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Meng-Yun Chen, Dan Liang, Peng Zhang
The interordinal relationships of Laurasiatherian mammals are currently one of the most controversial questions in mammalian phylogenetics. Previous studies mainly relied on coding sequences (CDS) and seldom used noncoding sequences. Here, by data mining public genome data, we compiled an intron data set of 3,638 genes (all introns from a protein-coding gene are considered as a gene) (19,055,073 bp) and a CDS data set of 10,259 genes (20,994,285 bp), covering all major lineages of Laurasiatheria (except Pholidota)...
August 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Doris Vandeputte, Raul Y Tito, Rianne Vanleeuwen, Gwen Falony, Jeroen Raes
First insights on the human gut microbiome have been gained from medium-sized, cross-sectional studies. However, given the modest portion of explained variance of currently identified covariates and the small effect size of gut microbiota modulation strategies, upscaling seems essential for further discovery and characterisation of the multiple influencing factors and their relative contribution. In order to guide future research projects and standardisation efforts, we here review currently applied collection and preservation methods for gut microbiome research...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Steven S Coughlin
Measures for ensuring that epidemiologic studies are reproducible include making data sets and software available to other researchers so they can verify published findings, conduct alternative analyses of the data, and check for statistical errors or programming errors. Recent developments related to the reproducibility and transparency of epidemiologic studies include the creation of a global platform for sharing data from clinical trials and the anticipated future extension of the global platform to non-clinical trial data...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kun Dai, Qingni Yu, Zhou Zhang, Yuan Wang, Xinming Wang
Indoor air quality is vital to the health and comfort of people who live inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. Here we measured aromatic hydrocarbons to assess their sources and health risks during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for growing crops, vegetables and fruits and other two cabins for working, accommodations and resources management. During the experiment, the average concentrations of benzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylenes and o-xylene were found to decrease exponentially from 7...
August 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Michael W Kraus, Jun Won Park
Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities...
August 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
Bassey E Edem, Amali Adekwu, Michael E Efu, Joseph Kuni, Gerald Onuchukwu, Johnbosco Ugwuadu
INTRODUCTION: Impacted penetrating foreign body (FB) in the airway especially the postnasal space presents with management challenges. The challenges are worsened by lack of modern equipment in resource-poor settings. Two suchlike cases were managed in this report. PRESENTATION OF CASES: Case 1: A 4-year-old girl who fell on a metal rod in her mouth while playing alone. Examination revealed an agitated child in open mouth posture, with a silvery straight metallic object impacted on the hard palate and projecting from the mouth...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Zhenyang Chen, Bo Niu, Lingen Zhang, Zhenming Xu
Recycling rare metal tantalum from waste tantalum capacitors (WTCs) is significant to alleviate the shortage of tantalum resource. However, environmental problems will be caused if the organic materials from WTCs are improperly disposed. This study presented a promising vacuum pyrolysis technology to recycle the organic materials from WTCs. The organics removal rate could reach 94.32wt% according to TG results. The optimal parameters were determined as 425°C, 50Pa and 30min on the basis of response surface methodology (RSM)...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Einav Srulovici, Anat Drach-Zahavy
BACKGROUND: Missed nursing care is considered an act of omission with potentially detrimental consequences for patients, nurses, and organizations. Although the theoretical conceptualization of missed nursing care specifies nurses' values, attitudes, and perceptions of their work environment as its core antecedents, empirical studies have mainly focused on nurses' socio-demographic and professional attributes. Furthermore, assessment of missed nursing care has been mainly based on same-source methods...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Upasana Baruah, R Dhanasekara Pandian, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Suresh Bada Math, Thennarasu Kandavel, Y C Janardhan Reddy
BACKGROUND: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is therapist-intensive and prolonged making it less accessible to patients, particularly in resource-constrained situations. We examined the efficacy of a brief psychotherapeutic intervention as an adjunct to serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in OCD. METHOD: We randomized 64 adult OCD patients stabilized on SRIs to either the 6-session brief family-based intervention (BFBI; n = 30) that included psychoeducation, exposure and response prevention and family intervention or to a control arm of relaxation exercises (RE)...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
D C Silva, L E C Diniz, A F Blank, D A C Nizio, J A O Pinto, K L G Pereira, M F Arrigoni-Blank
Eplingiella fruticosa (Salzm. ex Benth.) Harley & J.F.B. Pastore, ex Hyptis fruticosa Salzm. ex Benth. is an aromatic and medicinal plant of the family Lamiaceae, found mainly in regions with intense anthropic activity. Information on the genetic diversity of this species is scarce. However, it can be assessed using molecular markers that identify the level of diversity among phenotypically identical individuals. The present study aimed to characterize the genetic diversity of a native population of E. fruticosa from the State of Sergipe using ISSR molecular markers...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
B W Zago, M A A Barelli, E S S Hoogerheide, C L Corrêa, G I S Delforno, C J da Silva
Genetic variability of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) in Brazil is wide, being this the result of natural and cultural selection during pre- and post-domestication of the species in different environments. Given the number of species of the genus found in the region (38 of a total of 98 species), the central region of Brazil was defined as the primary center of cassava diversity. Therefore, genetic diversity characterization of cassava accessions is fundamental, both for farmers and for plant breeders, because it allows the organization of genetic resources and better utilization of available genetic diversity...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
R B Feitosa-Alcantara, A V C Silva, A F Blank, C S Almeida, S V Alvares-Carvalho, M F Arrigoni-Blank
Hyptis pectinata, popularly known as 'sambacaitá' or 'canudinho', is a medicinal and aromatic species widely used in the Brazilian Northeast. In Sergipe, the excessive extraction of natural resources may reduce the genetic variability of native plants. Thus, molecular markers have frequently been applied to the characterization of genetic diversity as the basis for germplasm conservation and breeding programs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of H. pectinata plants collected in different municipalities of the State of Sergipe using ISSR molecular markers...
