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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332422/unexpected-management-behaviors-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-using-sensor-augmented-pump-therapy
#1
Mary Binsu Abraham, Kristine Heels, Jennifer A Nicholas, Carol Cole, Rebecca Gebert, Julie Klimek, Tracey Jopling, Geoffrey Ambler, Fergus Cameron, Elizabeth Davis, Timothy W Jones
BACKGROUND: Continuous glucose monitoring can improve glycemic outcomes in individuals with type 1 diabetes. However, the constant exposure to real-time glucose levels can sometimes lead the individual to make some risky choices to address the glycemic excursions. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the aberrant management behaviors of youth with type 1 diabetes on sensor-augmented pump therapy (SAPT). METHODS: Participants in a clinical trial using SAPT on Medtronic MiniMed™ 640G pump who experienced deteriorating glycemic control or unexplained hypoglycemia were identified by the health care professional...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331532/high-fat-diet-mediates-anxiolytic-like-behaviors-in-a-time-dependent-manner-through-the-regulation-of-sirt1-in-the-brain
#2
Liu Xu, Shuang Xu, Lifang Lin, Xi Gu, Congcong Fu, Yingying Fang, Xiaowen Li, Xuemin Wang
The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) and obesity have been associated not only with metabolic diseases but also with neuropsychiatric diseases, such as depression and anxiety. However, results on the effects of an HFD on anxiety are controversial, since both anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the effects of both short- and long-term intake of an HFD on anxiety-like behaviors. To explore the impact of time on the association between an HFD and anxiety, mice were fed with an HFD for 4 weeks or 12 weeks...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331366/eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger-is-related-to-loss-of-control-eating-hedonic-hunger-and-short-term-weight-gain-in-normal-weight-women
#3
Emily H Feig, Amani D Piers, Tanja V E Kral, Michael R Lowe
Eating beyond physiological need contributes to obesity onset. Measuring this behavior could help identify those at risk for weight gain. This study measured eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) and its relationship with weight change and self-report measures related to appetite and eating behavior. EAH was assessed in 46 lean young women (69% pre-selected for weight gain proneness) after lunch and defined as the number of calories subsequently consumed from snacks. Participants also completed questionnaires, and their body weights were measured regularly over the next year...
January 10, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326022/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-eating-behaviors-and-body-weight-in-obesity-a-randomized-controlled-study
#4
Se-Hong Kim, Ju-Hye Chung, Tae-Hong Kim, Seong Hoon Lim, Youngkook Kim, Yun-Ah Lee, Sang-Wook Song
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have reported significant reductions in food cravings following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), none have examined changes in body weight. OBJECTIVE: We conducted 2-week randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, parallel-group trial to examine the effect of rTMS on body weight in obese patients. METHODS: Sixty obese patients (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2) aged between 18 and 65 years were recruited...
December 1, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323476/localized-electrothermal-annealing-with-nano-watt-power-for-a-silicon-nanowire-field-effect-transistor
#5
Jun-Young Park, Byung-Hyun Lee, Geon-Beom Lee, Hagyoul Bae, Yang-Kyu Choi
This work investigates localized electrothermal annealing (ETA) with extremely low power consumption. The proposed method utilizes, for the first time, tunneling current-induced Joule heat in a p-i-n diode, comprised of p-type, intrinsic, and n-type semiconductors. The consumed power used for dopant control is the lowest value ever reported. A metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) composed of a p-i-n silicon nanowire, which is a sub-structure of a tunneling FET (TFET), was fabricated and utilized as a test platform to examine the annealing behaviors...
January 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323131/optimal-swimming-strategies%C3%A2-and-behavioral-plasticity-of-oceanic-whitetip-sharks
#6
Yannis P Papastamatiou, Gil Iosilevskii, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Edd J Brooks, Lucy A Howey, Demian D Chapman, Yuuki Y Watanabe
Animal behavior should optimize the difference between the energy they gain from prey and the energy they spend searching for prey. This is all the more critical for predators occupying the pelagic environment, as prey is sparse and patchily distributed. We theoretically derive two canonical swimming strategies for pelagic predators, that maximize their energy surplus while foraging. They predict that while searching, a pelagic predator should maintain small dive angles, swim at speeds near those that minimize the cost of transport, and maintain constant speed throughout the dive...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320406/a-police-and-insurance-joint-management-system-based-on-high-precision-bds-gps-positioning
#7
Wenwei Zuo, Chi Guo, Jingnan Liu, Xuan Peng, Min Yang
Car ownership in China reached 194 million vehicles at the end of 2016. The traffic congestion index (TCI) exceeds 2.0 during rush hour in some cities. Inefficient processing for minor traffic accidents is considered to be one of the leading causes for road traffic jams. Meanwhile, the process after an accident is quite troublesome. The main reason is that it is almost always impossible to get the complete chain of evidence when the accident happens. Accordingly, a police and insurance joint management system is developed which is based on high precision BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning to process traffic accidents...
