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Consumer behavior

Debanti Sengupta, Tae Jin Kim, Sepideh Almasi, Stuart Miller, Zsolt Marton, Vivek Nagarkar, Guillem Pratx
Radioluminescence microscopy is an emerging modality that can be used to image radionuclide probes with micron-scale resolution. This technique is particularly useful as a way to probe the metabolic behavior of single cells and to screen and characterize radiopharmaceuticals, but the quality of the images is critically dependent on the scintillator material used to image the cells. In this paper, we detail the development of a microscopy dish made of a thin-film scintillating material, Lu2O3:Eu, that could be used as the blueprint for a future consumable product...
March 15, 2018: Analyst
Georges Hattab, Veit Wiesmann, Anke Becker, Tamara Munzner, Tim W Nattkemper
Time-lapse imaging of cell colonies in microfluidic chambers provides time series of bioimages, i.e., biomovies. They show the behavior of cells over time under controlled conditions. One of the main remaining bottlenecks in this area of research is the analysis of experimental data and the extraction of cell growth characteristics, such as lineage information. The extraction of the cell line by human observers is time-consuming and error-prone. Previously proposed methods often fail because of their reliance on the accurate detection of a single cell, which is not possible for high density, high diversity of cell shapes and numbers, and high-resolution images with high noise...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Germano Orrù, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Alessia Bramanti
Background: Several studies have shown that the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in the CACAN1C gene, rs1006737, is related to different mood disorder illnesses, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Current day molecular procedures for allele detection of this gene can be very expensive and time consuming. Hence, a sensitive and specific molecular procedure for detecting these mutations in a large number of subjects is desirable, especially for research groups who have no complex laboratory equipment...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
Ana Huđek, Lucija Škara, Barbara Smolkovič, Snježana Kazazić, Sanda Ravlić, Lucia Nanić, Martina Matovinović Osvatić, Jozo Jelčić, Ivica Rubelj, Višnja Bačun-Družina
Obesity is composed of multifunctional interactions of eating habits, behaviors, microbiota, genetics, and other unknown factors. We hypothesize that correlations occur between the fat mass and obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (FTO SNPs), the composition of microorganisms in the saliva, and life habits in obese women from Zagreb County. Our results of the analysis of 3 FTO SNPs showed a statistically significant positive correlation among the frequencies of the high-risk genotypes AA rs9939609 (P = ...
February 2018: Nutrition Research
Matthew B G J Brown, Chrissen E C Gemmill, Steven Miller, Priscilla M Wehi
Insects are important but overlooked components of forest ecosystems in New Zealand. For many insect species, information on foraging patterns and trophic relationships is lacking. We examined diet composition and selectivity in a large-bodied insect, the Auckland tree wētā Hemideina thoracica , in three habitat zones in a lowland New Zealand forest. We asked whether H. thoracica selectively forage from available plant food sources, and whether these choices were lipid-rich compared to nonpreferred available plants...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Lara B McKenzie, Kristin J Roberts, Roxanne Clark, Rebecca McAdams, Mahmoud Abdel-Rasoul, Elizabeth G Klein, Sarah A Keim, Orie Kristel, Alison Szymanski, Christopher G Cotton, Wendy C Shields
BACKGROUND: Many unintentional injuries that occur in and around the home can be prevented through the use of safety equipment and by consistently following existing safety recommendations. Unfortunately, uptake of these safety behaviors is unacceptably low. This paper describes the design of the Make Safe Happen® smartphone application evaluation study, which aims to evaluate a mobile technology-based safety behavior change intervention on parents' safety knowledge and actions. METHODS: Make Safe Happen® app evaluation study is a randomized controlled trial...
