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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322878/mechanical-cellular-and-proteomic-properties-of-laryngotracheal-cartilage
#1
Christine M Pauken, Richard Heyes, David G Lott
The larynx sometimes requires repair and reconstruction due to cancer resection, trauma, stenosis, or developmental disruptions. Bioengineering has provided some scaffolding materials and initial attempts at tissue engineering, especially of the trachea, have been made. The critical issues of providing protection, maintaining a patent airway, and controlling swallowing and phonation, require that the regenerated laryngotracheal cartilages must have mechanical and material properties that closely mimic native tissue...
January 1, 2018: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291091/laryngeal-airway-reconstruction-indicates-that-rodent-ultrasonic-vocalizations-are-produced-by-an-edge-tone-mechanism
#2
Tobias Riede, Heather L Borgard, Bret Pasch
Some rodents produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) for social communication using an aerodynamic whistle, a unique vocal production mechanism not found in other animals. The functional anatomy and evolution of this sound production mechanism remains unclear. Using laryngeal airway reconstruction, we identified anatomical specializations critical for USV production. A robust laryngeal cartilaginous framework supports a narrow supraglottal airway. An intralaryngeal airsac-like cavity termed the ventral pouch was present in three muroid rodents (suborder Myomorpha), but was absent in a heteromyid rodent (suborder Castorimorpha) that produces a limited vocal repertoire and no documented USVs...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280883/evidence-based-medicine-current-practices-in-rhinoplasty
#3
REVIEW
Neil Tanna, Khang T Nguyen, Ashkan Ghavami, Jay W Calvert, Bahman Guyuron, Rod J Rohrich, Ronald P Gruber
LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Perform aesthetic and functional nasal analysis to guide septorhinoplasty. 2. Recognize common complications associated with rhinoplasty. 3. Select appropriate septorhinoplasty techniques to refine nasal aesthetics and treat nasal airway obstruction. 4. Identify factors leading to poor patient satisfaction following rhinoplasty. SUMMARY: Septorhinoplasty is among the most technically challenging procedures in the realm of plastic and reconstructive surgery...
January 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243255/viscoelastic-properties-of-human-aryepiglottic-fold-and-ventricular-fold-tissues-at-phonatory-frequencies
#4
Miwako Kimura, Roger W Chan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to quantify the viscoelastic shear properties of the human ventricular fold (or false vocal fold) mucosa and aryepiglottic fold mucosa at frequencies of phonation. METHODS: Linear viscoelastic shear properties of the mucosa of false vocal fold and aryepiglottic fold specimens from seven cadaveric subjects were determined as functions of frequency (5-250 Hz) and compared to those of the true vocal fold cover. Measurements of elastic shear modulus (G') and dynamic viscosity (η') were made with a controlled-strain simple-shear rheometer...
December 15, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233352/progressive-stenosis-of-both-main-bronchi-associated-with%C3%A2-recurrent-infections-of-a%C3%A2-carinal-pouch
#5
Thomas Schweiger, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Helmut Prosch, Martin Hackl, Berta Oszvath, György Lang, Walter Klepetko
A 55-year-old woman was referred to our department with a bilateral stenosis of both main bronchi starting at the level of the carina and a blind-ended pouch originating from the carina. Differential diagnosis of diffuse narrowing of the intrathoracic central airways was excluded during the diagnostic workup. Recurrent infection of the blind-ended pouch remained a possible explanation of this unusual type of stenosis. Carinal resection and reconstruction by end-to-end anastomosis of the trachea to the right main bronchus and reimplantation of the left main bronchus to the intermediate bronchus with intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygen support resulted in an excellent long-term outcome...
January 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210179/cross-sectional-follow-up-of-voice-outcomes-in-children-who-have-a-history-of-airway-reconstruction-surgery
#6
Wendy Cohen, David M Wynne, Susan Lloyd, Richard B Townsley
OBJECTIVES: This study reports vocal function in a cross-section of children with subglottic stenosis. Each child had a history of laryngotracheal reconstruction and/or cricotracheal resection surgery. Vocal function was measured using laryngoscopy, acoustic analysis, perceptual evaluation and impact of voice on quality of life. DESIGN: All patients aged >5 years with history of laryngotracheal reconstruction and/or cricotracheal resection surgery at the Scottish National Complex Airways service were invited to participate...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174256/mid-term-results-of-correction-of-tetralogy-of-fallot-with-absent-pulmonary-valve
#7
Sachin Talwar, Aabha Divya, Shiv Kumar Choudhary, Saurabh Kumar Gupta, Sivasubramanian Ramakriahnan, Shyam Sunder Kothari, Rajnish Juneja, Anita Saxena, Balram Airan
BACKGROUND: Tetralogy of Fallot and absent pulmonary valve (TOF/APV) is associated with significant pulmonary artery dilatation and airway compression. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 73 consecutive patients who underwent repair for TOF/APV between January 2005-August 2015. Mean age was 6.4±5.6years (28days-22years). The right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) was reconstructed using varied techniques. Freedom from RVOT gradients and re-operation was studied...
