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crime and human genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190509/genetic-determinants-of-freckle-occurrence-in-the-spanish-population-towards-ephelides-prediction-from-human-dna-samples
#1
Barbara Hernando, Maria Victoria Ibañez, Julio Alberto Deserio-Cuesta, Raquel Soria-Navarro, Inca Vilar-Sastre, Conrado Martinez-Cadenas
Prediction of human pigmentation traits, one of the most differentiable externally visible characteristics among individuals, from biological samples represents a useful tool in the field of forensic DNA phenotyping. In spite of freckling being a relatively common pigmentation characteristic in Europeans, little is known about the genetic basis of this largely genetically determined phenotype in southern European populations. In this work, we explored the predictive capacity of eight freckle and sunlight sensitivity-related genes in 458 individuals (266 non-freckled controls and 192 freckled cases) from Spain...
November 23, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175600/forensic-dna-methylation-profiling-from-minimal-traces-how-low-can-we-go
#2
Jana Naue, Huub C J Hoefsloot, Ate D Kloosterman, Pernette J Verschure
Analysis of human DNA methylation (DNAm) can provide additional investigative leads in crime cases, e.g. the type of tissue or body fluid, the chronological age of an individual, and differentiation between identical twins. In contrast to the genetic profile, the DNAm level is not the same in every cell. At the single cell level, DNAm represents a binary event at a defined CpG site (methylated versus non-methylated). The DNAm level from a DNA extract however represents the average level of methylation of the CpG of interest of all molecules in the forensic sample...
November 13, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069390/crimetoyhu-a-new-web-tool-to-develop-yeast-based-functional-assays-for-characterizing-cancer-associated-missense-variants
#3
Alberto Mercatanti, Samuele Lodovichi, Tiziana Cervelli, Alvaro Galli
Evaluation of functional impact of cancer-associated missense variants is more difficult to assess as compared to protein-truncating mutations and, consequently, standard guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants have been recently proposed. A number of algorithms and software products were developed to predict the impact of cancer-associated missense mutations on protein structure and function. Importantly, direct assessment of the variants using high-throughput functional assays using simple genetic systems can help in speeding up the functional evaluation of newly identified cancer associated variants...
October 23, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948844/next-generation-sequencing-an-application-in-forensic-sciences
#4
Maria Jesus Alvarez-Cubero, Maria Saiz, Belén Martínez-García, Sara M Sayalero, Carmen Entrala, Jose Antonio Lorente, Luis Javier Martinez-Gonzalez
CONTEXT: Over the last few decades, advances in sequencing have improved greatly. One of the most important achievements of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) is to produce millions of sequence reads in a short period of time, and to produce large sequences of DNA in fragments of any size. Libraries can be generated from whole genomes or any DNA or RNA region of interest without the need to know its sequence beforehand. This allows for looking for variations and facilitating genetic identification...
September 26, 2017: Annals of Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728057/integrating-the-microbiome-as-a-resource-in-the-forensics-toolkit
#5
Thomas H Clarke, Andres Gomez, Harinder Singh, Karen E Nelson, Lauren M Brinkac
The introduction of DNA fingerprinting to forensic science rapidly expanded the available evidence that could be garnered from a crime scene and used in court cases. Next generation sequencing technologies increased available genetic data that could be used as evidence by orders of magnitude, and as such, significant additional genetic information is now available for use in forensic science. This includes DNA from the bacteria that live in and on humans, known as the human microbiome. Next generation sequencing of the human microbiome demonstrates that its bacterial DNA can be used to uniquely identify an individual, provide information about their life and behavioral patterns, determine the body site where a sample came from, and estimate postmortem intervals...
September 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686631/a-new-approach-for-the-analysis-of-facial-growth-and-age-estimation-iris-ratio
#6
Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Marta Regina Pinheiro Flores, Laíse Nascimento Correia Lima, Rachel Lima Ribeiro Tinoco, Ademir Franco, Ana Cristina Barreto Bezerra, Martin Paul Evison, Marco Aurélio Guimarães
The study of facial growth is explored in many fields of science, including anatomy, genetics, and forensics. In the field of forensics, it acts as a valuable tool for combating child pornography. The present research proposes a new method, based on relative measurements and fixed references of the human face-specifically considering measurements of the diameter of the iris (iris ratio)-for the analysis of facial growth in association with age in children and sub-adults. The experimental sample consisted of digital photographs of 1000 Brazilian subjects, aged between 6 and 22 years, distributed equally by sex and divided into five specific age groups (6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 year olds ± one month)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032532/the-missing-the-martyred-and-the-disappeared-global-networks-technical-intensification-and-the-end-of-human-rights-genetics
#7
Lindsay A Smith
In 1984, a group of Argentine students, trained by US academics, formed the Argentine Forensic Anthropology Team to apply the latest scientific techniques to the excavation of mass graves and identification of the dead, and to work toward transitional justice. This inaugurated a new era in global forensic science, as groups of scientists in the Global South worked outside of and often against local governments to document war crimes in post-conflict settings. After 2001, however, with the inauguration of the war on terror following the September 11(th) attacks on the World Trade Center in New York, global forensic science was again remade through US and European investment to increase preparedness in the face of potential terrorist attacks...