March 12, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Julia M Stephen, Lucinda Flynn, Danielle Kabella, Megan Schendel, Sandra Cano, Daniel D Savage, William Rayburn, Lawrence M Leeman, Jean Lowe, Ludmila N Bakhireva
Early identification of children who experience developmental delays due to prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains a challenge for individuals who do not exhibit facial dysmorphia. It is well-established that children with PAE may still exhibit the cognitive and behavioral difficulties, and individuals without facial dysmorphia make up the majority of individuals affected by PAE. This study employed a prospective cohort design to capture alcohol consumption patterns during pregnancy and then followed the infants to 6 months of age...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Pietro Kiyoshi Maruyama, Marianne Azevedo-Silva, Marlies Sazima
Nursery pollination involves pollinators that lay eggs on the flowers they pollinate and have their brood fed on flower parts or developing ovules [1-4]. Active pollination, a ritualistic behavioral sequence shown by nursery pollinators when transferring pollen from anthers to stigmas, is known in only four plant lineages [5-8], including the classical examples of fig trees-fig wasps and yuccas-yucca moths [5, 6]. We report in detail a system in which weevils actively pollinate orchids prior to having their larvae fed on the developing fruits...
March 1, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Nicholas Taylor, Jeffrey P Hollis, Sarah Corcoran, Robin Gross, Bruce Cuthbert, Lisette W Swails, Erica Duncan
BACKGROUND: Anhedonia is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients report largely intact pleasure in consuming rewards, but have impairments in generating motivated behavior to pursue rewards, and show reduced fMRI activation of the reward pathway during presentation of rewarded stimuli. A computer based task measuring the development of a response bias in favor of rewarded stimuli permits assessment of reward-induced motivation. We hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would be impaired on this task...
March 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Cornelia M Weyand, Yi Shen, Jorg Goronzy
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of oxygen metabolism best known for their damaging potential, but recent evidence has exposed their role as secondary messengers, which regulate cell function through redox-activatable signaling systems. In immune cells, specifically in T cells, redox-sensitive signaling pathways have been implicated in controlling several functional domains; including cell cycle progression, T effector cell differentiation, tissue invasion and inflammatory behavior. T cells from patients with the autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have emerged as a valuable model system to examine the functional impact of ROS on T cell function...
March 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Filippo Graziani, Nicola Discepoli, Stefano Gennai, Dimitra Karapetsa, Marco Nisi, Lea Bianchi, Nanning A Martijn Rosema, Ubele Van der Velden
BACKGROUND: To assess the nutraceutical effects of twice/daily intake of kiwifruit on periodontal parameters and systemic health before and after initial periodontal treatment (IPT). METHODS: At baseline, participants were randomly assigned to test and control group, and either consumed two kiwifruits/day for 5 months or no kiwifruit. In the first 2 months, no periodontal treatment was delivered (2 M). Subsequently, a session of full-mouth IPT within 24 hours was performed...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
F U C E Jung, C Luck-Sikorski, M Krüger, C Wiacek, P G Braun, S Engeli, S G Riedel-Heller
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is likely to increase in incidence. Foods with cardioprotective functions, e.g. specific functional food, could reduce CVD risk factors and hence CVD incidence. Little is known about industrially modified foods with cardioprotective functions. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a large German sample (n = 1007), attitudes of consumers in Germany towards industrially produced cardioprotective food were assessed using Cluster analyses...
