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Astrocyte adult culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742510/hmgb1-a-box-reverses-brain-edema-and-deterioration-of-neurological-function-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-mouse-model
#1
Lijun Yang, Feng Wang, Liang Yang, Yunchao Yuan, Yan Chen, Gengshen Zhang, Zhenzeng Fan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex neurological injury in young adults lacking effective treatment. Emerging evidences suggest that inflammation contributes to the secondary brain injury following TBI, including breakdown of the blood brain barrier (BBB), subsequent edema and neurological deterioration. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) has been identified as a key cytokine in the inflammation reaction following TBI. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of HMGB1 A-box fragment, an antagonist competing with full-length HMGB1 for receptor binding, against TBI...
May 8, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715273/neurofibromatosis-type-2-tumor-suppressor-protein-is-expressed-in-oligodendrocytes-and-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-process-formation
#2
Andrea Toledo, Elena Grieger, Khalad Karram, Helen Morrison, Stephan L Baader
The neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) tumor suppressor protein Merlin functions as a negative regulator of cell growth and actin dynamics in different cell types amongst which Schwann cells have been extensively studied. In contrast, the presence and the role of Merlin in oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells within the CNS, have not been elucidated. In this work, we demonstrate that Merlin immunoreactivity was broadly distributed in the white matter throughout the central nervous system. Following Merlin expression during development in the cerebellum, Merlin could be detected in the cerebellar white matter tract at early postnatal stages as shown by its co-localization with Olig2-positive cells as well as in adult brain sections where it was aligned with myelin basic protein containing fibers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698669/fibroblast-growth-factor-20-is-protective-towards-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vivo-in-a-paracrine-manner
#3
Eugene L Boshoff, Edward J R Fletcher, Susan Duty
Neuroprotective strategies are an unmet medical need for Parkinson's disease. Fibroblast growth factor 20 (FGF20) enhances survival of cultured dopaminergic neurons but little is known about its in vivo potential. We set out to examine whether manipulation of the FGF20 system affected nigrostriatal tract integrity in rats, to identify which fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) might reside on dopaminergic neurons and to discover the source of endogenous FGF20 in the substantia nigra (SN). Male Sprague Dawley rats were subject to a partial 6-OHDA lesion alongside treatment with exogenous FGF20 or an FGFR antagonist...
April 23, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#4
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649413/neural-stem-cells-derived-directly-from-adipose-tissue
#5
Eric D Petersen, Jessica R Zenchak, Olivia V Lossia, Ute Hochgeschwender
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are characterized as self-renewing cell populations with the ability to differentiate into the multiple tissue types of the central nervous system. These cells can differentiate into mature neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. This category of stem cells has been shown to be a promisingly effective treatment for neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injury. Most treatment studies with NSCs in animal models use embryonic brain-derived NSCs. This approach presents both ethical and feasibility issues for translation to human patients...
April 16, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624734/predominant-role-of-microglia-in-brain-iron-retention-in-sanfilippo-syndrome-a-pediatric-neurodegenerative-disease
#6
Vincent Puy, Walaa Darwiche, Stéphanie Trudel, Cathy Gomila, Christelle Lony, Laurent Puy, Thibaud Lefebvre, Sandrine Vitry, Agnès Boullier, Zoubida Karim, Jérôme Ausseil
Neuroinflammation and iron accumulation are hallmarks of a variety of adult neurodegenerative diseases. In Sanfilippo syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type III, MPSIII, a pediatric neurodegenerative disease that shares some features with adult neurodegenerative diseases), the progressive accumulation of heparan sulfate oligosaccharides (HSOs) induces microglia and astrocytes to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to severe neuroinflammation. The objectives of the present study were (1) to measure the local iron concentration and to assess iron metabolism in the brain of a MPSIIIB murine model and (2) to identify the brain cells involved in this accumulation...
April 6, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617759/regulation-of-gene-expression-by-thyroid-hormone-in-primary-astrocytes-factors-influencing-the-genomic-response
#7
Beatriz Morte, Pilar Gil-Ibáñez, Juan Bernal
Astrocytes mediate the action of thyroid hormone in the brain on other neural cells through the production of the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3) from its precursor thyroxine (T4). T3 has also many effects on the astrocytes in vivo and in culture, but whether these actions are directly mediated by transcriptional regulation is not clear. In this work we have analyzed the genomic response to T3 of cultured astrocytes isolated from the postnatal mouse cerebral cortex, using RNA sequencing. Cultured astrocytes express relevant genes of thyroid hormone metabolism and action encoding type 2 deiodinase (Dio2), Mct8 transporter (Slc16a2), T3 receptors (Thra1 and Thrb), and nuclear corepressor (Ncor1) and coactivator (Ncoa1)...
