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cartilage tissue engineering

Vikesh V Chandaria, James McGinty, Niamh C Nowlan
Mechanical forces due to fetal movements play an important role in joint shape morphogenesis, and abnormalities of the joints relating to abnormal fetal movements can have long-term health implications. While mechanical stimulation during development has been shown to be important for joint shape, the relationship between the quantity of mechanical stimulation and the growth and shape change of developing cartilage has not been quantified. In this study, we culture embryonic chick limb explants in vitro in order to reveal how the magnitude of applied movement affects key aspects of the developing joint shape...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Tsai-Jung Lu, Fang-Yao Chiu, Hsiao-Ying Chiu, Ming-Chau Chang, Shih-Chieh Hung
Articular cartilage has a very limited capacity for self-repair, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to treat cartilage defects and osteoarthritis. However, in-depth mechanistic studies regarding their applications are required. Here, we demonstrated the use of chitosan film culture for promoting chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs. We found that MSCs formed spheres two days after seeding on dishes coated with chitosan. When MSCs were induced in a chondrogenic induction medium on chitosan films, the size of spheres continuously increased for up to 21 days...
October 12, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Serban San-Marina, Ayushman Sharma, Stephen G Voss, Jeffrey R Janus, Grant S Hamilton
Importance: Nasal reconstruction in patients who are missing a significant amount of structural nasal support remains a difficult challenge. One challenge is the deficiency of cartilage left within the nose as a consequence of rhinectomy or a midline destructive disease. Historically, the standard donor source for large quantities of native cartilage has been costal cartilage. Objective: To enable the development of protocols for new mesenchymal stem cell technologies as alternative procedures with reduced donor site morbidity, risk of infection and extrusion...
October 13, 2016: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
Tao Wang, Xinping Zhang, Daniel D Bikle
5-10% of fractures fail to heal normally leading to additional surgery, morbidity, and altered quality of life. Fracture healing involves the coordinated action of stem cells primarily coming from the periosteum which differentiate into the chondrocytes and osteoblasts, forming first the soft (cartilage) callus followed by the hard (bone) callus. These stem cells are accompanied by a vascular invasion that appears critical for the differentiation process and which may enable the entry of osteoclasts necessary for the remodeling of the callus into mature bone...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Christoph Meinert, Karsten Schrobback, Peter A Levett, Cameron Lutton, Robert L Sah, Travis J Klein
Biological tissues at articulating surfaces, such as articular cartilage, typically have remarkable low-friction properties that limit tissue shear during movement. However, these frictional properties change with trauma, aging, and disease, resulting in an altered mechanical state within the tissues. Yet, it remains unclear how these surface changes affect the behaviour of embedded cells when the tissue is mechanically loaded. Here, we developed a cytocompatible, bilayered hydrogel system that permits control of surface frictional properties without affecting other bulk physicochemical characteristics such as compressive modulus, mass swelling ratio, and water content...
October 8, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Valeria Perugini, Anna L Guildford, Joana Silva-Correia, Joaquim M Oliveira, Steven T Meikle, Rui L Reis, Matteo Santin
Damage of non-vascularised tissues such as cartilage and cornea can result in healing processes accompanied by a non-physiological angiogenesis. Peptidic aptamers have recently been reported to block the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the therapeutic applications of these aptamers is limited due to their short half-life in vivo. In this work, an enhanced stability and bioavailability of a known VEGF blocker aptamer sequence (WHLPFKC) was pursued through its tethering of molecular scaffolds based on hyperbranched peptides, the poly(ɛ-lysine) dendrons, bearing three branching generations...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Zhiguo Yuan, Shuyun Liu, Chunxiang Hao, Weimin Guo, Shuang Gao, Mingjie Wang, Mingxue Chen, Zhen Sun, Yichi Xu, Yu Wang, Jiang Peng, Mei Yuan, Quan-Yi Guo
Tissue-engineered meniscus regeneration is a very promising treatment strategy for meniscus lesions. However, generating the scaffold presents a huge challenge for meniscus engineering as this has to meet particular biomechanical and biocompatibility requirements. In this study, we utilized acellular meniscus extracellular matrix (AMECM) and demineralized cancellous bone (DCB) to construct three different types of three-dimensional porous meniscus scaffold: AMECM, DCB, and AMECM/DCB, respectively. We tested the scaffolds' physicochemical characteristics and observed their interactions with meniscus fibrochondrocytes to evaluate their cytocompatibility...
