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Therapeutic neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227248/the-precuneus-may-encode-irrationality-in-human-gambling
#1
P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, P Sacre, M S D Kerr, S Subramanian, K Kahn, J Gonzalez-Martinez, M A Johnson, S V Sarma, J T Gale, S Subramanian, M S D Kerr, M A Johnson, J T Gale, K Kahn, P Sacre, S V Sarma, J Gonzalez-Martinez
Humans often make irrational decisions, especially psychiatric patients who have dysfunctional cognitive and emotional circuitry. Understanding the neural basis of decision-making is therefore essential towards patient management, yet current studies suffer from several limitations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in humans have dominated decision-making neuroscience, but have poor temporal resolution and the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal is only a proxy for neural activity. On the other hand, lesion studies in humans used to infer functionality in decision-making lack characterization of neural activity altogether...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223129/regenerative-medicine-in-huntington-s-disease-strengths-and-weaknesses-of-preclinical-studies
#2
REVIEW
A M Tartaglione, P Popoli, G Calamandrei
TARTAGLIONE, A.M., P. Popoli and G. Calamandrei. Regenerative medicine in Huntington's disease: strengths and weaknesses of pre-clinical studies. NEUROSCIENCE BIOBEHAV REV (2016). Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by impairment in motor, cognitive and psychiatric domains. Currently, there is no specific therapy to act on the onset or progression of HD. The marked neuronal death observed in HD is a main argument in favour of stem cells (SCs) transplantation as a promising therapeutic perspective to replace the population of lost neurons and restore the functionality of the damaged circuitry...
February 18, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220082/synaptic-and-neuronal-autoantibody-associated-psychiatric-syndromes-controversies-and-hypotheses
#3
Adam Al-Diwani, Thomas A Pollak, Alexander E Langford, Belinda R Lennox
Autoimmune encephalitis (AE) mediated by antibodies against synaptic and neuronal surface targets frequently presents with a psychiatric syndrome. In these patients, removal of autoantibodies treats the disease and outcomes are closely linked to early intervention. The discovery of these autoantibodies in isolated psychiatric syndromes has raised the possibility that these patients may derive similar benefits from immunotherapy, a potentially transformational approach to the treatment of mental illness. Although open-label case series suggest impressive therapeutic outcomes, the pathological relevance of these autoantibodies outside of canonical presentations is debated...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219455/clinical-and-therapeutic-role-of-mentalization-in-schizophrenia-a-review
#4
Trisevgeni Dimopoulou, Frank I Tarazi, Evangelia M Tsapakis
Recent empirical findings from clinical and genetic studies suggest that mentalization, a key area of social cognition, is a distinct construct, although it is closely related to the neurocognitive deficits and symptoms of schizophrenia. Mentalization contributes a great deal to impaired social functioning. Current measures often display methodological problems, and many aspects should be taken into account when assessing mentalization. Moreover, advances in cognitive and affective neurosciences have led to the development of more advanced behavioral methods to assess the relationship between cognitive functions, symptoms, and social cognition based on their underlying neural mechanisms...
February 21, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213292/improving-therapeutic-outcomes-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-enhancing-social-communication-and-sensory-processing-through-the-use-of-interactive-robots
#5
REVIEW
Felippe Sartorato, Leon Przybylowski, Diana K Sarko
For children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), social robots are increasingly utilized as therapeutic tools in order to enhance social skills and communication. Robots have been shown to generate a number of social and behavioral benefits in children with ASD including heightened engagement, increased attention, and decreased social anxiety. Although social robots appear to be effective social reinforcement tools in assistive therapies, the perceptual mechanism underlying these benefits remains unknown...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211606/nrf2-a-novel-therapeutic-target-in-fragile-x-syndrome-is-modulated-by-nnz2566
#6
Robert M J Deacon, Michael J Hurley, Camila Martínez Rebolledo, Mike Snape, Francisco J Altimiras, Leandro Farías, Michael Pino, Rodolfo Biekofsky, Larry Glass, Patricia Cogram
Fragile X-associated disorders are a family of genetic conditions resulting from the partial or complete loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Among these disorders is fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism. Progress in basic neuroscience has led to identification of molecular targets for treatment in FXS; however, there is a gap in translation to targeted therapies in humans. The present study introduces a novel therapeutic target for FXS: nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor known to induce expression of over 100 cytoprotective genes...
