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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161239/the-impact-of-folate-intake-on-the-risk-of-head-and-neck-cancer-in-the-prostate-lung-colorectal-and-ovarian-cancer-screening-trial-plco-cohort
#1
Daisuke Kawakita, Yuan-Chin Amy Lee, Lisa H Gren, Saundra S Buys, Carlo La Vecchia, Mia Hashibe
BACKGROUND: Although low levels of folate leads to disturbances in DNA replication, DNA methylation and DNA repair, the association between dietary folate intake and head and neck cancer (HNC) risk remains unclear. METHODS: We evaluated the association between folate intake and HNC risk using prospective cohort data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial. This study included 101 700 participants and 186 cases with confirmed incident HNC...
November 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159862/mass-media-interventions-for-smoking-cessation-in-adults
#2
REVIEW
Malgorzata M Bala, Lukasz Strzeszynski, Roman Topor-Madry
BACKGROUND: Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults...
November 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159603/prophylactic-intraperitoneal-onlay-mesh-reinforcement-reduces-the-risk-of-incisional-hernia-two-year-results-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Philippe Brosi, Philippe M Glauser, Benjamin Speich, Samuel A Käser, Christoph A Maurer
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernias still are a major concern after laparotomy and are causing substantial morbidity. This study examines the feasibility, safety and incisional hernia rate of the use of a prophylactic intraperitoneal onlay mesh stripe (IPOM) to prevent incisional hernia following midline laparotomy. METHODS: This prospective, randomized controlled trial randomly allocated patients undergoing median laparotomy either to mass closure of the abdominal wall with a PDS-loop running suture reinforced by an intraperitoneal composite mesh stripe (Group A) or to the same procedure without the additional mesh stripe (Group B)...
November 20, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159554/detailed-description-of-change-in-serum-cholesterol-profile-with-incremental-weight-loss-after-restrictive-bariatric-surgery
#4
Geraldine J Ooi, Arul Earnest, Lisa Doyle, Cheryl Laurie, John M Wentworth, Ken Sikaris, Carel W le Roux, Paul R Burton, Paul E O'Brien, Wendy A Brown
INTRODUCTION: Dyslipidemia affects up to 75% of morbidly obese individuals and is a key driver of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss is an established strategy to improve metabolic risk, including dyslipidemia. We aimed to determine weight loss goals for resolution of serum lipid abnormalities, by measuring improvements during progressive weight loss in obese individuals. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome undergoing adjustable gastric banding...
November 21, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159476/the-impact-of-skeletal-muscle-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-toxicity-of-5-fluorouracil-in-colorectal-cancer
#5
Grant R Williams, Allison M Deal, Shlomit Strulov Shachar, Christine M Walko, Jai N Patel, Bert O'Neil, Howard L McLeod, Marc S Weinberg, Seul Ki Choi, Hyman B Muss, Hanna K Sanoff
PURPOSE: Great heterogeneity exists in the ability of adults with cancer to tolerate chemotherapy. Variability in body composition may affect rates of metabolism of cytotoxic agents and contribute to the variable chemotherapy toxicity observed. The objective of this exploratory study was to examine the association of low skeletal muscle, commonly known as sarcopenia, on the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) in patients receiving FOLFOX for colorectal cancer. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a completed multicenter trial that investigated PK-guided 5FU dosing in patients receiving mFOLFOX6 +/- bevacizumab for colorectal cancer...
November 20, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159267/long-term-impact-of-intensive-lifestyle-intervention-on-cognitive-function-assessed-with-the-national-institutes-of-health-toolbox-the-look-ahead-study
#6
Kathleen M Hayden, Laura D Baker, George Bray, Raymond Carvajal, Kathryn Demos-McDermott, Andrea L Hergenroeder, James O Hill, Edward Horton, John M Jakicic, Karen C Johnson, Rebecca H Neiberg, Stephen R Rapp, Thomas A Wadden, Michael E Miller
Introduction: This study sought to determine whether 10 years of assignment to intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) relative to diabetes support and education leads to better cognition. We examine intervention effects overall and among clinical subgroups, and report correlations between computer-administered and interviewer-administered cognitive batteries. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) was a 16-site randomized controlled trial with overweight/obese individuals (aged 45-76) who had type 2 diabetes...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159017/gardening-and-age-related-weight-gain-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-denver-residents
#7
Jill S Litt, Jeffrey Richard Lambert, Deborah H Glueck
This study examined whether gardening modifies the association between age and body mass index (BMI). We used data from the Neighborhood Environments and Health Survey, which was conducted in Denver (N = 469) between 2006 and 2007. We fit two general linear mixed models. The base model had BMI in kg/m(2) as the outcome, and age, an indicator variable for non-gardening status and the age-by-non-gardening status interaction as predictors. The adjusted model included as covariates the potential confounders of education, ethnicity and self-reported health...