September 28, 2016: Biomaterials
Andrew C Daly, Susan E Critchley, Emily M Rencsok, Daniel J Kelly
Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair capabilities. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) laden hydrogels are commonly used for fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue engineering, however they typically lack the mechanical integrity for implantation into high load bearing environments. This has led to increased interested in 3D bioprinting of cell laden hydrogel bioinks reinforced with stiffer polymer fibres. The objective of this study was to compare a range of commonly used hydrogel bioinks (agarose, alginate, GelMA and BioINK™) for their printing properties and capacity to support the development of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage in vitro...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Henrique Almeida, Binulal Nelson Sathy, Ivan Dudurych, Conor Timothy Buckley, Fergal J O'Brien, Daniel John Kelly
Regenerating articular cartilage and fibrocartilaginous tissue such as the meniscus is still a challenge in orthopedic medicine. While a range of different scaffolds have been developed for joint repair, none have facilitated the development of a tissue that mimics the complexity of soft tissues such as articular cartilage. Furthermore, many of these scaffolds are not designed to function in mechanically challenging joint environments. The overall goal of this study was to develop a porous, biomimetic, shape-memory alginate scaffold for directing cartilage regeneration...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Adam O'Reilly, Daniel John Kelly
Developing successful tissue engineering strategies requires an understanding of how cells within an implanted scaffold interacts with the host environment. The objective of this study was to use a computational mechanobiological model to explore how the design of a cell laden scaffold influences the spatial formation of cartilage and bone within an osteochondral defect. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed model in which cell fate depends on the local oxygen tension and the mechanical environment within a damaged joint...
October 6, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Sascha Princz, Ulla Wenzel, Hanna Tritschler, Silke Schwarz, Christian Dettmann, Nicole Rotter, Martin Hessling
An automated bioreactor system for three-dimensional (3D) cultivation of facial cartilage replacement matrices (e.g. whole human auricles) with automatised medium exchange, gas flow and temperature control was developed. The measurement of O2 saturation and pH value in the medium was performed with a non-invasive optical method. The whole system can be observed via remote monitoring worldwide. First results demonstrated that the complete system remained sterile throughout a period of 42 days. Human chondrocytes migrated into the employed cartilage replacement matrix consisting of decellularised porcine nasoseptal cartilage (pNSC)...
October 4, 2016: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Margot Den Hondt, Bart M Vanaudenaerde, Erik K Verbeken, Jan J Vranckx
BACKGROUND: Successful trachea transplantation comprises the use of biocompatible constructs with little immune-reactivity, submucosal revascularization and creation of an epithelial covering. Allogenic chondrocytes might be protected from an overt immune-response due to physical isolation. Our aim was to evaluate in-vivo biocompatibility of allotracheae, stripped of their highly-immunogenic inner lining. Secondly, we established whether these constructs might serve as suitable scaffolds for autologous epithelial grafting...
October 4, 2016: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Aditya Arora, Anjaney Kothari, Dhirendra S Katti
: Matrix stiffness is known to play a pivotal role in cellular differentiation. Studies have shown that soft scaffolds (<2-3kPa) promote cellular aggregation and chondrogenesis, whereas, stiffer ones (>10kPa) show poor chondrogenesis in vitro. In this work we investigated if fibrin matrix from clotted blood can act as a soft surrogate which nullifies the influence of the underlying stiff scaffold, thus promoting chondrogenesis irrespective of bulk scale scaffold stiffness. For this we performed in vitro chondrogenesis on soft (∼1...