February 17, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199172/behavioral-phenotyping-assays-for-genetic-mouse-models-of-neurodevelopmental-neurodegenerative-and-psychiatric-disorders
#7
Stacey J Sukoff Rizzo, Jacqueline N Crawley
Animal models offer heuristic research tools to understand the causes of human diseases and to identify potential treatments. With rapidly evolving genetic engineering technologies, mutations identified in a human disorder can be generated in the mouse genome. Phenotypic outcomes of the mutation are then explicated to confirm hypotheses about causes and to discover effective therapeutics. Most neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders are diagnosed primarily by their prominent behavioral symptoms...
February 8, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191317/intersect-between-self-esteem-and-emotion-regulation-in-narcissistic-personality-disorder-implications-for-alliance-building-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Elsa Ronningstam
Building an alliance with patients with pathological narcissism or narcissistic personality disorder, NPD, can be challenging and include avoidance, negative reactivity and disruptions. A main contributing factor can be the complex interaction between emotion and self-esteem regulation, which affects patients' ability to engage in a therapeutic alliance and treatment. Recent studies, especially in neuroscience have identified functional characteristic and compromises in self-esteem and emotion regulation related to NPD...
2017: Borderline Personality Disorder and Emotion Dysregulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188401/-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-psychiatric-research-as-applied-cognitive-neuroscience
#9
H Walter
BACKGROUND: Just before the official launch of the DSM-5 in 2013, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative of the National Institute of Mental Health was made public and is becoming increasingly more important in psychiatric research. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to clarify the conceptual approach of RDoC, to systematically discuss limitations, to present exemplary RDoC-based studies and to consider the relevance of the RDoC concepts for clinicians and scientists...
February 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174078/hypnosis-and-top-down-regulation-of-consciousness
#10
REVIEW
Devin B Terhune, Axel Cleeremans, Amir Raz, Steven Jay Lynn
Hypnosis is a unique form of top-down regulation in which verbal suggestions are capable of eliciting pronounced changes in a multitude of psychological phenomena. Hypnotic suggestion has been widely used both as a technique for studying basic science questions regarding human consciousness but also as a method for targeting a range of symptoms within a therapeutic context. Here we provide a synthesis of current knowledge regarding the characteristics and neurocognitive mechanisms of hypnosis. We review evidence from cognitive neuroscience, experimental psychopathology, and clinical psychology regarding the utility of hypnosis as an experimental method for modulating consciousness, as a model for studying healthy and pathological cognition, and as a therapeutic vehicle...
February 4, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120010/thirty-years-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-where-do-we-stand
#11
REVIEW
Ulf Ziemann
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been first described 30 years ago, and since then has gained enormous attention by neurologists, psychiatrists, neurosurgeons, clinical neurophysiologists, psychologists, and neuroscientist alike. In the early days, it was primarily used to test integrity of the corticospinal tract. Beyond further developments of TMS in diagnostics, mapping and monitoring of the motor system, major other applications expanded into using TMS as research tool in the cognitive neurosciences, and as therapeutic tool in neurological and psychiatric disease by virtue of inducing long-term change in excitability and connectivity of the stimulated brain networks...
January 25, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114421/immediate-effects-of-repetitive-magnetic-stimulation-on-single-cortical-pyramidal-neurons
#12
Jineta Banerjee, Mary E Sorrell, Pablo A Celnik, Galit Pelled
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has been successfully used as a non-invasive therapeutic intervention for several neurological disorders in the clinic as well as an investigative tool for basic neuroscience. rTMS has been shown to induce long-term changes in neuronal circuits in vivo. Such long-term effects of rTMS have been investigated using behavioral, imaging, electrophysiological, and molecular approaches, but there is limited understanding of the immediate effects of TMS on neurons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108256/a-quantitative-evaluation-of-a-2-5-kb-rat-tyrosine-hydroxylase-promoter-to-target-expression-in-ventral-mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons-in-vivo
#13
Anne-Sophie Rolland, Tatyana Kareva, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become powerful tools in neuroscience for both basic research and potential therapeutic use. They have become especially important tools for optogenetic experiments based on their ability to achieve transgene expression in postmitotic neurons with regional selectivity. With the use of appropriate promoter elements they can achieve cellular specificity as well. One population of neurons that plays a central role in human neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases are the dopamine neurons of the midbrain...
January 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095674/the-century-of-biology-and-the-evolving-role-of-medicinal-chemists-in-neuroscience
#14
Dario Doller
Society expects that the wave of contemporary new discoveries in biological sciences will soon lead to novel treatments for human diseases, including many devastating brain disorders. Historically, medicinal chemists have contributed to drug discovery teams in ways that synergize with those from their partner sciences, and help transform new knowledge into the ultimate tangible asset: a new drug. The optimal balance of resources and the right strategy to minimize the risk of late clinical failure may differ for different therapeutic indications...
