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Astrocyte adult culture

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634469/alexander-disease-mutations-produce-cells-with-coexpression-of-glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-and-ng2-in-neurosphere-cultures-and-inhibit-differentiation-into-mature-oligodendrocytes
#1
Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, Maria Salomé Sirerol-Piquer, María Durán-Moreno, José Manuel García-Verdugo, Jorge Matias-Guiu
BACKGROUND: Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The disease is characterized by presence of GFAP aggregates in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and loss of myelin. OBJECTIVES: Determine the effect of AxD-related mutations on adult neurogenesis. METHODS: We transfected different types of mutant GFAP into neurospheres using the nucleofection technique. RESULTS: We find that mutations may cause coexpression of GFAP and NG2 in neurosphere cultures, which would inhibit the differentiation of precursors into oligodendrocytes and thus explain the myelin loss occurring in the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608355/-neuronal-glycolipids-regulate-glial-cell-division-negatively-during-development-and-following-a-lesion
#2
REVIEW
M Nieto-Sampedro, V C Muneton-Gomez
Glial cells in the central nervous system of adult mammals outnumber neurons 10-fold. Their number remains stationary throughout adulthood, controlled by the concomitant presence of mitogens and mitogen inhibitors. The most abundant inhibitor, neurostatin, is ganglioside GD1b O-acetylated on hydroxyl 9 of its outermost sialic acid. Neurostatin inhibited the proliferation of primary microglia and astroblasts in culture (cytostatic) as well as both rodent and human glioma cells (cytotoxic) at nanomolar concentrations...
June 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606781/sab-is-differentially-expressed-in-the-brain-and-affects-neuronal-activity
#3
Alejandro O Sodero, Monica Rodriguez-Silva, Chiara Salio, Marco Sassoè-Pognetto, Jeremy W Chambers
Sab (SH3 binding protein 5 or SH3BP5) is a mitochondrial scaffold protein involved in signaling associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis; furthermore, Sab is a crucial signaling platform for neurodegenerative disease. To determine how this signaling nexus could have a significant effect on disease, we examined the regional abundance of Sab in the brain and sub-neuronal distribution, and we monitored the effect of Sab-mediated signaling on neuronal activity. We found that Sab is widely expressed in the adult mouse brain with increased abundance in hippocampus, ventral midbrain, and cerebellum...
June 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565827/neuroprotective-effect-of-combining-tanshinone-iia-with-low-dose-methylprednisolone-following-acute-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Nian-Wei Yao, Yuan Lu, Li-Qi Shi, Feng Xu, Xian-Hua Cai
The present study compared the potential neuroprotective effect of tanshinone IIA (TIIA) monotherapy, methylprednisolone (MP) monotherapy and combined treatment in an adult acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rat model. The current study used the weight-drop method (Allen's Impactor) in the rat model and the mechanical scratch method in primary spinal cord neuron culture to determine whether the combined treatment was able to reduce the required dosage of MP in the treatment of ASCI to produce a similar or improved therapeutic effect...
May 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560414/bone-marrow-stromal-cells-promote-neuromotor-functional-recovery-via-upregulation-of-neurotrophic-factors-and-synapse-proteins-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#5
Yan Feng, Yaru Ju, Jianzhong Cui, Liqun Wang
It has previously been demonstrated that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) exhibit great therapeutic potential in neuronal injuries; however, there is limited understanding of the precise underlying mechanisms that contribute to functional improvement following brain injury. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of BMSC treatment on traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats, and investigate if they migrate to injured areas and promote neuromotor functional recovery via upregulation of neurotrophic factors and synaptic proteins...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522364/inhibition-of-mir-181a-protects-female-mice-from-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia-by-targeting-astrocyte-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE
#6
Creed M Stary, Lijun Xu, Le Li, Xiaoyun Sun, Yi-Bing Ouyang, Xiaoxing Xiong, Jing Zhao, Rona G Giffard
Whether the effect of miR-181a is sexually dimorphic in stroke is unknown. Prior work showed protection of male mice with miR-181a inhibition. Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) is an identified target of miR181 in endometrium. Therefore we investigated the separate and joint effects of miR-181a inhibition and 17β-estradiol (E2) replacement after ovariectomy. Adult female mice were ovariectomized and implanted with an E2- or vehicle-containing capsule for 14d prior to 1h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Each group received either miR-181a antagomir or mismatch control by intracerebroventricular injection 24h before MCAO...