December 1, 2016: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819737/human-autosomal-dna-and-x-chromosome-str-profiles-obtained-from-chrysomya-albiceps-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae-used-as-a-biological-trace
#8
T C Oliveira, A B R Santos, K C N Rabelo, C A Souza, S M Santos, S Crovella
The use of insects to answer questions in criminal investigations, as well as a combination of forensic genetic techniques to obtain human DNA from the organisms, especially necrophagous dipterians, have gained ground in recent decades among researchers and professionals in this area. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare two methods of human DNA extraction, commonly used for forensic samples, to obtain human autosomal DNA and X chromosome short tandem repeat profiles from the digestive tract of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721531/are-therapeutic-vaccines-an-answer-to-the-global-problem-of-drug-and-alcohol-abuse
#9
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706606/detecting-multiple-dna-human-profile-from-a-mosquito-blood-meal
#10
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, R R Moura, L A C Brandão, S Crovella
Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450149/development-of-a-quantitation-approach-for-total-human-and-male-dna-based-on-real-time-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#11
Santiago Ginart, Mariela Caputo, Evguenia Alechine, Daniel Corach, Andrea Sala
We developed and validated a total human DNA quantitation technique that simultaneously allows male DNA detection. This assay, called Amel-Y, is a duplex Real Time PCR followed by HRM (high resolution melting) analysis using the intercalating dye SYTO9. Amel-Y duplex produces two amplicons, one for the amelogenin gene (106/112 bp, female/male) and another (84 bp) corresponding to human Y chromosome-specific fragment to detect male DNA. After HRM analysis, two melting peaks differing in 5.3°C-5.5°C are detected if both male and female DNA are present and only one if only female DNA is present...
October 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289564/human-identification-by-lice-a-next-generation-sequencing-challenge
#12
Elena Pilli, Alessandro Agostino, Debora Vergani, Elena Salata, Ignazio Ciuna, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli, Simonetta Lambiase
Rapid and progressive advances in molecular biology techniques and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) have opened new possibilities for analyses also in the identification of entomological matrixes. Insects and other arthropods are widespread in nature and those found at a crime scene can provide a useful contribution to forensic investigations. Entomological evidence is used by experts to define the postmortem interval (PMI), which is essentially based on morphological recognition of the insect and an estimation of its insect life cycle stage...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227288/topological-variability-and-sex-differences-in-fingerprint-ridge-density-in-a-sample-of-the-sudanese-population
#13
Altayeb Abdalla Ahmed, Samah Osman
Fingerprints are important biometric variables that show manifold utilities in human biology, human morphology, anthropology, and genetics. Their role in forensics as a legally admissible tool of identification is well recognized and is based on their stability following full development, individualistic characteristics, easy classification of their patterns, and uniqueness. Nevertheless, fingerprint ridge density and its variability have not been previously studied in the Sudanese population. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the topological variability in epidermal ridge density and to assess the possibility of its application in determining sex of Sudanese Arabs...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061441/the-genetics-of-aggression-where-are-we-now
#14
Philip Asherson, Bru Cormand
Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments...
July 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055611/identification-of-treatment-targets-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-voluntary-methamphetamine-drinking
#15
REVIEW
T J Phillips, J R K Mootz, C Reed
Methamphetamine has powerful stimulant and euphoric effects that are experienced as rewarding and encourage use. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with debilitating illnesses, destroyed relationships, child neglect, violence, and crime; but after many years of research, broadly effective medications have not been identified. Individual differences that may impact not only risk for developing a methamphetamine use disorder but also affect treatment response have not been fully considered. Human studies have identified candidate genes that may be relevant, but lack of control over drug history, the common use or coabuse of multiple addictive drugs, and restrictions on the types of data that can be collected in humans are barriers to progress...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012057/molecular-dna-analysis-in-forensic-identification
#16
REVIEW
Raluca Dumache, Veronica Ciocan, Camelia Muresan, Alexandra Enache
BACKGROUND: Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. METHODS: Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26736139/prevalence-of-human-cell-material-dna-and-rna-profiling-of-public-and-private-objects-and-after-activity-scenarios
#17
M van den Berge, G Ozcanhan, S Zijlstra, A Lindenbergh, T Sijen
Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments...
March 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654075/identical-twins-in-forensic-genetics-epidemiology-and-risk-based-estimation-of-weight-of-evidence
#18
Torben Tvedebrink, Niels Morling
The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where the alternative hypothesis is assumed not to encompass close relatives. However, this approach implies that important factors present in real human populations are discarded. This approach may be very unfavourable to the defendant...
December 2015: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645337/population-genetic-study-of-10-short-tandem-repeat-loci-from-600-domestic-dogs-in-korea
#19
Seo Hyun Moon, Yoon-Jeong Jang, Myun Soo Han, Myung-Haing Cho
Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600546/trace-samples-of-human-blood-in-mosquitoes-as-a-forensic-investigation-tool
#20
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, N C L Oliveira, S Crovella
Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
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