangyang He, Qi Liu, Yunxiao Sun, Hui Liu, Qin Zhang, Jie Liang, Zhen Peng, Zhixiao Liu, Libiao Zhang
Excessive sugar consumption could lead to high blood glucose levels that are harmful to mammalian health and life. Despite consuming large amounts of sugar-rich food, fruit bats have a longer lifespan, raising the question of how these bats overcome potential hyperglycemia. We investigated the change of blood glucose level in nectar-feeding bats (Eonycteris spelaea) and fruit-eating bats (Cynopterus sphinx) via adjusting their sugar intake and time of flight. We found that the maximum blood glucose level of C...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150643/%C3%AE-eudesmol-an-oxygenized-sesquiterpene-stimulates-appetite-via-trpa1-and-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#16
Kazuaki Ohara, Takafumi Fukuda, Yuko Ishida, Chika Takahashi, Rena Ohya, Mikio Katayama, Kunitoshi Uchida, Makoto Tominaga, Katsuya Nagai
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel, which is activated by various noxious or irritant substances in nature. TRPA1 activators have been generally recognized as noxious, however, foods and beverages containing TRPA1 activators are preferably consumed; the reasons for this discrepancy are not well understood. We demonstrate that TRPA1 is involved in the stimulatory appetite control mechanism. β-Eudesmol is an oxygenated sesquiterpene contained in medicinal or edible plants which activates TRPA1...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149890/physical-activity-and-calorie-intake-mediate-the-relationship-from-depression-to-body-fat-mass-among-female-mexican-health-workers
#17
Amado D Quezada, Nayeli Macías-Waldman, Jorge Salmerón, Tessa Swigart, Katia Gallegos-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. METHOD: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148347/consumer-health-insurance-shopping-behavior-and-challenges-lessons-from-two-state-based-marketplaces
#18
Anna D Sinaiko, Jon Kingsdale, Alison A Galbraith
Selecting a health plan in a health insurance exchange is a critical decision, yet consumers are known to face challenges with health plan choice. We surveyed new enrollees in two state-based exchanges in 2015 to investigate how a nonelderly, primarily low-income population chose their health plans and the implications of shopping behavior for early experiences in their plans. Financial considerations were most important to enrollees. Prior Medicaid enrollees and the uninsured were more likely to have multiple shopping challenges (e...
July 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148346/increasing-the-use-of-comparative-quality-information-in-maternity-care-results-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Maureen Maurer, Kristin L Carman, Manshu Yang, Kirsten Firminger, Judith Hibbard
This randomized controlled trial tested an intervention to increase uptake of hospital-level maternity care quality reports among 245 pregnant women in North Carolina (123 treatment; 122 control). The intervention included three enhancements to the quality report offered to the control: (a) biweekly text messages or e-mails directing women to the website, (b) videos and materials describing the relevance of quality measures to pregnant women's interests, and (c) tools to support discussions with clinicians...
May 1, 2017: Medical Care Research and Review: MCRR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146212/the-current-environmental-levels-of-endocrine-disruptors-mercury-cadmium-organochlorine-pesticides-and-pcbs-in-a-belgian-adult-population-and-their-predictors-of-exposure
#20
Catherine Pirard, Stephanie Compere, Katty Firquet, Corinne Charlier
A human biomonitoring study was carried out measuring the levels of endocrine disruptors in 252 participants (18-76 years old) recruited between February and May 2015 from the general population of Liege Province (Belgium). In this study, we reported the recent levels of cadmium and mercury in urine, some organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in serum, and their relations to demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits. The median urinary levels of mercury and cadmium were 0...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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