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Natural polymers in dentistry

Rahimeh Rasouli, Ahmed Barhoum, Hasan Uludag
The emerging field of nanostructured implants has enormous scope in the areas of medical science and dental implants. Surface nanofeatures provide significant potential solutions to medical problems by the introduction of better biomaterials, improved implant design, and surface engineering techniques such as coating, patterning, functionalization and molecular grafting at the nanoscale. This review is of an interdisciplinary nature, addressing the history and development of dental implants and the emerging area of nanotechnology in dental implants...
May 10, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Ulrich Lohbauer, Renan Belli, Marco S Cune, Ulf Schepke
Today, a substantial part of the dental crown production uses computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology. A recent step in restorative dentistry is the replacement of natural tooth structure with pre-polymerized and machined resin-based methacrylic polymers. Recently, a new CAD/CAM composite was launched for the crown indication in the load-bearing area, but the clinical reality forced the manufacturer to withdraw this specific indication. In parallel, a randomized clinical trial of CAD/CAM composite crowns luted on zirconia implant abutments revealed a high incidence of failure within the first year of service...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
Prashanth Shetty, Lokesh Chhapdia, Pranav Verma, Anshul Sahu, Narendra S Kushwaha, Rahul Chaturvedi, Suvashri Manna
AIM: Different biomaterials and techniques have been introduced in the field of prosthetic dentistry with the purpose of replacement and rehabilitation of the edentulous areas. Due to their shorter setting time, the light-activated restorative and prosthetic materials have the capability of releasing few amount of cytotoxic materials in the oral cavity. Polymer materials [urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and bis-acryl] are assumed to have high mechanical properties. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) offers numerous advantages of being highly esthetic in nature and at the same time being cost-effective...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira, Rui L Reis
Quantitative assessment of micro-structure of materials is of key importance in many fields including tissue engineering, biology, and dentistry. Micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) is an intensively used non-destructive technique. However, the acquisition parameters such as pixel size and rotation step may have significant effects on the obtained results. In this study, a set of tissue engineering scaffolds including examples of natural and synthetic polymers, and ceramics were analyzed. We comprehensively compared the quantitative results of µ-CT characterization using 15 acquisition scenarios that differ in the combination of the pixel size and rotation step...
August 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Haorong Wang, Zuohui Xiao, Jie Yang, Danyang Lu, Anil Kishen, Yanqiu Li, Zhen Chen, Kehua Que, Qian Zhang, Xuliang Deng, Xiaoping Yang, Qing Cai, Ning Chen, Changhong Cong, Binbin Guan, Ting Li, Xu Zhang
Achieving oriented and ordered remineralization on the surface of demineralized dental enamel, thereby restoring the satisfactory mechanical properties approaching those of sound enamel, is still a challenge for dentists. To mimic the natural biomineralization approach for enamel remineralization, the biological process of enamel development proteins, such as amelogenin, was simulated in this study. In this work, carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) conjugated with alendronate (ALN) was applied to stabilize amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to form CMC/ACP nanoparticles...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Mieszko Wieckiewicz, Klaus W Boening, Natalia Grychowska, Anna Paradowska-Stolarz
Chitosan is a linear amino-polysaccharide and a natural polymer with a structure based on repetitive deacetylated and acetylated units randomly distributed. It is produced from chitin, one of the most common naturally occurring polysaccharides. Its numerous biomedical applications have been extensively described in the literature. It becomes more and more popular as a therapeutic agent and its use is constantly extended. Given its commonness, regenerative properties, easy chemical treatment, and biocompatibility, it might be used in the treatment of damaged oral cavity tissues...