April 2, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604205/kallikrein-related-peptidase-6-orchestrates-astrocyte-form-and-function-through-proteinase-activated-receptor-dependent-mechanisms
#8
Hyesook Yoon, Maja Radulovic, Isobel A Scarisbrick
Kallikrein-related peptidase 6 (Klk6) is the most abundant serine proteinase in the adult central nervous system (CNS), yet we know little regarding its physiological roles or mechanisms of action. Levels of Klk6 in the extracellular environment are dynamically regulated in CNS injury and disease positioning this secreted enzyme to affect cell behavior by potential receptor dependent and independent mechanisms. Here we show that recombinant Klk6 evokes increases in intracellular Ca2+ in primary astrocyte monolayer cultures through activation of proteinase activated receptor 1 (PAR1)...
March 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598822/dimethyl-fumarate-attenuates-reactive-microglia-and-long-term-memory-deficits-following-systemic-immune-challenge
#9
Hallel C Paraiso, Ping-Chang Kuo, Eric T Curfman, Haley J Moon, Robert D Sweazey, Jui-Hung Yen, Fen-Lei Chang, I-Chen Yu
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammation is associated with increased cognitive decline and risk for Alzheimer's disease. Microglia (MG) activated during systemic inflammation can cause exaggerated neuroinflammatory responses and trigger progressive neurodegeneration. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a FDA-approved therapy for multiple sclerosis. The immunomodulatory and anti-oxidant properties of DMF prompted us to investigate whether DMF has translational potential for the treatment of cognitive impairment associated with systemic inflammation...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491431/adult-mouse-eif2b%C3%AE%C2%B5-arg191his-astrocytes-display-a-normal-integrated-stress-response-in-vitro
#10
Lisanne E Wisse, Timo J Ter Braak, Malu-Clair van de Beek, Carola G M van Berkel, Joke Wortel, Vivi M Heine, Chris G Proud, Marjo S van der Knaap, Truus E M Abbink
Vanishing white matter (VWM) is a genetic childhood white matter disorder, characterized by chronic as well as episodic, stress provoked, neurological deterioration. Treatment is unavailable and patients often die within a few years after onset. VWM is caused by recessive mutations in the eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B regulates protein synthesis rates in every cell of the body. In normal cells, various types of cellular stress inhibit eIF2B activity and induce the integrated stress response (ISR)...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486219/environmentally-relevant-manganese-overexposure-alters-neural-cell-morphology-and-differentiation-in-vitro
#11
Amy B Parsons-White, Nadja Spitzer
Manganese (Mn) is a trace metal and micronutrient that is necessary for neurological function. Because of its ability to cross the blood brain barrier, excessive amounts of Mn are neurotoxic and can lead to a neurological disorder, manganism. Environmental overexposure to Mn correlates with impaired cognitive development in children. Though symptoms of manganism and overexposure are well defined, the changes in cellular mechanisms underlying these symptoms are not fully understood. We used cultured adult neural stem cells (NSCs) from young adult rats as an accessible model to investigate the effect of Mn on cellular mechanisms underlying neural differentiation...
March 2, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483282/bmp-responsive-protease-htra1-is-differentially-expressed-in-astrocytes-and-regulates-astrocytic-development-and-injury-response
#12
Jessie Chen, Stephanie Van Gulden, Tammy L McGuire, Andrew C Fleming, Chio Oka, John A Kessler, Chian-Yu Peng
Astrocytes perform a wide array of physiological functions, including structural support, ion exchange, and neurotransmitter uptake. Despite this diversity, molecular markers that label subpopulations of astrocytes are limited, and mechanisms that generate distinct astrocyte subtypes remain unclear. Here we identified serine protease high temperature requirement A 1 (HtrA1), a bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling regulated protein, as a novel marker of forebrain astrocytes, but not of neural stem cells, in adult mice of both sexes...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350434/the-cystine-glutamate-exchanger-xct-slc7a11-is-expressed-in-significant-concentrations-in-a-subpopulation-of-astrocytes-in-the-mouse-brain
#13
Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Qiu Xiang Hu, Virgine Veronique Follin-Arbelet, Eduard Bentea, Hideyo Sato, Ann Massie, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes...
