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crime and human genetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819737/human-autosomal-dna-and-x-chromosome-str-profiles-obtained-from-chrysomya-albiceps-diptera-calliphoridae-larvae-used-as-a-biological-trace
#1
T C Oliveira, A B R Santos, K C N Rabelo, C A Souza, S M Santos, S Crovella
The use of insects to answer questions in criminal investigations, as well as a combination of forensic genetic techniques to obtain human DNA from the organisms, especially necrophagous dipterians, have gained ground in recent decades among researchers and professionals in this area. The objective of our study was to evaluate and compare two methods of human DNA extraction, commonly used for forensic samples, to obtain human autosomal DNA and X chromosome short tandem repeat profiles from the digestive tract of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae...
November 3, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721531/are-therapeutic-vaccines-an-answer-to-the-global-problem-of-drug-and-alcohol-abuse
#2
Dick B S Brashier, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Neha Akhoon
Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706606/detecting-multiple-dna-human-profile-from-a-mosquito-blood-meal
#3
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, R R Moura, L A C Brandão, S Crovella
Criminal traces commonly found at crime scenes may present mixtures from two or more individuals. The scene of the crime is important for the collection of various types of traces in order to find the perpetrator of the crime. Thus, we propose that hematophagous mosquitoes found at crime scenes can be used to perform genetic testing of human blood and aid in suspect investigation. The aim of the study was to obtain a single Aedes aegypti mosquito profile from a human DNA mixture containing genetic materials of four individuals...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27450149/development-of-a-quantitation-approach-for-total-human-and-male-dna-based-on-real-time-pcr-followed-by-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#4
Ginart Santiago, Caputo Mariela, Alechine Evguenia, Corach Daniel, Sala Andrea
We developed and validated a total human DNA quantitation technique that simultaneously allows male DNA detection. This assay, called Amel-Y, is a duplex Real Time PCR followed by HRM (high resolution melting) analysis using the intercalating dye SYTO9. Amel-Y duplex produces two amplicons, one for the amelogenin gene (106/112 bp, female/male) and another (84 bp) corresponding to human Y chromosome-specific fragment to detect male DNA. After HRM analysis, two melting peaks differing in 5.3°C-5.5°C are detected if both male and female DNA are present and only one if only female DNA is present...
July 23, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289564/human-identification-by-lice-a-next-generation-sequencing-challenge
#5
Elena Pilli, Alessandro Agostino, Debora Vergani, Elena Salata, Ignazio Ciuna, Andrea Berti, David Caramelli, Simonetta Lambiase
Rapid and progressive advances in molecular biology techniques and the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) have opened new possibilities for analyses also in the identification of entomological matrixes. Insects and other arthropods are widespread in nature and those found at a crime scene can provide a useful contribution to forensic investigations. Entomological evidence is used by experts to define the postmortem interval (PMI), which is essentially based on morphological recognition of the insect and an estimation of its insect life cycle stage...
September 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227288/topological-variability-and-sex-differences-in-fingerprint-ridge-density-in-a-sample-of-the-sudanese-population
#6
Altayeb Abdalla Ahmed, Samah Osman
Fingerprints are important biometric variables that show manifold utilities in human biology, human morphology, anthropology, and genetics. Their role in forensics as a legally admissible tool of identification is well recognized and is based on their stability following full development, individualistic characteristics, easy classification of their patterns, and uniqueness. Nevertheless, fingerprint ridge density and its variability have not been previously studied in the Sudanese population. Hence, this study was conducted to analyze the topological variability in epidermal ridge density and to assess the possibility of its application in determining sex of Sudanese Arabs...
August 2016: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27061441/the-genetics-of-aggression-where-are-we-now
#7
Philip Asherson, Bru Cormand
Aggression, an overt behaviour with the intention to inflict damage, is a physiological trait with important roles throughout evolution, both in defence and predation. However, when expressed in humans in the wrong context, aggression leads to social maladjustment and crime. This special issue is about the genetic and neurobiological basis for aggression. Most of the 12 works presented here have been prepared by members of five international consortia established under the auspice of the FP7 and H2020 programs of the European Union to investigate different aspects of aggression and related behavioural phenotypes, including delineation of subtypes, aetiological mechanisms, neurobiology, neuroimaging, biomarkers, animal models and development and assessment of new treatments...
July 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27055611/identification-of-treatment-targets-in-a-genetic-mouse-model-of-voluntary-methamphetamine-drinking
#8
T J Phillips, J R K Mootz, C Reed
Methamphetamine has powerful stimulant and euphoric effects that are experienced as rewarding and encourage use. Methamphetamine addiction is associated with debilitating illnesses, destroyed relationships, child neglect, violence, and crime; but after many years of research, broadly effective medications have not been identified. Individual differences that may impact not only risk for developing a methamphetamine use disorder but also affect treatment response have not been fully considered. Human studies have identified candidate genes that may be relevant, but lack of control over drug history, the common use or coabuse of multiple addictive drugs, and restrictions on the types of data that can be collected in humans are barriers to progress...
2016: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27012057/molecular-dna-analysis-in-forensic-identification
#9
REVIEW
Raluca Dumache, Veronica Ciocan, Camelia Muresan, Alexandra Enache
BACKGROUND: Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. METHODS: Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification...
2016: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26736139/prevalence-of-human-cell-material-dna-and-rna-profiling-of-public-and-private-objects-and-after-activity-scenarios
#10
M van den Berge, G Ozcanhan, S Zijlstra, A Lindenbergh, T Sijen
Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments...