August 17, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Ziningi Jaya, Paul K Drain, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Rapid HIV tests have improved access to HIV diagnosis and treatment by providing quick and convenient testing in rural clinics and resource-limited settings. In this study, we evaluated the quality management system for voluntary and provider-initiated point-of-care HIV testing in primary healthcare (PHC) clinics in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a quality assessment audit in eleven PHC clinics that offer voluntary HIV testing and counselling in rural KZN, South Africa from August 2015 to October 2016...
2017: PloS One
Alison Misselhorn, Sheryl L Hendriks
Food insecurity is an intractable problem in South Africa. The country has a tradition of evidence-based decision making, grounded in the findings of national surveys. However, the rich insights from sub-national surveys remain a largely untapped resource for understandings of the contextual experience of food insecurity. A web-based search identified 169 sub-national food insecurity studies conducted in the post-apartheid period between 1994 and 2014. The systematic review found that the studies used 27 different measures of food insecurity, confounding the comparative analysis of food insecurity at this level...
2017: PloS One
Theresa M Crimmins, Michael A Crimmins, Katharine L Gerst, Alyssa H Rosemartin, Jake F Weltzin
PURPOSE: In support of science and society, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) maintains a rapidly growing, continental-scale, species-rich dataset of plant and animal phenology observations that with over 10 million records is the largest such database in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the potential that exists in the broad and rich volunteer-collected dataset maintained by the USA-NPN for constructing models predicting the timing of phenological transition across species' ranges within the continental United States...
2017: PloS One
Javier Gayarre, Paloma Martín-Gimeno, Ana Osorio, Beatriz Paumard, Alicia Barroso, Victoria Fernández, Miguel de la Hoya, Alejandro Rojo, Trinidad Caldés, José Palacios, Miguel Urioste, Javier Benítez, María J García
BACKGROUND: Despite a high prevalence of deleterious missense variants, most studies of RAD51C ovarian cancer susceptibility gene only provide in silico pathogenicity predictions of missense changes. We identified a novel deleterious RAD51C missense variant (p.Arg312Trp) in a high-risk family, and propose a criteria to prioritise RAD51C missense changes qualifying for functional analysis. METHODS: To evaluate pathogenicity of p.Arg312Trp variant we used sequence homology, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and segregation analysis, and a comprehensive functional characterisation...
August 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
A E Atabani, S M Mercimek, Sundaram Arvindnarayan, Sutha Shobana, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Mehmet Cadir, Ala'a H Al-Muhatseb
In this study, recycling of spent coffee grounds (SCG) as a potential feedstock for alternative fuels production and compounds of added value in Turkey was assessed. The average oil content was found (≈ 13% w/w). All samples (before and after extraction) were tested for SEM, DSC, TGA, XRD, calorific value, surface analysis and porosity, FT-IR and elemental analysis to assess their potential towards fuel properties. Elemental analysis indicated that carbon represents the highest percentage (49.59% and 46.42% respectively), followed by Nitrogen (16...
August 22, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Kristin Precoda, Andrew P Allen, Liesl Grant, Joshua S Madin
Simulations and experiments have shown that species coexistence can be maintained via nontransitive competition, of which a simple case is the rock-paper-scissors game. Reef-building corals exemplify high biodiversity competing for a few limiting resources via several mechanisms. Thus, corals represent fertile ground for exploring competition and nontransitivity. This article aimed to test hypotheses about the effects of species-level traits on competitive outcomes, specifically, that more upright growth, larger corallites, smaller ranges, and difference in commonness co-occur with competitive superiority...
September 2017: American Naturalist
Stefano Focardi, Massimo Materassi, Giacomo Innocenti, Duccio Berzi
Scavenging is ubiquitous in nature, but its implications have rarely been investigated. We used camera traps on wolf kills to investigate the role of scavenging on predator and multiprey dynamics in a northern Apennine system in Italy. In contrast to North American systems, the omnivorous wild boar successfully competes with wolves for the meat of their kills. We developed a deterministic, multitrophic web model (wolf, vegetation, deer, and wild boar), tunable through a parameter that governs the impact of prey sharing between wolves and wild boar...
September 2017: American Naturalist
Qiaoqiao Huang, Martin Burd, Zhiwei Fan
Pollen limitation may affect resource allocation patterns in plants, but its role in the selection of seed size is not known. Using an evolutionarily stable strategy model of resource allocation in perennial iteroparous plants, we show that under density-independent population growth, pollen limitation (i.e., a reduction in ovule fertilization rate) should increase the optimal seed size. At any level of pollen limitation (including none), the optimal seed size maximizes the ratio of juvenile survival rate to the resource investment needed to produce one seed (including both ovule production and seed provisioning); that is, the optimum maximizes the fitness effect per unit cost...
September 2017: American Naturalist
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