November 2017: Indian Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171161/negative-pressure-wound-therapy-in-complex-cranio-maxillofacial-and-cervical-wounds
#8
Giorgio Novelli, Francesco Daleffe, Gisella Birra, Gabriele Canzi, Fabio Mazzoleni, Pietro Boni, Clara Maino, Carlo Giussani, Davide Sozzi, Alberto Bozzetti
The care and the management of the healing of difficult wounds at the level of the skull-facial face many problems related to patient compliance and the need to perform multiple dressings, with long periods of healing and, occasionally, a very long hospitalisation period. The introduction and evolution of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) in the treatment of difficult wounds has resulted in better healing, with a drastic reduction in terms of time and biological costs to the patient and cost to the health care system...
November 23, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169684/airway-morphology-and-inspiratory-flow-features-in-the-early-stages-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#9
REVIEW
Tristan Van de Moortele, Ute Goerke, Chris H Wendt, Filippo Coletti
BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Inhaled pollutants are the prime risk factor, but the pathogenesis and progression of the diseased is poorly understood. Most studies on the disease onset and trajectory have focused on genetic and molecular biomarkers. Here we investigate the role of the airway anatomy and the consequent respiratory fluid mechanics on the development of COPD. METHODS: We segmented CT scans from a five-year longitudinal study in three groups of smokers (18 subjects each) having: (i) minimal/mild obstruction at baseline with declining lung function at year five; (ii) minimal/mild obstruction at baseline with stable function, and (iii) normal and stable lung function over the five year period...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162784/quantitative-analysis-of-chronological-changes-in-the-volume-of-flaps-used-for-reconstruction-of-oral-cavity-defects
#10
Masashi Kimura, Ken Takada, Kenichiro Ishibashi, Hiroyuki Ohto, Akio Shibata, Hiroki Yamada, Shusuke Nishiwaki, Yoshiyuki Naganawa, Masahiro Umemura
Reconstruction of oral defects using flaps following resection of oral cancer has become a standard approach for restoration of oral function. The purpose of this study was to investigate chronological changes in the volume of such flaps used for reconstruction and the factors affecting flap volume. We performed a retrospective analysis of 17 patients who had undergone oral cancer resection and reconstruction with flaps. Measurements were performed using data from computed tomography, and the flaps were selected semi-automatically using a computer-operated region-of-interest system...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106861/laryngotracheal-reconstruction-and-swallowing-a-review
#11
REVIEW
Jennifer F Ha, Lynn Driver, David A Zopf
OBJECTIVES: Significant advances in laryngotracheal reconstruction over the last few decades have revolutionised the management of paediatric patients with complex congenital or acquired airway stenosis. The primary aim of laryngotracheal reconstruction has focused primarily on airway and surgery specific outcomes, often at the expense of voice, as well as swallowing function, which are all intricately related. There is currently a paucity of data on swallowing outcome. The goal of this paper is to review and discuss the existing research on the impact of laryngotracheal on swallowing...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100647/subglottic-stenosis-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-the-role-of-laryngotracheal-resection
#12
Christina L Costantino, John L Niles, Cameron D Wright, Douglas J Mathisen, Ashok Muniappan
BACKGROUND: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is associated with development of subglottic stenosis in about one-fourth of all patients. Although endoscopic management is the primary treatment method for tracheobronchial stenosis, some patients have refractory disease, and tracheostomy is required. It is unclear if laryngotracheal resection and reconstruction (LTRR) can be safely performed in patients with GPA. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 11 patients with GPA undergoing LTRR...
November 1, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076751/analyses-of-aerodynamic-characteristics-of-the-oropharynx-applying-cbct-obstructive-sleep-apnea-patients-versus-control-subjects
#13
Hui Chen, Yingguang Li, Johan Hc Reiber, Jan de Lange, Shengxian Tu, Paul van der Stelt, Frank Lobbezoo, Ghizlane Aarab
OBJECTIVES: To determine the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic of the oropharynx related to the collapse of the upper airway in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients; and to determine the correlation between the most relevant aerodynamic characteristic(s) of the oropharynx and anatomical characteristics of the oropharynx in OSA patients. METHODS: 31 mild to moderate OSA patients (mean±SD age = 43.5±9.7 yrs) and 13 control subjects (mean±SD age = 48.5±16...
October 27, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063231/modified-single-stage-segmental-cricotracheal-resection
#14
Ihab Atallah, Ahmed Aldkhyyal, Paul F Castellanos
The objective of our work is to demonstrate in a large cohort of patients with cricotracheal stenosis that resection of long airway segments could be performed with no increased risk of postoperative complications. A consecutive series of patients getting cervical segmental cricotracheal resection (CTR) were reviewed. The typical segmental tracheal resection technique has been modified to accommodate long segment removal. Modifications include using trachea to enable the reconstruction of the larynx itself as well as the placement of a "laryngosternopexy" stitch between the thyroid lamina and the sternoclavicular ligament designed to take all of the tension off the anastomosis and to prevent inadvertent head extension...