May 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521131/diverse-requirements-for-microglial-survival-specification-and-function-revealed-by-defined-medium-cultures
#7
Christopher J Bohlen, F Chris Bennett, Andrew F Tucker, Hannah Y Collins, Sara B Mulinyawe, Ben A Barres
Microglia, the resident macrophages of the CNS, engage in various CNS-specific functions that are critical for development and health. To better study microglia and the properties that distinguish them from other tissue macrophage populations, we have optimized serum-free culture conditions to permit robust survival of highly ramified adult microglia under defined-medium conditions. We find that astrocyte-derived factors prevent microglial death ex vivo and that this activity results from three primary components, CSF-1/IL-34, TGF-β2, and cholesterol...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499803/establishment-and-characterization-of-primary-astrocyte-culture-from-adult-mouse-brain
#8
Xiu Sun, Xin Hu, Dan Wang, Yimin Yuan, Shangyao Qin, Zijian Tan, Yakun Gu, Xiao Huang, Cheng He, Zhida Su
As a major class of glial cells, astrocytes have been indicated to play multi-roles in physiological and pathological brain. Astrocyte cultures derived from postnatal mouse brains have been extensively used to characterize their biological properties. However, the inability to culture adult mouse primary astrocytes has long stymied studies of function in adult brain. Here, we developed a protocol to successfully establish highly enriched astrocyte cultures from the brains of adult mouse. Cortical tissues were collected to prepare cell suspension by enzymatic digestion and mechanical dissociation, and then plated onto vessels pre-coated with gelatin and matrigel and cultured in DMEM medium containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS)...
May 10, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485896/shh-signalling-mediates-astrocyte-crosstalk-with-neurons-to-confer-neuroprotection
#9
Christopher I Ugbode, Imogen Smith, Benjamin J Whalley, Warren D Hirst, Marcus Rattray
Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) is a glycoprotein associated with development that is also expressed in the adult CNS and released after brain injury. Since the SHH receptors PTCH1 (patched homolog-1) and SMO (Smoothened) are highly expressed on astrocytes, we hypothesised that SHH regulates astrocyte function. Primary mouse cortical astrocytes derived from embryonic (E15) Swiss mouse cortices, were treated with two chemically distinct agonists of the SHH pathway, which caused astrocytes to elongate and proliferate. These changes are accompanied by decreases in the major astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT-1 and the astrocyte intermediate filament protein GFAP...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473749/amyloid-%C3%AE-exposed-human-astrocytes-overproduce-phospho-tau-and-overrelease-it-within-exosomes-effects-suppressed-by-calcilytic-nps-2143-further-implications-for-alzheimer-s-therapy
#10
Anna Chiarini, Ubaldo Armato, Emanuela Gardenal, Li Gui, Ilaria Dal Prà
The two main drivers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) oligomers, cooperatively accelerate AD progression, but a hot debate is still ongoing about which of the two appears first. Here we present preliminary evidence showing that Tau and p-Tau are expressed by untransformed cortical adult human astrocytes in culture and that exposure of such cells to an Aβ42 proxy, Aβ25-35, which binds the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and activates its signaling, significantly increases intracellular p-Tau levels, an effect CaSR antagonist (calcilytic) NPS 2143 wholly hinders...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470822/pericyte-derived-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-underlies-white-matter-damage-after-chronic-hypoperfusion
#11
Maiko T Uemura, Masafumi Ihara, Takakuni Maki, Takayuki Nakagomi, Seiji Kaji, Kengo Uemura, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Raj N Kalaria, Ayae Kinoshita, Ryosuke Takahashi
Subcortical small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by white matter damage resulting from arteriolosclerosis and chronic hypoperfusion. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1) is dysregulated in the hereditary SVD, CARASIL (cerebral autosomal recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy). However, very little is known about the role of the largest group in the TGFB superfamily - the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) - in SVD pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize signaling abnormalities of BMPs in sporadic SVD...
May 4, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467894/potential-mechanisms-of-development-dependent-adverse-effects-of-the-herbicide-paraquat-in-3d-rat-brain-cell-cultures
#12
J Sandström, A Broyer, D Zoia, C Schilt, C Greggio, M Fournier, K Q Do, F Monnet-Tschudi
Exposure to environmental toxicants during vulnerable windows of brain development is suspected to raise the prevalence for neurological dysfunctions at later stages in life. Differentiation processes and changes in morphology, as well as a lack of physiological barriers, might be reasons that render a developing brain more susceptible to neurotoxicants than an adult. However, also the intrinsic capacity of cells to combat toxicant induced cellular stress might differ between the immature- and mature brain...
April 30, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446004/conditioned-medium-derived-from-salidroside-pretreated-mesenchymal-stem-cell-culture-ameliorates-mouse-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cerebral-neuroinflammation-histological-and-immunohistochemical-study
#13
Zeinab M El Maadawi
Background and Objectives: Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Conditioned medium (CM) derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) revealed substantial benefits due to its rich content of trophic factors. Salidroside (Sal), extracted from Rhodiola rosea, is known for its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of Sal pretreated CM (CM-Sal) derived from bone marrow MSCs in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced neuroinflammation...
May 30, 2017: International Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435980/-glial-cells-function-as-neural-stem-cells-and-progenitor-cells
#14
Zi-Jian Tan, Shu-Hui Ju, Xiao Huang, Ya-Kun Gu, Zhi-Da Su
Glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), NG2-glia, etc, are broadly distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Also, it has been well known that glial cells play multi-roles in physiological and pathological processes in the CNS, such as maintaining homeostasis, providing neurotrophins for neurons and regulating neural signal transmission. Recently, increasing evidence showed that glial cells may also function as neural stem/progenitor cells and contribute to adult neurogenesis or neuroregeneration...