March 2016: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26654075/identical-twins-in-forensic-genetics-epidemiology-and-risk-based-estimation-of-weight-of-evidence
#11
Torben Tvedebrink, Niels Morling
The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where the alternative hypothesis is assumed not to encompass close relatives. However, this approach implies that important factors present in real human populations are discarded. This approach may be very unfavourable to the defendant...
December 2015: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645337/population-genetic-study-of-10-short-tandem-repeat-loci-from-600-domestic-dogs-in-korea
#12
Seo Hyun Moon, Yoon-Jeong Jang, Myun Soo Han, Myung-Haing Cho
Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26600546/trace-samples-of-human-blood-in-mosquitoes-as-a-forensic-investigation-tool
#13
K C N Rabêlo, C M R Albuquerque, V B Tavares, S M Santos, C A Souza, T C Oliveira, N C L Oliveira, S Crovella
Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin...
2015: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26364867/review-domestic-animal-forensic-genetics-biological-evidence-genetic-markers-analytical-approaches-and-challenges
#14
REVIEW
S Kanthaswamy
This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation...
October 2015: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26275611/comparing-different-post-mortem-human-samples-as-dna-sources-for-downstream-genotyping-and-identification
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Gayvelline C Calacal, Dame Loveliness T Apaga, Jazelyn M Salvador, Joseph Andrew D Jimenez, Ludivino J Lagat, Renato Pio F Villacorta, Maria Cecilia F Lim, Raquel D R Fortun, Francisco A Datar, Maria Corazon A De Ungria
The capability of DNA laboratories to perform genotyping procedures from post-mortem remains, including those that had undergone putrefaction, continues to be a challenge in the Philippines, a country characterized by very humid and warm conditions all year round. These environmental conditions accelerate the decomposition of human remains that were recovered after a disaster and those that were left abandoned after a crime. When considerable tissue decomposition of human remains has taken place, there is no other option but to extract DNA from bone and/or teeth samples...
November 2015: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26238169/estimating-allele-dropout-probabilities-by-logistic-regression-assessments-using-applied-biosystems-3500xl-and-3130xl-genetic-analyzers-with-various-commercially-available-human-identification-kits
#16
Shota Inokuchi, Tetsushi Kitayama, Koji Fujii, Hiroaki Nakahara, Hiroaki Nakanishi, Kazuyuki Saito, Natsuko Mizuno, Kazumasa Sekiguchi
Phenomena called allele dropouts are often observed in crime stain profiles. Allele dropouts are generated because one of a pair of heterozygous alleles is underrepresented by stochastic influences and is indicated by a low peak detection threshold. Therefore, it is important that such risks are statistically evaluated. In recent years, attempts to interpret allele dropout probabilities by logistic regression using the information on peak heights have been reported. However, these previous studies are limited to the use of a human identification kit and fragment analyzer...
March 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26004559/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-deficiency-and-alzheimer-s-disease-partners-in-crime-the-hypothesis
#17
N Nuray Ulusu
Alzheimer's disease is a multifaceted brain disorder which involves various coupled irreversible, progressive biochemical reactions that significantly reduce quality of life as well as the actual life expectancy. Aging, genetic predispositions, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, deficiencies in insulin signaling, dysfunction of mitochondria-associated membranes, cerebrovascular changes, high cholesterol level, increased oxidative stress and free radical formation, DNA damage, disturbed energy metabolism, and synaptic dysfunction, high blood pressure, obesity, dietary habits, exercise, social engagement, and mental stress are noted among the risk factors of this disease...
August 2015: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25801600/slc24a5-and-asip-as-phenotypic-predictors-in-brazilian-population-for-forensic-purposes
#18
F A Lima, Felícia de Araújo Lima, F T Gonçalves, Fernanda de Toledo Gonçalves, C Fridman, Cintia Fridman
Pigmentation is a variable and complex trait in humans and it is determined by the interaction of environmental factors, age, disease, hormones, exposure to ultraviolet radiation and genetic factors, including pigmentation genes. Many polymorphisms of these genes have been associated with phenotypic diversity of skin, eyes and hair color in homogeneous populations. Phenotype prediction from biological samples using genetic information has benefited forensic area in some countries, leading some criminal investigations...
July 2015: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25749537/-cloning-and-law-in-hungary
#19
REVIEW
Máté Julesz
Reproductive human cloning is prohibited in Hungary, as in many other countries. Therapeutic human cloning is not prohibited, just like in many other countries. Stem cell therapy is also allowed. Article III, paragraph (3) of the Hungarian basic law (constitution) strictly forbids total human cloning. Article 1 of the Additional Protocol to the Oviedo Convention, on the Prohibition of Cloning Human Beings (1998) stipulates that any intervention seeking to create a human being genetically identical to another human being, whether living or dead, is prohibited...
March 2015: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25716572/forensic-dna-phenotyping-predicting-human-appearance-from-crime-scene-material-for-investigative-purposes
#20
REVIEW
Manfred Kayser
Forensic DNA Phenotyping refers to the prediction of appearance traits of unknown sample donors, or unknown deceased (missing) persons, directly from biological materials found at the scene. "Biological witness" outcomes of Forensic DNA Phenotyping can provide investigative leads to trace unknown persons, who are unidentifiable with current comparative DNA profiling. This intelligence application of DNA marks a substantially different forensic use of genetic material rather than that of current DNA profiling presented in the courtroom...
September 2015: Forensic Science International. Genetics
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