October 23, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059882/imaging-of-regional-air-distributions-in-porcine-lungs-using-high-performance-electrical-impedance-tomography-system
#15
G Y Jang, Y B Kim, H Wi, T I Oh, C R Chung, G Y Suh, E J Woo
Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) allows functional imaging of regional lung ventilation for real-time bedside monitoring of mechanically ventilated patients. Images showing time-changes of regional air distributions in the lungs can provide valuable diagnostic information for lung protective mechanical ventilation. This paper reports in vivo porcine imaging experiments of regional lung ventilation using a 16-channel parallel EIT system. Real-time time-difference chest images of 10 animals were reconstructed during mechanical ventilations with a temporal resolution of 50 frame/s...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044543/investigating-the-effects-of-laryngotracheal-stenosis-on-upper-airway-aerodynamics
#16
Tracy Cheng, David Carpenter, Seth Cohen, David Witsell, Dennis O Frank-Ito
OBJECTIVE: Very little is known about the impact of laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) on inspiratory airflow and resistance, especially in air hunger states. This study investigates the effect of LTS on airway resistance and volumetric flow across three different inspiratory pressures. METHODS: Head-and-neck computed tomography scans of 11 subjects from 2010 to 2016 were collected. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the upper airway from the nostrils to carina, including the oral cavity, were created for one subject with a normal airway and for 10 patients with LTS...
October 17, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038859/refashioned-lamb-tissue-as-an-animal-model-for-training-complex-techniques-of-laryngotracheal-stenosis-surgery
#17
Lluís Nisa, Pedro Teiga, Gustavo Barreto da Cunha, Biswanath Roy, Riza Onder Gunaydin, Kishore Sandu
Open reconstructive upper airway surgery for laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS), whether for subglottic or tracheal stenosis, constitutes a group of complex approaches. LTS requiring open reconstruction is overall rare and primarily performed at tertiary centres. This poses an obvious challenge for the acquisition and maintenance of surgical skills for this group of complex approaches. In this context, animal models provide a unique opportunity for open reconstructive airway surgery training. Such models ought to take into consideration ethical aspects, be easily available and easy to maintain, and have similar macroscopic anatomical features to the human laryngotracheal frame...
December 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029057/patient-specific-modelling-of-regional-tobramycin-concentration-levels-in-airways-of-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-can-we-dose-once-daily
#18
Aukje C Bos, Johan W Mouton, Mireille van Westreenen, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Hettie M Janssens, Harm A W M Tiddens
Background: Inhaled tobramycin is important in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infections in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, despite its use it fails to attenuate the clinical progression of CF lung disease. The bactericidal efficacy of tobramycin is known to be concentration-dependent and hence changing the dosing regimen from a twice-daily (q12h) inhalation to a once-daily (q24h) inhaled double dose could improve treatment outcomes. Objectives: To predict local concentrations of nebulized tobramycin in the airways of patients with CF, delivered with the small airway-targeting Akita® system or standard PARI-LC® Plus system, with different inspiratory flow profiles...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026607/wheezing-and-dyspnoea-caused-by-aberrant-left-innominate-artery
#19
Masamichi Hayashi, Kazuyoshi Imaizumi, Hidekazu Hattori, Hiroshi Toyama, Mitsushi Okazawa
We present a rare case of a branching anomaly of the aortic arch that resulted in wheezing and dyspnoea. The patient was a 60-year-old male with severe wheezing from babyhood, originally diagnosed with severe bronchial asthma. On auscultation, the inspiratory and expiratory wheezes appeared when the patient leaned forward. He also had difficulty in swallowing solid mass. Tests for airway reversibility and hyperresponsiveness were negative, and asthma treatment was ineffective. He had a right aortic arch. A barium oesophagogram and endoscopic examination indicated narrowing of the oesophagus from behind...
November 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940719/effect-of-availability-of-video-laryngoscopy-on-the-use-of-fiberoptic-intubation-in-school-aged-children-with-microtia
#20
Ichiro Kondo, Hidetsugu Kobayashi, Yoshihumi Suga, Akihiro Suzuki, Shuya Kiyama, Shoichi Uezono
BACKGROUND: With the increasing popularity of video laryngoscopy during intubation of pediatric patients with normal or difficult airways, fiberoptic-assisted tracheal intubation, traditionally considered the gold standard for difficult intubation, may become underused. AIM: We aimed to assess the use of airway management techniques before and after introduction of video laryngoscopy in a cohort of school-aged children with microtia, who are at increased risk of difficult intubation...
November 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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