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Astrocyte adult culture

Lisanne E Wisse, Timo J Ter Braak, Malu-Clair van de Beek, Carola G M van Berkel, Joke Wortel, Vivi M Heine, Chris G Proud, Marjo S van der Knaap, Truus E M Abbink
Vanishing white matter (VWM) is a genetic childhood white matter disorder, characterized by chronic as well as episodic, stress provoked, neurological deterioration. Treatment is unavailable and patients often die within a few years after onset. VWM is caused by recessive mutations in the eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B regulates protein synthesis rates in every cell of the body. In normal cells, various types of cellular stress inhibit eIF2B activity and induce the integrated stress response (ISR)...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amy B Parsons-White, Nadja Spitzer
Manganese (Mn) is a trace metal and micronutrient that is necessary for neurological function. Because of its ability to cross the blood brain barrier, excessive amounts of Mn are neurotoxic and can lead to a neurological disorder, manganism. Environmental overexposure to Mn correlates with impaired cognitive development in children. Though symptoms of manganism and overexposure are well defined, the changes in cellular mechanisms underlying these symptoms are not fully understood. We used cultured adult neural stem cells (NSCs) from young adult rats as an accessible model to investigate the effect of Mn on cellular mechanisms underlying neural differentiation...
February 24, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Jessie Chen, Stephanie Van Gulden, Tammy L McGuire, Andrew C Fleming, Chio Oka, John A Kessler, Chian-Yu Peng
Astrocytes perform a wide array of physiological functions including structural support, ion exchange, and neurotransmitter uptake. Despite this diversity, molecular markers that label subpopulations of astrocytes are limited, and mechanisms that generate distinct astrocyte subtypes remain unclear. Here we identified a Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4) signaling regulated protein, serine protease High temperature requirement A 1 (HtrA1), as a novel marker of forebrain astrocytes, but not of neural stem cells, in adult mice of both sexes...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Qiu Xiang Hu, Virgine Veronique Follin-Arbelet, Eduard Bentea, Hideyo Sato, Ann Massie, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
The cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) promotes glutathione synthesis by catalyzing cystine uptake and glutamate release. The released glutamate may modulate normal neural signaling and contribute to excitotoxicity in pathological situations. Uncertainty, however, remains as neither the expression levels nor the distribution of xCT have been unambiguously determined. In fact, xCT has been reported in astrocytes, neurons, oligodendrocytes and microglia, but most of the information derives from cell cultures. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry and by Western blotting that xCT is widely expressed in the central nervous system of both sexes...
January 19, 2018: Glia
Tracy L Hagemann, Berit Powers, Curt Mazur, Aneeza Kim, Steven Wheeler, Gene Hung, Eric Swayze, Albee Messing
OBJECTIVE: Alexander disease is a fatal leukodystrophy caused by autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the gene for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), an intermediate filament protein primarily expressed in astrocytes of the central nervous system. A key feature of pathogenesis is overexpression and accumulation of GFAP, with formation of characteristic cytoplasmic aggregates known as Rosenthal fibers. Here we investigate whether suppressing GFAP with antisense oligonucleotides could provide a therapeutic strategy for treating Alexander disease...
December 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
Giovanna Pepe, Marcella De Maglie, Lucia Minoli, Alessandro Villa, Adriana Maggi, Elisabetta Vegeto
BACKGROUND: Microglia are resident myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that are maintained by self-renewal and actively participate in tissue homeostasis and immune defense. Under the influence of endogenous or pathological signals, microglia undertake biochemical transformations that are schematically classified as the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and the alternatively activated M2 state. Dysregulated proliferation of M1-activated microglia has detrimental effects, while an increased number of microglia with the alternative, pro-resolving phenotype might be beneficial in brain pathologies; however, the proliferative response of microglia to M2 signals is not yet known...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Sudeshna Das, K P Mishra, Lilly Ganju, S B Singh
Over activation of glial cell derived innate immune factors induces neuro-inflammation that results in neurodegenerative disease, like working memory impairment. In this study, we have investigated the role of andrographolide, a major constituent of Andrographis paniculata plant, in reduction of reactive glial cell derived working memory impairment. Real time PCR, Western bloting, flow cytometric and immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced overexpression of HMGB1, TLR4, NFκB, COX-2, iNOS, and release of inflammatory mediators in primary mix glial culture, adult mice prefrontal cortex and hippocampus region...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sofía Ibarburu, Emiliano Trias, Natalia Lago, Hugo Peluffo, Romina Barreto-Núñez, Valentina Varela, Joseph S Beckman, Luis Barbeito
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the potential of aberrant glial cells (AbAs) isolated from the spinal cord of adult SOD1G93A symptomatic rats to induce gliosis and neuronal damage following focal transplantation into the lumbar spinal cord of wild-type rats. METHODS: AbAs were obtained from the spinal cords of SOD1G93A symptomatic rats. One hundred thousand cells were injected using a glass micropipette into the lumbar spinal cords (L3-L5) of syngeneic wild-type adult rats...