January 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093977/the-amyloid-cascade-hypothesis-in-alzheimer-s-disease-it-s-time-to-change-our-mind
#15
Roberta Ricciarelli, Ernesto Fedele
Since its discovery in 1984, the beta amyloid peptide has treaded the boards of neurosciences as the star molecule in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. In the last decade, however, this vision has been challenged by evidence-based medicine showing the almost complete failure of clinical trials that experimented anti-amyloid therapies with great hopes. Moreover, data have accumulated which clearly indicates that this small peptide plays a key role in the physiological processes of memory formation. In the present review, we will discuss the different aspects of the amyloid cascade hypothesis, highlighting its pros and cons, and we will analyse the results of the therapeutic approaches attempted to date that should change the direction of Alzheimer's disease research in the future...
January 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088535/neurobiological-consequences-of-juvenile-stress-a-gabaergic-perspective-on-risk-and-resilience
#16
REVIEW
Anne Albrecht, Iris Müller, Ziv Ardi, Gürsel Çalışkan, David Gruber, Sebastian Ivens, Menahem Segal, Joachim Behr, Uwe Heinemann, Oliver Stork, Gal Richter-Levin
ALBRECHT, A., MÜLLER, I., ARDI, Z., ÇALIŞKAN, G., GRUBER, D., IVENS, S., SEGAL, M., BEHR, J., HEINEMANN, U., STORK, O., and RICHTER-LEVIN, G. Neurobiological consequences of juvenile stress: A GABAergic perspective on risk and resilience. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XXX-XXX, 2016.- Childhood adversity is among the most potent risk factors for developing mood and anxiety disorders later in life. Therefore, understanding how stress during childhood shapes and rewires the brain may optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies for these disorders...
March 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071266/biogen-s-portfolio-and-research-efforts-in-multiple-sclerosis-an-interview-with-dr-ralph-kern
#17
Ralph Kern
Ralph Kern speaks to Laura Dormer, Commissioning Editor: Dr Ralph Kern is Senior Vice President and Head of Worldwide Medical at Biogen in Cambridge, MA, USA. In this role, he oversees Biogen's global therapeutic, regional and country medical teams, global medical operations, as well as medical research and scientific communications functions. Prior to joining Biogen, he was head of the Neuroscience Medical Unit at Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation and held various medical and commercial leadership roles at Genzyme Corporation...
February 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063207/lithiumeter-version-2-0
#18
Gin S Malhi, Samuel Gershon, Tim Outhred
BACKGROUND: The Lithiumeter was developed as a visual and practical guide for determining lithium levels in the management of bipolar disorder (BD). It appears to have been well received, as evidenced by its increasing popularity amongst doctors as a deskside clinical aide, and adoption and reproduction of the schematic in clinical guidelines and texts. However, since its publication 5 years ago, key basic neuroscience and clinical research developments pertaining to lithium have significantly advanced our understanding, necessitating further refinement of guidance concerning the practicalities of lithium therapy...
December 2016: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031978/translational-research-needs-us-to-go-back-to-basics-and-collaborate-interview-with-lars-sundstrom
#19
Lars Sundstrom
Lars Sundstrom is Director of Enterprise and Translation at the West of England Academic Health Sciences Network [1] (UK), a Professor of Practice in Translational Medicine and Co-Director of the Elizabeth Blackwell Institute for Health Research at Bristol University [2] (UK), and an honorary Professor of Medicine at Cardiff University (UK). He has extensive experience in translational medicine and clinical neurosciences, holding positions at several eminent universities. He has also held executive and board-level positions at several SMEs, developing new therapeutics for neurological conditions and tools for drug discovery...
September 2016: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025948/perspectives-of-in-vivo-bioluminescence-imaging-application-to-basic-and-translational-neuroscience
#20
Stefanie Vogel, Franziska Collmann, Mathias Hoehn
BACKGROUND: In vivo bioluminescence imaging has been used extensively for screening assays and for qualitative determination of localization of cells, in particular in cancer studies. OBJECTIVE: In this review we show the potential of this noninvasive molecular imaging modality to investigate gene activity, dynamic processes and translational disease processes, all under true in vivo conditions with the specific focus on brain. RESULTS: We demonstrate a range of applications of bioluminescence imaging in basic and translational neuroscience...
December 26, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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