January 31, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
David Beltrán, Mercedes Muñetón-Ayala, Manuel de Vega
Embodiment theories claim that language meaning involves sensory-motor simulation processes in the brain. A challenge for these theories, however, is to explain how abstract words, such as negations, are processed. In this article, we test the hypothesis that understanding sentential negation (e.g., You will not cut the bread) reuses the neural circuitry of response inhibition. Participants read manual action sentences with either affirmative or negative polarity, embedded in a Stop-Signal paradigm, while their EEG was recorded...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychologia
R D X Ribeiro, G G P Carvalho, T M Silva, J B Costa, L R Bezerra, G B Cambuí, A M Barbosa, R L Oliveira
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of crude glycerin of up to 21% of dry matter (DM) in the diets of lambs will not compromise variables related to animal production or health. Forty-four uncastrated Santa Inês crossbreed lambs with an average age of five months and a BW average of 23.9 ± 0.34 kg (mean ± SD) were distributed into four treatment groups (11 replicates per group) including 0%, 7%, 14%, or 21% crude glycerin on a DM basis. The inclusion of crude glycerin in the diets promoted a quadratic increase in DM (P = 0...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ellen W Evans, Elizabeth C Redmond
The incidence of foodborne illness is higher in older adults because of their increased susceptibility; therefore, food safety practices are important. However, inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes toward food safety have been reported, which may increase use of unsafe food handling practices. Data on the actual food safety behaviors of older adults are lacking. In this study, food safety practices of older adults were observed and linked to microbiological analysis of kitchen surfaces to identify suspected routes of contamination...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Walaa M El-Hady, Azza A A Galal
The neurological effects of manganese (Mn) exposure on adults consuming contaminated water remain unclear. Accordingly, the current experiment was planned to explore the neurotoxic consequences of subchronic Mn exposure via contaminated water and to examine whether ebselen (Ebs) improved these outcomes. Rats exposed to oral MnCl2 (50 mg/kg body weight) for 30 successive days exhibited reduced rearing and ambulation. Furthermore, Mn administration increased brain Mn concentrations and induced superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione depletion...
March 7, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Janine V Olthuis, Patrick J McGrath, Charles E Cunningham, Michael H Boyle, Patricia Lingley-Pottie, Graham J Reid, Alexa Bagnell, Ellen L Lipman, Karen Turner, Penny Corkum, Sherry H Stewart, Patrick Berrigan, Kathy Sdao-Jarvie
Disruptive behavior disorders are prevalent in youth, yet most children with disruptive behavior do not have access to timely, effective treatment. Distance-delivered service (e.g., via telephone, Internet) can overcome several barriers to care. This study tested the effectiveness of a 12-week parent training program, Strongest Families™ Parenting the Active Child, delivered via written material, skill-based videos, and telephone coaching sessions, as compared to usual care in reducing child externalizing behavior...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Josué O Suárez-Ortiz, Felipe Cortés-Salazar, Ariadna L Malagón-Carrillo, Verónica E López-Alonso, Juan M Mancilla-Díaz, Juan G Tejas-Juárez, Rodrigo E Escartín-Pérez
Overeating is one of the most relevant clinical features in Binge Eating Disorder and in some obesity patients. According to several studies, alterations in the mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission produced by non-homeostatic feeding behavior may be associated with changes in the reward system similar to those produced by drugs of abuse. Although it is known that binge-eating is related with changes in dopaminergic transmission mediated by D2 receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcS), it has not been determined whether these receptors may be a potential target for the treatment of eating pathology with binge-eating...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Patrick Anselme, Onur Güntürkün
Food uncertainty has the effect of invigorating food-related responses. Psychologists have noted that mammals and birds respond more to a conditioned stimulus that unreliably predicts food delivery, and ecologists have shown that animals (especially small passerines) consume and/or hoard more food and can get fatter when access to that resource is unpredictable. Are these phenomena related? We think they are. Psychologists have proposed several mechanistic interpretations, while ecologists have suggested a functional interpretation: the effect of unpredictability on fat reserves and hoarding behavior is an evolutionary strategy acting against the risk of starvation when food is in short supply...
March 8, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Alex Michels, Mikael Neumann, Guilherme Fernando Mattos Leão, Angela Maria Reck, Heloisa Godoi Bertagnon, Leandro Sâmia Lopes, André Martins Souza, Leslei Caroline Dos Santos, Edelmir Silvio Stadler Júnior
Objective: Isoquinoline Alkaloids, derived from one plant (Macleaya cordata) can be an alternative when it is desired to increase performance in feedlot cattle. However, results on these nutritional additives in high energy diets in ruminants are still incipient in literature. In this context, the objective of this study was to evaluate performance and carcass traits of feedlot bulls supplemented with sanguinarine, the main alkaloid presents in Macleaya cordata in high energy density diets...
March 2, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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