May 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226998/antisense-suppression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-as-a-treatment-for-alexander-disease
#14
Tracy L Hagemann, Berit Powers, Curt Mazur, Aneeza Kim, Steven Wheeler, Gene Hung, Eric Swayze, Albee Messing
OBJECTIVE: Alexander disease is a fatal leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein primarily expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system. A key feature of pathogenesis is overexpression and accumulation of GFAP, with formation of characteristic cytoplasmic aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers. Here we investigate whether suppressing GFAP with antisense oligonucleotides could provide a therapeutic strategy for treating Alexander disease...
January 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202771/selective-proliferative-response-of-microglia-to-alternative-polarization-signals
#15
Giovanna Pepe, Marcella De Maglie, Lucia Minoli, Alessandro Villa, Adriana Maggi, Elisabetta Vegeto
BACKGROUND: Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that are maintained by self-renewal and actively participate in tissue homeostasis and immune defense. Under the influence of endogenous or pathological signals, microglia undertake biochemical transformations that are schematically classified as the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and the alternatively activated M2 state. Dysregulated proliferation of M1-activated microglia has detrimental effects, while an increased number of microglia with the alternative, pro-resolving phenotype might be beneficial in brain pathologies; however, the proliferative response of microglia to M2 signals is not yet known...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146293/andrographolide-a-promising-therapeutic-agent-negatively-regulates-glial-cell-derived-neurodegeneration-of-prefrontal-cortex-hippocampus-and-working-memory-impairment
#16
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131016/focal-transplantation-of-aberrant-glial-cells-carrying-the-sod1g93a-mutation-into-rat-spinal-cord-induces-extensive-gliosis
#17
Sofía Ibarburu, Emiliano Trias, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the potential of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) isolated from the spinal cord of adult SOD1G93A symptomatic rats to induce gliosis and neuronal damage following focal transplantation into the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type rats. METHODS: AbAs were obtained from the spinal cords of SOD1G93A symptomatic rats. One hundred thousand cells were injected using a glass micropipette into the lumbar spinal cords (L3-L5) of syngeneic wild-type adult rats...
2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116659/type-1-astrocyte-like-stem-cells-harboring-cacna1d-gene-deletion-exhibit-reduced-proliferation-and-decreased-neuronal-fate-choice
#18
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
In the central nervous system, CaV 1.2 and CaV 1. 3 constitute the main L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) coupling membrane depolarization to gene transcription. We have previously demonstrated that inducible disruption of Cav1.2 in type-1 astrocyte-like stem cells of the adult dentate gyrus (DG) impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in a cell-autonomous fashion. To address the role of Cav1.3 channels (encoded by the Cacna1d gene), we here generated TgGLAST-CreERT2 /Cacna1dfl/fl /RCE:loxP mice which facilitate inducible deletion of Cacna1d in tandem with induction of EGFP expression in type-1 cells, allowing tracking of recombined cells and their descendants...
February 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076551/tgf-%C3%AE-pro-oligodendrogenic-effects-on-adult-svz-progenitor-cultures-and-its-interaction-with-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#19
Laura I Gómez Pinto, Debora Rodríguez, Ana M Adamo, Patricia A Mathieu
Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are capable of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. Notch and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β) signaling pathways play critical roles in controlling these cell fate decisions. TGF-β has been previously shown to exert pro-neurogenic effects on hippocampal and subventricular zone (SVZ) NPCs in vitro and to interact with Notch in different cellular types. Therefore, the aim of our work was to study the effect of TGF-β on adult rat brain SVZ NPC glial commitment and its interaction with Notch signaling...
October 27, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980158/age-dependent-neurochemical-remodeling-of-hypothalamic-astrocytes
#20
Camila Leite Santos, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Pedro Truccolo, Fernanda Urruth Fontella, Diogo Onofre Souza, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, André Quincozes-Santos
The hypothalamus is a crucial integrative center in the central nervous system, responsible for the regulation of homeostatic activities, including systemic energy balance. Increasing evidence has highlighted a critical role of astrocytes in orchestrating hypothalamic functions; they participate in the modulation of synaptic transmission, metabolic and trophic support to neurons, immune defense, and nutrient sensing. In this context, disturbance of systemic energy homeostasis, which is a common feature of obesity and the aging process, involves inflammatory responses...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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