December 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158831/identification-and-validation-of-a-salivary-protein-panel-to-detect-heart-failure-early
#8
Xi Zhang, Terry Walsh, John J Atherton, Karam Kostner, Benjamin Schulz, Chamindie Punyadeera
BACKGROUND: Over 26 million people suffer from heart failure (HF) globally. Current diagnosis of HF relies on clinical evaluation, blood assays and imaging techniques. Our aim is to develop a diagnostic assay to detect HF in at risk individuals within the community using human saliva as a medium, potentially leading to a simple, safe early warning system. METHODS: Saliva samples were collected from healthy controls (n=36) and HF patients (n=75). Salivary proteome profiles were analysed by Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical fragment ion spectra - Mass Spectrometry (SWATH-MS)...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158344/effects-of-walking-in-water-on-gut-hormone-concentration-and-appetite-comparison-with-walking-on-land
#9
Shin-Ya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara, Eriko Kawai, Tatsuya Usui, Shintaro Tsuji, Tadayoshi Miyamoto
The effects of water exercise on gut hormone levels and appetite currently remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treadmill walking in water on gut hormone levels and appetite. Thirteen men (mean±S.D. age: 21.6±2.2 years, body mass index: 22.7±2.8 kg/m2, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 49.8±7.8 ml/kg per min) participated in the walking in water and on land challenge. During the study period, ratings of subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, satiety, and motivation to eat were reported on a 100-mm visual analogue scale...
November 20, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158180/effect-of-left-lateral-tilt-down-position-on-cecal-intubation-time-a-2-center-pragmatic-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Sheng-Bing Zhao, Xia Yang, Jun Fang, Shu-Ling Wang, Lun Gu, Tian Xia, Xiao-Ju Su, Dong Wang, Zhao-Shen Li, Yu Bai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colonoscopy insertion is technically challenging, time-consuming and painful, especially for the sigmoid. Several pilot studies indicated (left) tilt-down position could facilitate insertion procedure, but no formal trials have been published to demonstrate its efficacy. We performed the study to verify the benefits of left lateral tilt-down position (LTDP) on insertion process. METHODS: The two-center prospective trial (NCT02842489) randomized unsedated patients to LTDP or left lateral horizontal position (LHP) to aid insertion...
November 17, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157765/the-effect-of-preoperative-oral-carbohydrate-solution-intake-on-patient-comfort-a-randomized-controlled-study
#11
Emel Çakar, Emel Yilmaz, Ekrem Çakar, Hakan Baydur
PURPOSE: The study was conducted to investigate the effect of preoperative oral carbohydrate loading on the preoperative discomforts and postoperative complications of patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy. DESIGN: A randomized controlled clinical trial. METHODS: Ninety patients scheduled for thyroidectomy were divided into three groups: (1) those receiving a carbohydrate-rich drink (CHD), (2) those receiving an overnight 5% glucose intravenous infusion, and (3) those fasting from midnight...
December 2017: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157731/insulin-sensitivity-and-diabetic-kidney-disease-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-2-diabetes-an-observational-analysis-of-data-from-the-today-clinical%C3%A2-trial
#12
Petter Bjornstad, Edward Nehus, Laure El Ghormli, Fida Bacha, Ingrid M Libman, Siripoom McKay, Steven M Willi, Lori Laffel, Silva Arslanian, Kristen J Nadeau
BACKGROUND: Diabetic kidney disease is a major cause of premature mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Worsening insulin sensitivity independent of glycemic control may contribute to the development of diabetic kidney disease. We investigated the longitudinal association of insulin sensitivity with hyperfiltration and increased albumin excretion in adolescents with T2DM. STUDY DESIGN: Observational prospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 532 TODAY (Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth) participants aged 12 to 17 years with T2DM duration less than 2 years at baseline...
November 17, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157038/applying-u-s-national-guidelines-for-ototoxicity-monitoring-in-adult-patients-perspectives-on-patient-populations-service-gaps-barriers-and-solutions
#13
Dawn Konrad-Martin, Gayla L Poling, Angela C Garinis, Candice E Ortiz, Jennifer Hopper, Keri O'Connell Bennett, Marilyn F Dille
OBJECTIVES: To promote establishment of effective ototoxicity monitoring programs (OMPs), this report reviews the U.S. national audiology guidelines in relation to "real world" OMP application. Background is provided on the mechanisms, risks and clinical presentation of hearing loss associated with major classes of ototoxic medications. DESIGN: This is a non-systematic review using PubMed, national and international agency websites, personal communications between ototoxicity experts, and results of unpublished research...