January 10, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318700/time-course-and-dynamics-of-obesity-related-behavioral-changes-induced-by-energy-dense-foods-in-mice
#8
Jose Espinosa-Carrasco, Aurelijus Burokas, Marta Fructuoso, Ionas Erb, Elena Martín-García, Miriam Gutiérrez-Martos, Cedric Notredame, Rafael Maldonado, Mara Dierssen
Obesity represents an important risk factor contributing to the global burden of disease. The current obesogenic environment with easy access to calorie-dense foods is fueling this obesity epidemic. However, how these foods contribute to the progression of feeding behavior changes that lead to overeating is not well understood and needs systematic assessment. Using novel automated methods for the high-throughput screening of behavior, we here examine mice meal pattern upon long-term exposure to a free-choice chocolate-mixture diet and a high-fat diet with face validity for a rapid development of obesity induced by unhealthy food regularly consumed in our societies...
January 10, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315539/fasting-or-fear-disentangling-the-roles-of-predation-risk-and-food-deprivation-in-the-nitrogen-metabolism-of-consumers
#9
Christopher M Dalton, Karen E Tracy, Nelson G Hairston, Alexander S Flecker
Predators can alter nutrient cycles simply by inducing stress in prey. This stress accelerates prey's protein catabolism, nitrogen waste production, and nitrogen cycling. Yet predators also reduce the feeding rates of their prey, inducing food deprivation that is expected to slow protein catabolism and nitrogen cycling. The physiology of prey under predation risk thus balances the influences of predation risk and food deprivation, and this balance is central to understanding the role of predators in nutrient cycles...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314866/spearmint-extract-improves-working-memory-in-men-and-women-with-age-associated-memory-impairment
#10
Kelli A Herrlinger, Kristin M Nieman, Kristen D Sanoshy, Brenda A Fonseca, Joanne A Lasrado, Arianne L Schild, Kevin C Maki, Keith A Wesnes, Michael A Ceddia
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementation with a spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) extract, high in polyphenols including rosmarinic acid, on cognitive performance, sleep, and mood in individuals with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). DESIGN: Subjects with AAMI (N = 90; 67% female; age = 59.4 ± 0.6 years) were randomly assigned (n = 30/group) to consume 900, 600, or 0 mg/day (two capsules, once daily) spearmint extract for 90 days, in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313253/the-neural-correlates-of-alcohol-related-aggression
#11
Thomas F Denson, Kate A Blundell, Timothy P Schofield, Mark M Schira, Ulrike M Krämer
Alcohol intoxication is implicated in approximately half of all violent crimes. Over the past several decades, numerous theories have been proposed to account for the influence of alcohol on aggression. Nearly all of these theories imply that altered functioning in the prefrontal cortex is a proximal cause. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, 50 healthy young men consumed either a low dose of alcohol or a placebo and completed an aggression paradigm against provocative and nonprovocative opponents...
January 8, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312813/domestic-carnivore-interactions-with-wildlife-in-the-cape-horn-biosphere-reserve-chile-husbandry-and-perceptions-of-impact-from-a-community-perspective
#12
Elke Schüttler, Lorena Saavedra-Aracena, Jaime E Jiménez
Background: Hundreds of millions of domestic carnivores worldwide have diverse positive affiliations with humans, but can provoke serious socio-ecological impacts when free-roaming. Unconfined dogs (Canis familiaris) and cats (Felis catus) interact with wildlife as predators, competitors, and disease-transmitters; their access to wildlife depends on husbandry, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors of pet owners and non-owners. Methods: To better understand husbandry and perceptions of impacts by unconfined, domestic carnivores, we administered questionnaires (n = 244) to pet owners and non-owners living in one of the last wilderness areas of the world, the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located in southern Chile...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310048/alcohol-operant-self-administration-investigating-how-alcohol-seeking-behaviors-predict-drinking-in-mice-using-two-operant-approaches
#13
Mariah B Blegen, Daniel da Silva E Silva, Roland Bock, Nadege Morisot, Dorit Ron, Veronica A Alvarez
Alcohol operant self-administration paradigms are critical tools for studying the neural circuits implicated in both alcohol-seeking and consummatory behaviors and for understanding the neural basis underlying alcohol-use disorders. In this study, we investigate the predictive value of two operant models of oral alcohol self-administration in mice, one in which alcohol is delivered into a cup following nose-poke responses with no accurate measurement of consumed alcohol solution, and another paradigm that provides access to alcohol via a sipper tube following lever presses and where lick rate and consumed alcohol volume can be measured...