2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Maria Justina Roxana Virlan, Daniela Miricescu, Radu Radulescu, Cristina M Sabliov, Alexandra Totan, Bogdan Calenic, Maria Greabu
There is a growing interest in the development of organic nanomaterials for biomedical applications. An increasing number of studies focus on the uses of nanomaterials with organic structure for regeneration of bone, cartilage, skin or dental tissues. Solid evidence has been found for several advantages of using natural or synthetic organic nanostructures in a wide variety of dental fields, from implantology, endodontics, and periodontics, to regenerative dentistry and wound healing. Most of the research is concentrated on nanoforms of chitosan, silk fibroin, synthetic polymers or their combinations, but new nanocomposites are constantly being developed...
February 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Luis Rojo, Sanjukta Deb
The successful clinical application arising from advances in polymer and macromolecular sciences in different fields of medicine has opened new explorative approaches for the future design and development of the ever more sophisticated bio-/nanotechnologies that are needed to realise the full potential of modern dentistry. In this chapter, the most recent polymer therapeutic approaches for alveolar ridge augmentation, bone grafts, periodontal disease, restorative materials and scaffolds or carriers for cell-based therapies are presented highlighting the potential of either synthetic or natural polymers, such as polyesters, polyolefins, polyacrylates or chitosan for example, being tailored and engineered to yield a range of properties valuable in the design and development of dental polymer therapeutics...
2015: Frontiers of Oral Biology
Sanjukta Deb, Simran Chana
Dental caries remains a challenge in the improvement of oral health. It is the most common and widespread biofilm-dependent oral disease, resulting in the destruction of tooth structure by the acidic attack from cariogenic bacteria. The tooth is a heavily mineralised tissue, and both enamel and dentine can undergo demineralisation due to trauma or dietary conditions. The adult population worldwide affected by dental caries is enormous and despite significant advances in caries prevention and tooth restoration, treatments continue to pose a substantial burden to healthcare...
2015: Frontiers of Oral Biology
F Obregon, C Vaquette, S Ivanovski, D W Hutmacher, L E Bertassoni
Craniofacial tissues are organized with complex 3-dimensional (3D) architectures. Mimicking such 3D complexity and the multicellular interactions naturally occurring in craniofacial structures represents one of the greatest challenges in regenerative dentistry. Three-dimensional bioprinting of tissues and biological structures has been proposed as a promising alternative to address some of these key challenges. It enables precise manufacture of various biomaterials with complex 3D architectures, while being compatible with multiple cell sources and being customizable to patient-specific needs...
September 2015: Journal of Dental Research
Rosa Elvira Nuñez-Anita, Laura Susana Acosta-Torres, Jorge Vilar-Pineda, Juan Carlos Martínez-Espinosa, Javier de la Fuente-Hernández, Víctor Manuel Castaño
Advances in nanotechnology are producing an accelerated proliferation of new nanomaterial composites that are likely to become an important source of engineered health-related products. Nanoparticles with antifungal effects are of great interest in the formulation of microbicidal materials. Fungi are found as innocuous commensals and colonize various habitats in and on humans, especially the skin and mucosa. As growth on surfaces is a natural part of the Candida spp. lifestyle, one can expect that Candida organisms colonize prosthetic devices, such as dentures...
2014: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Jin-Hwan Chung, Young Kyung Kim, Kyo-Han Kim, Tae-Yub Kwon, Seyede Ziba Vaezmomeni, Mohammad Samiei, Marzyeh Aghazadeh, Soodabeh Davaran, Mehrdad Mahkam, Ghale Asadi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh
Hydroxyapatite (HA), the main mineral component of bones and teeth, was synthesized by using the reaction between calcium nitrate tetrahydrate Ca(NO3)2∙4H2O and diammonium hydrogen phosphate (NH4)2HPO4 (DAHP) with a chemical precipitation method. The objective of this study is to utilize novel inorganic-organic nanocomposites for biomedical applications. HA is an inorganic component (75% w) and chitosan, alginate and albumin (Egg white) are organic components of nanocomposites (25% w). Nanocomposites were prepared in deionized water solutions, at room temperature, using a mechanical and magnetic stirrer for 48 h...