2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
In the central nervous system, CaV 1.2 and CaV 1. 3 constitute the main L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LTCCs) coupling membrane depolarization to gene transcription. We have previously demonstrated that inducible disruption of Cav1.2 in type-1 astrocyte-like stem cells of the adult dentate gyrus (DG) impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in a cell-autonomous fashion. To address the role of Cav1.3 channels (encoded by the Cacna1d gene), we here generated Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1d(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice which facilitate inducible deletion of Cacna1d in tandem with induction of EGFP expression in type-1 cells, allowing tracking of recombined cells and their descendants...
November 8, 2017: Hippocampus
Laura I Gómez Pinto, Debora Rodríguez, Ana M Adamo, Patricia A Mathieu
Adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are capable of differentiating into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes throughout life. Notch and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β) signaling pathways play critical roles in controlling these cell fate decisions. TGF-β has been previously shown to exert pro-neurogenic effects on hippocampal and subventricular zone (SVZ) NPCs in vitro and to interact with Notch in different cellular types. Therefore, the aim of our work was to study the effect of TGF-β on adult rat brain SVZ NPC glial commitment and its interaction with Notch signaling...
October 27, 2017: Glia
Camila Leite Santos, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Pedro Truccolo, Fernanda Urruth Fontella, Diogo Onofre Souza, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, André Quincozes-Santos
The hypothalamus is a crucial integrative center in the central nervous system, responsible for the regulation of homeostatic activities, including systemic energy balance. Increasing evidence has highlighted a critical role of astrocytes in orchestrating hypothalamic functions; they participate in the modulation of synaptic transmission, metabolic and trophic support to neurons, immune defense, and nutrient sensing. In this context, disturbance of systemic energy homeostasis, which is a common feature of obesity and the aging process, involves inflammatory responses...
October 4, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Meng Chen, Till B Puschmann, Pavel Marasek, Masaki Inagaki, Marcela Pekna, Ulrika Wilhelmsson, Milos Pekny
Vimentin is an intermediate filament (also known as nanofilament) protein expressed in several cell types of the central nervous system, including astrocytes and neural stem/progenitor cells. Mutation of the vimentin serine sites that are phosphorylated during mitosis (VIM (SA/SA) ) leads to cytokinetic failures in fibroblasts and lens epithelial cells, resulting in chromosomal instability and increased expression of cell senescence markers. In this study, we investigated morphology, proliferative capacity, and motility of VIM (SA/SA) astrocytes, and their effect on the differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaomeng Xu, Zhuoyu Wen, Nan Zhao, Xiaohui Xu, Fang Wang, Jie Gao, Yongjun Jiang, Xinfeng Liu
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a proinflammatory cascade initiator in poststroke inflammation. In this study, miR-1906, a novel regulator of TLR4, was identified via in silico analysis and microRNA profiling in male adult mice and its expression was then quantitated in the ischemic hemisphere. We found miR-1906 to be significantly brain enriched in the ischemic hemisphere and even more drastically enriched in the peri-infarct regions. Furthermore, in vitro experiments demonstrated that, during oxygen-glucose deprivation, miR-1906 expression was increased in glial cells but decreased in neurons...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Sergey Kalinin, Natalia Marangoni, Katarzyna Kowal, Arunangsu Dey, Kinga Lis, Sergey Brodsky, Richard van Breemen, Zane Hauck, Richard Ripper, Israel Rubinstein, Guy Weinberg, Douglas L Feinstein
Superwarfarins are very long-lasting rodenticides effective in warfarin-resistant rodents at extremely low doses. The consequences of chronic superwarfarin levels in tissues, due to biological half-lives on the order of 20 days, have not been examined. We now characterized the neurological effects of brodifacoum (BDF), one of the most widely used superwarfarins, in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Dosing curves established the acute oral lethal dose for BDF as 221 ± 14 μg/kg. Measurement of tissue BDF levels showed accumulation throughout the body, including the central nervous system, with levels diminishing over several days...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Malte Puchert, Fabian Pelkner, Gregor Stein, Doychin N Angelov, Johannes Boltze, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Francesca Odoardi, Alexander Flügel, Wolfgang J Streit, Jürgen Engele
Based on our previous demonstration of CXCR7 as the major mediator of CXCL12 signaling in cultured astrocytes, we have now compared astrocytic expression of the CXCL12 receptors, CXCR7 and CXCR4, during CNS development and disease. In addition, we asked whether disease-associated conditions/factors affect expression of CXCL12 receptors in astrocytes. In the late embryonic rat brain, CXCR7(+)/GFAP(+) cells were restricted to the ventricular/subventricular zone while CXCR4 was widely absent from GFAP-positive cells...