August 19, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309852/the-impact-of-chronic-stress-on-the-predictors-of-acute-stress-induced-eating-in-women
#14
Rebecca R Klatzkin, Allie Baldassaro, Ellery Hayden
Chronic stress is associated with palatable food intake and thus, the development of obesity. This may be due to chronic stress disrupting the regulatory effects of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis on stress-induced eating. Thus, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate how chronic stress (CS) and cortisol stress reactivity affect eating behaviors following acute stress. Exploratory analyses also sought to determine the distinct psychophysiological factors driving acute stress-induced eating in women with high versus low CS...
January 5, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308436/effect-of-personal-activity-trackers-on-weight-loss-in-families-enrolled-in-a-comprehensive-behavioral-family-lifestyle-intervention-program-in-the-federally-qualified-health-center-setting-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Juan Espinoza, Alexander Chen, Jazminne Orozco, Alexis Deavenport-Saman, Larry Yin
Background: Childhood obesity continues to be a substantial problem despite major public health efforts, and disproportionately impacts children from low-income families. Digital health tools and consumer technology offer promising opportunities for interventions, but few studies have evaluated how they might be incorporated into existing interventions or used to create new types of interventions. It remains unclear which approaches would be most beneficial for underserved pediatric populations...
September 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304811/association-between-time-perspective-and-organic-food-consumption-in-a-large-sample-of-adults
#16
Marc Bénard, Julia Baudry, Caroline Méjean, Denis Lairon, Kelly Virecoulon Giudici, Fabrice Etilé, Gérard Reach, Serge Hercberg, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Sandrine Péneau
BACKGROUND: Organic food intake has risen in many countries during the past decades. Even though motivations associated with such choice have been studied, psychological traits preceding these motivations have rarely been explored. Consideration of future consequences (CFC) represents the extent to which individuals consider future versus immediate consequences of their current behaviors. Consequently, a future oriented personality may be an important characteristic of organic food consumers...
January 5, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302538/psychiatric-morbidity-in-spouses-of-patients-with-alcohol-related-disorders
#17
Aruna Dandu, S Bharathi, Shankar Reddy Dudala
Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%-13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces...
April 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302224/tobacco-use-disorder-and-treatment-new-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
Douglas Ziedonis, Smita Das, Celine Larkin
Tobacco use remains a global problem, and options for consumers have increased with the development and marketing of e-cigarettes and other new nicotine and tobacco products, such as "heat-not-burn" tobacco and dissolvable tobacco. The increased access to these new products is juxtaposed with expanding public health and clinical intervention options, including mobile technologies and social media. The persistent high rate of tobacco-use disorders among those with psychiatric disorders has gathered increased global attention, including successful approaches to individual treatment and organizational-level interventions...
September 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301381/food-safety-knowledge-attitudes-and-behavior-among-dairy-plant-workers-in-beijing-northern-china
#19
Yan Chen, Hua Ji, Li-Jun Chen, Rong Jiang, Yong-Ning Wu
The safety of milk and dairy products has always been one of the focuses of consumers, the food industry and regulatory agencies. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the food safety knowledge, attitudes and behavior of dairy plant workers. A cross-sectional survey was performed between May and August 2015 in three dairy plants in Beijing, northern China. A total of 194 dairy plant workers were interviewed to collect information on food safety knowledge, attitudes and self-reported behavior. The 194 dairy plant workers interviewed showed a sufficient level of knowledge (mean score 34 on a scale from 0-58), perfect attitudes (mean score 17 on a scale from 0-18), and perfect behavior (mean score 38 on a scale from 8-40)...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301216/novel-nutrition-profiling-of-new-zealanders-varied-eating-patterns
#20
Olivia Maclaren, Lisa Mackay, Grant Schofield, Caryn Zinn
There is increasing recognition that the relationship between nutrition and health is influenced by complex eating behaviors. The aims of this study were to develop novel nutrition profiles of New Zealanders and to describe the prevalence of these profiles. Observational, cross-sectional data from the Sovereign Wellbeing Index, 2014 was used to develop the profiles in an a-priori process. Descriptive prevalence for the total data (N = 10,012; 4797 males; 18+ years) and profiles were reported. Nutrition question responses were presented as: Includers (consumed few time a week or more), Avoiders (few time a month) and Limiters (not eaten)...
December 31, 2017: Nutrients
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