2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
W-F Lai, K Oka, H-S Jung
Use of ceramics and polymers continues to dominate clinical procedures in modern dentistry. Polymers have provided the basis for adhesives, tissue void fillers, and artificial replacements for whole teeth. They have been remarkably effective in the clinic at restoration of major dental functions after damage or loss of teeth. With the rapid development of polymer science, dental materials science has significantly lagged behind in harnessing these advanced polymer products. What they offer is new and unique properties superior to traditional polymers and crucially a range of properties that more closely match natural biomaterials...
July 2015: Oral Diseases
A H Choi, B Ben-Nissan, J P Matinlinna, R C Conway
The purpose of coatings on implants is to achieve some or all of the improvements in biocompatibility, bioactivity, and increased protection from the release of harmful or unnecessary metal ions. During the last decade, there has been substantially increased interest in nanomaterials in biomedical science and dentistry. Nanocomposites can be described as a combination of two or more nanomaterials. By this approach, it is possible to manipulate mechanical properties, such as strength and modulus of the composites, to become closer to those of natural bone...
October 2013: Journal of Dental Research
Michel Vert
Man-made artificial organic polymers are among the more recent sources of materials used by humans. In medicine, they contribute to applications in surgery, dentistry and pharmacology. Nowadays, innovations in the field of therapeutic polymers rely on novel polymers for specific applications such as guided tissue regeneration, tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, gene transfection, etc. Introducing reactive chemical functions within or along polymer backbones is an attractive route to generate functional polymers for medicine...
December 8, 2011: Macromolecular Bioscience
M Cervinka, V Půza
Modern medicine depends in many cases on implantation of xenobiotic materials into the human body. Toxicity evaluation of these materials (plastic, metal alloy, ceramics) is rather difficult, mainly because of their intricate chemical nature and insolubility. There are two main approaches to the toxicity testing of implantation materials: cells are either placed in direct contact with materials to be tested or are treated with eluates made from the materials under study. Cell proliferation and cell morphology were chosen as principal endpoints in general cytotoxicity testing...
1990: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Kiyotaka Shiba
Motif-programming is a method for creating artificial proteins by combining functional peptide motifs in a combinatorial manner. Motifs are often short amino acid sequences within natural proteins that are associated with particular biological functions. Motifs also can be created de novo using molecular engineering. In particular, peptide aptamers, which have been isolated as specific binders against various targets, are believed to be promising motif blocks for creating novel biomaterials through motif-programming...
November 2009: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Justyna Kołodziejska, Aneta Berner-Strzelczyk, Magdalena Piechota-Urbańska
Active components of glycol extract from thyme manifest anti-inflammatory and astringent properties which may be also used in dentistry. The assumption of this study was to work out a prescription of dental anti-inflammatory hydrogel containing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and glycol extract from thyme. The aim of this study was to assess pharmaceutical availability and physico-chemical parameters of hydrogels produced on the base of various Carbopols (974P, 971P and AA1). Pharmaceutical availability of therapeutic agents contained in the hydrogel was tested...
2009: Polimery W Medycynie
Xiao Zhou Liu, Pei Jun Lu, Yong Wang
The concept of computer-aided design/computer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) was first mentioned decades ago in the field of dentistry. The technology to make dental restorations has found wide application recently and developed rapidly in prosthodontics and oral implantology, for it could save patients' time and manpower, have precision on prostheses' edging, etc. Until now there are several commercial CAD/CAM systems on market. With the use of CAD/CAM technology in dentistry, it has broken the traditional pattern of making dentures manually...
December 18, 2008: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Betul Kargul, Esber Caglar, Ugur Kabalay
PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical evaluation was to assess fixed space maintainers for child patients whose missing primary molars were replaced with space maintainers made with everStick during a 12-month follow-up period. EverStick is a semi-manufactured product made of glass fibers, thermoplastic polymer, and light-curing resin matrix for reinforcing the dental polymer. METHODS: Twenty-three clinical cases presented in this paper were evaluated in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey...
September 2005: Journal of Dentistry for Children
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