September 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Balazs Varga, Andras Nagy
This protocol describes the isolation of radial glia-like neural progenitors (RGLs) from embryonic and adult mouse brain. Their propagation as an adherent monolayer is greatly supported by use of the AK-cyclo(RGDfC) adhesive peptide-conjugate that allows the application of fully defined culture conditions in which epidermal growth factor (EGF) represents the only growth factor supplement. RGL cells maintained that way can be efficiently differentiated into the three major CNS cell types: neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes...
September 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Joanna E Sowa, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Ewa Trojan, Katarzyna Chamera, Monika Leśkiewicz, Magdalena Regulska, Katarzyna Kotarska, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
CXCL12/SDF-1α and CX3CL1/fractalkine are constitutively expressed in the brain, which indicates their significant functions. Emerging evidence highlights the role of astrocytes and the immune system in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess whether prenatal stress affects chemokine signaling, cell viability/activation, and the iNOS pathway in astroglial cultures. Our results showed that prenatal stress lowered astrocyte viability and simultaneously increased GFAP expression...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Lydie Morel, Ming Sum R Chiang, Haruki Higashimori, Temitope Shoneye, Lakshmanan K Iyer, Julia Yelick, Albert Tai, Yongjie Yang
The molecular signature and functional properties of astroglial subtypes in the adult CNS remain largely undefined. By using translational ribosome affinity purification followed by RNA-Seq, we profiled astroglial ribosome-associated (presumably translating) mRNAs in major cortical and subcortical brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and hypothalamus) of BAC aldh1l1-translational ribosome affinity purification (TRAP) mice (both sexes). We found that the expression of astroglial translating mRNAs closely follows the dorsoventral axis, especially from cortex/hippocampus to thalamus/hypothalamus posteriorly...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Meleshni Naicker, Strinivasen Naidoo
Expression of the human thyroid-specific proteins, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) and thyroglobulin (TG) in non-thyroid tissue is well-documented. TSH-R has been identified in the heart, kidney, bone, pituitary, adipose tissue, skin and astrocyte cultures. TG has been identified in the skin, thymus and kidney. However, none of those previous studies had identified TSH-R or TG in specific human brain regions. Previously, a pilot study conducted by our group on normal adult human brain demonstrated TSH-R and TG in cortical neurons and cerebral vasculature, respectively, within various brain areas...
August 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
Luis Pardo, Luis Miguel Valor, Abel Eraso-Pichot, Angel Barco, Arantxa Golbano, Giles E Hardingham, Roser Masgrau, Elena Galea
The cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a primary hub of activity-driven genetic programs in neurons controlling plasticity, neurogenesis and survival. By contrast, the gene networks coordinated by CREB in astrocytes are unknown despite the fact that the astrocytic CREB is also activity-driven and neuroprotective. Herein we identified the transcriptional programs regulated by CREB in astrocytes as compared to neurons using, as study materials, transcriptome databases of astrocyte exposed to well-known activators of CREB-dependent transcription as well as publicly available transcriptomes of neuronal cultures...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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