November 20, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155456/identifying-sarcopenia-in-female-long-term-care-residents-a-comparison-of-current-guidelines
#14
Mary P Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, David A Nace, Neil M Resnick, Susan L Greenspan
OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in a long-term care population, assess agreement among different consensus sarcopenia diagnostic criteria, and examine agreement of a self-reported questionnaire with consensus guidelines. DESIGN: Cross-sectional secondary analysis. SETTING: Long-term care communities in the greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, area. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 65 and older (mean 83.6) undergoing eligibility screening for a fracture reduction trial (N = 141)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155225/a-systematic-review-of-the-long-term-effectiveness-of-work-based-lifestyle-interventions-to-tackle-overweight-and-obesity
#15
REVIEW
Greta Tam, May P S Yeung
Obesity is one of the five leading global risks for mortality, accounting for 5% of deaths worldwide. Workplace health promotion programs have the potential to deliver population-level interventions combining physical activity and exercise. However, there is no recent critical review of trials on long-term effectiveness of multicomponent lifestyle interventions in the workplace targeting obesity. Good quality evidence is needed to develop optimal strategies to tackle adult obesity. 1035 studies were retrieved by literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCH INFO and Cochrane library from 2005 to September 2016...
November 16, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154422/beta-blocker-dose-and-markers-of-sympathetic-activation-in-heart-failure-patients-interrelationships-and-prognostic-significance
#16
Alain Cohen-Solal, Arnold F Jacobson, Ileana L Piña
AIMS: Extent of cardiac sympathetic activation can be estimated from physiological parameters, blood biomarkers, and imaging findings. This study examined the prognostic value of three markers of sympathetic activity and their relationship to beta blocker dose in heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A post hoc analysis of 858 heart failure subjects in the ADMIRE-HF trial was performed. Variables related to sympathetic activity were plasma norepinephrine, baseline heart rate, the heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of (123) I-mIBG uptake, and beta blocker dose...
November 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153586/non-specific-effects-of-childhood-vaccinations-a-case-control-study-nested-into-a-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-in-rural-burkina-faso
#17
G Pfeiffer, A B Fisker, E Nebié, J Hengelbrock, A Sié, H Becher, O Müller
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies in African countries have been suggestive of non-specific effects (NSE) of vaccination on child survival. Live vaccines (e.g. measles, MV) have been found to reduce child mortality while inactivated vaccines (e.g. diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, DTP) have been associated with increased mortality; NSE were often found to be sex-specific. METHODS: A case-control study nested into the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) cohort of the Centre de Recherche en Santé de Nouna (CRSN) was conducted in northwestern Burkina Faso...
November 15, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153075/is-whole-colon-investigation-by-colonoscopy-computerised-tomography-colonography-or-barium-enema-necessary-for-all-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-symptoms-and-for-which-patients-would-flexible-sigmoidoscopy-suffice-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#18
Wendy Atkin, Kate Wooldrage, Urvi Shah, Kate Skinner, Jeremy P Brown, Willie Hamilton, Ines Kralj-Hans, Michael R Thompson, Karen G Flashman, Steve Halligan, Siwan Thomas-Gibson, Margaret Vance, Amanda J Cross
BACKGROUND: For patients referred to hospital with suspected colorectal cancer (CRC), it is current standard clinical practice to conduct an examination of the whole colon and rectum. However, studies have shown that an examination of the distal colorectum using flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) can be a safe and clinically effective investigation for some patients. These findings require validation in a multicentre study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the links between patient symptoms at presentation and CRC risk by subsite, and to provide evidence of whether or not FS is an effective alternative to whole-colon investigation (WCI) in patients whose symptoms do not suggest proximal or obstructive disease...
November 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152675/a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-in-juvenile-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-positive-effect-on-trabecular-microarchitecture-using-hr-pqct
#19
G L Lima, J A Paupitz, N E Aikawa, J C Alvarenga, R M Rodrigues Pereira
In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 24-week trial, cholecalciferol supplementation at 50,000 IU/week effectively improved bone microarchitecture parameters in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JoSLE) patients, as assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at tibia site. An increase in the trabecular number and a decrease in the trabecular separation were observed, suggesting that vitamin D supplementation may be recommended for JoSLE patients with its deficiency...
November 19, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152243/effect-of-pomegranate-extract-on-blood-pressure-and-anthropometry-in-adults-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomised-clinical-trial
#20
A Stockton, G Farhat, Gordon J McDougall, E A S Al-Dujaili
Pomegranate (Punica granatum), a polyphenol-rich fruit, has been suggested to reduce cardiovascular risk due to its antioxidant properties. Hypertension and obesity are the most preventable cardiovascular risk factors. Few studies on blood pressure and/or body-weight status have been conducted in human subjects. Previous investigations have tended to focus on pomegranate juice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate extract (PE) on blood pressure and anthropometric measures in adults with no symptomatic disease...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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