September 28, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
G Portocarrero Huang, A Molina, N Tran, G Collins, T Livingston Arinzeh
Articular cartilage has a limited capacity to heal and currently, no treatment exists that can restore normal hyaline cartilage. Creating tissue engineering scaffolds that more closely mimic the native extracellular matrix may be an attractive approach. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are present in native cartilage tissue, provide signaling and structural cues to cells. This study evaluated the use of a GAG mimetic, derived from cellulose, as a potential scaffold for cartilage repair applications. Fully sulfated, sodium cellulose sulfate (NaCS) was initially evaluated in soluble form as an additive to cell culture media...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Lakshminath Kundanati, Saket K Singh, Biman B Mandal, Tejas G Murthy, Namrata Gundiah, Nicola M Pugno
Development and characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is of great importance. In recent times, silk scaffolds were developed and successfully tested in tissue engineering and drug release applications. We developed a novel composite scaffold by mechanical infusion of silk hydrogel matrix into a highly porous network silk scaffold. The mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was thoroughly examined for their possible use in load bearing applications. Firstly, unconfined compression experiments show that the denser composite scaffolds displayed significant enhancement in the elastic modulus as compared to either of the components...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tyler Novak, Kateri Fites, Xin Xu, Logan Worke, Aaron Ciesielski, Gert Breur, Corey P Neu
Interest in decellularized tissues has steadily gained as potential solutions for degenerative diseases and traumatic events, replacing sites of missing tissue and providing the relevant biochemistry and microstructure for tissue ingrowth and regeneration. Osteoarthritis, a progressive and debilitating disease, is often initiated with the formation of a focal defect in the otherwise smooth surface of articular cartilage. The use of decellularized cartilage tissue, which maintains the structural complexity of the native extracellular matrix, has the potential to provide a clinically relevant solution to focal defects or large tissue damage, possibly even circumventing or complementing current techniques such as microfracture and mosaicplasty...
September 27, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Elena Provaggi, Julian J H Leong, Deepak M Kalaskar
The latest and fastest-growing innovation in the medical field has been the advent of three-dimensional printing technologies, which have recently seen applications in the production of low-cost, patient-specific medical implants. While a wide range of three-dimensional printing systems has been explored in manufacturing anatomical models and devices for the medical setting, their applications are cutting-edge in the field of spinal surgery. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview and classification of the current applications of three-dimensional printing technologies in spine care...
September 22, 2016: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Michiel W Pot, Veronica K Gonzales, Pieter Buma, Joanna IntHout, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Rob B M de Vries, Willeke F Daamen
Microfracture surgery may be applied to treat cartilage defects. During the procedure the subchondral bone is penetrated, allowing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to migrate towards the defect site and form new cartilage tissue. Microfracture surgery generally results in the formation of mechanically inferior fibrocartilage. As a result, this technique offers only temporary clinical improvement. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine may improve the outcome of microfracture surgery. Filling the subchondral defect with a biomaterial may provide a template for the formation of new hyaline cartilage tissue...
2016: PeerJ
Na Fu, Jinfeng Liao, Shiyu Lin, Ke Sun, Taoran Tian, Bofeng Zhu, Yunfeng Lin
OBJECTIVE: Management of chondral defects has long been a challenge due to poor self-healing capacity of articular cartilage. Many approaches, ranging from symptomatic treatment to structural cartilage regeneration, have obtained very limited satisfactory results. Cartilage tissue engineering, which involves optimized combination of novel scaffolds, cell sources and growth factors, has emerged as a promising strategy for cartilage regeneration and repair. In this study, the aim was to investigate the role of poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL, PCEC) PCEC scaffold in cartilage repair...
September 19, 2016: Cell Proliferation
Jiaqi Chu, Shaodong Zeng, Liyang Gao, Thomas Groth, Zhiwen Li, Junchao Kong, Mingyan Zhao, Lihua Li
PURPOSE: Polymer porous scaffolds and hydrogels have been separately employed and explored for a wide range of applications including cell encapsulation, drug delivery, and tissue engineering. METHODS: In this study, a three-dimensional poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffold with interconnected and homogeneously distributed pores was fabricated to support the alginate hydrogel (Alg). The gels were filled into the porous scaffold, which acted as an analogue of native extracellular matrix (ECM) for entrapment of cells within a support of predefined shape...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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