April 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381236/microglia-activation-is-essential-for-bmp7-mediated-retinal-reactive-gliosis
#15
Subramanian Dharmarajan, Debra L Fisk, Christine M Sorenson, Nader Sheibani, Teri L Belecky-Adams
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have shown that BMP7 is able to trigger activation of retinal macroglia. However, these studies showed the responsiveness of Müller glial cells and retinal astrocytes in vitro was attenuated in comparison to those in vivo, indicating other retinal cell types may be mediating the response of the macroglial cells to BMP7. In this study, we test the hypothesis that BMP7-mediated gliosis is the result of inflammatory signaling from retinal microglia. METHODS: Adult mice were injected intravitreally with BMP7 and eyes harvested 1, 3, or 7 days postinjection...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374892/in-vitro-adult-astrocytes-are-derived-from-mature-cells-and-reproduce-in-vivo-redox-profile
#16
Débora Guerini Souza, Bruna Bellaver, Silvia Resende Terra, Fatima Costa Rodrigues Guma, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are versatile cells involved in synaptic information processing, energy metabolism, redox homeostasis, inflammatory response and structural support of the brain. Recently, we established a routine protocol of cultured astrocytes derived from adult and aged Wistar rats, which present several different responses compared to newborn astrocytes, commonly used to characterize the role of the astrocytes in the central nervous system. Previous studies hypothesized that astrocyte cultures prepared from adult animals derive from immature precursors present in the adult tissue throughout life...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295574/cd38-positively-regulates-postnatal-development-of-astrocytes-cell-autonomously-and-oligodendrocytes-non-cell-autonomously
#17
Tsuyoshi Hattori, Minoru Kaji, Hiroshi Ishii, Roboon Jureepon, Mika Takarada-Iemata, Hieu Minh Ta, Thuong Manh Le, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai, Yoshitake Shiraishi, Noriyuki Ozaki, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroshi Okamoto, Shigeru Yokoyama, Haruhiro Higashida, Yasuko Kitao, Osamu Hori
Glial development is critical for the function of the central nervous system. CD38 is a multifunctional molecule with ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity. While critical roles of CD38 in the adult brain such as oxytocin release and social behavior have been reported, those in the developing brain remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that deletion of Cd38 leads to impaired development of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in mice. CD38 is highly expressed in the developing brains between postnatal day 14 (P14) and day 28 (P28)...
June 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255907/homocysteine-induces-glial-reactivity-in-adult-rat-astrocyte-cultures
#18
Aline Longoni, Bruna Bellaver, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Camila Leite Santos, Yasmine Nonose, Janaina Kolling, Tiago M Dos Santos, Adriano M de Assis, André Quincozes-Santos, Angela T S Wyse
Astrocytes are dynamic glial cells associated to neurotransmitter systems, metabolic functions, antioxidant defense, and inflammatory response, maintaining the brain homeostasis. Elevated concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy) are involved in the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson and Alzheimer diseases. In line with this, our hypothesis was that Hcy could promote glial reactivity in a model of cortical primary astrocyte cultures from adult Wistar rats. Thus, cortical astrocytes were incubated with different concentrations of Hcy (10, 30, and 100 μM) during 24 h...
March 2, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250752/neural-differentiation-of-choroid-plexus-epithelial-cells-role-of-human-traumatic-cerebrospinal-fluid
#19
Elham Hashemi, Yousef Sadeghi, Abbas Aliaghaei, Afsoun Seddighi, Abbas Piryaei, Mehdi Eskandarian Broujeni, Fatemeh Shaerzadeh, Abdollah Amini, Ramin Pouriran
As the key producer of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the choroid plexus (CP) provides a unique protective system in the central nervous system. CSF components are not invariable and they can change based on the pathological conditions of the central nervous system. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of non-traumatic and traumatic CSF on the differentiation of multipotent stem-like cells of CP into the neural and/or glial cells. CP epithelial cells were isolated from adult male rats and treated with human non-traumatic and traumatic CSF...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154169/cd44-transmembrane-receptor-and-hyaluronan-regulate-adult-hippocampal-neural-stem-cell-quiescence-and-differentiation
#20
Weiping Su, Scott C Foster, Rubing Xing, Kerstin Feistel, Reid H J Olsen, Summer F Acevedo, Jacob Raber, Larry S Sherman
Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) is involved in learning and memory throughout life but declines with aging. Mice lacking the CD44 transmembrane receptor for the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) demonstrate a number of neurological disturbances including hippocampal memory deficits, implicating CD44 in the processes underlying hippocampal memory encoding, storage, or retrieval. Here, we found that HA and CD44 play important roles in regulating adult neurogenesis, and we provide evidence that HA contributes to age-related reductions in neural stem cell (NSC) expansion and differentiation in the hippocampus...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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