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Therapeutic neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759944/testing-assumptions-on-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-comparison-of-electrode-montages-using-multimodal-fmri
#1
Jana Wörsching, Frank Padberg, Stephan Goerigk, Irmgard Heinz, Christine Bauer, Christian Plewnia, Alkomiet Hasan, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Daniel Keeser
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been widely applied in cognitive neurosciences and advocated as a therapeutic intervention, e.g. in major depressive disorder. Although several targets and protocols have been suggested, comparative studies of tDCS parameters, particularly electrode montages and their cortical targets, are still lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a priori hypotheses on specific effects of prefrontal-tDCS montages by using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy participants...
May 4, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739735/effectiveness-of-a-blended-multidisciplinary-intervention-for-patients-with-moderate-medically-unexplained-physical-symptoms-parasol-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
Paula Elisabeth van Westrienen, Martijn F Pisters, Suze Aj Toonders, Marloes Gerrits, Cindy Veenhof, Niek J de Wit
BACKGROUND: Medically unexplained physical symptoms are an important health problem in primary care, with a spectrum from mild to chronic. The burden of chronic medically unexplained physical symptoms is substantial for patients, health care professionals, and society. Therefore, early identification of patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms is needed in order to prevent chronicity. The preventive screening of medically unexplained physical symptoms (PRESUME) screening method was developed using data from the electronic medical record of the patients' general practitioner and demonstrated its prognostic accuracy to identify patients with moderate medically unexplained physical symptoms...
May 8, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733950/recent-advances-in-carrier-mediated-nose-to-brain-delivery-of-pharmaceutics
#3
REVIEW
Vassilis Bourganis, Olga Kammona, Aleck Alexopoulos, Costas Kiparissides
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, etc.) represent a growing public health issue, primarily due to the increased life expectancy and the aging population. The treatment of such disorders is notably elaborate and requires the delivery of therapeutics to the brain in appropriate amounts to elicit a pharmacological response. However, despite the major advances both in neuroscience and drug delivery research, the administration of drugs to the CNS still remains elusive...
May 4, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729902/mind-reading-and-writing-the-future-of-neurotechnology
#4
REVIEW
Pieter R Roelfsema, Damiaan Denys, P Christiaan Klink
Recent advances in neuroscience and technology have made it possible to record from large assemblies of neurons and to decode their activity to extract information. At the same time, available methods to stimulate the brain and influence ongoing processing are also rapidly expanding. These developments pave the way for advanced neurotechnological applications that directly read from, and write to, the human brain. While such technologies are still primarily used in restricted therapeutic contexts, this may change in the future once their performance has improved and they become more widely applicable...
May 2, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717910/treating-adhd-with-suggestion-neurofeedback-and-placebo-therapeutics
#5
Robert T Thibault, Samuel Veissière, Jay A Olson, Amir Raz
OBJECTIVE: We propose that clinicians can use suggestion to help treat conditions such as ADHD. METHODS: We use EEG neurofeedback as a case study, alongside evidence from a recent pilot experiment utilizing a sham MRI scanner to highlight the therapeutic potential of suggestion-based treatments. RESULTS: The medical literature demonstrates that many practitioners already prescribe treatments that hardly outperform placebo comparators. Moreover, the sham MRI experiment showed that, even with full disclosure of the procedure, suggestion alone can reduce the symptomatology of ADHD...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713338/how-visual-body-perception-influences-somatosensory-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Esther Kuehn, Burkhard Pleger
The study of somatosensory plasticity offers unique insights into the neuronal mechanisms that underlie human adaptive and maladaptive plasticity. So far, little attention has been paid on the specific influence of visual body perception on somatosensory plasticity and learning in humans. Here, we review evidence on how visual body perception induces changes in the functional architecture of the somatosensory system and discuss the specific influence the social environment has on tactile plasticity and learning...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707781/driving-working-memory-with-frequency-tuned-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#7
REVIEW
Philippe Albouy, Sylvain Baillet, Robert J Zatorre
Frequency-tuned noninvasive brain stimulation is a recent approach in cognitive neuroscience that involves matching the frequency of transcranially applied electromagnetic fields to that of specific oscillatory components of the underlying neurophysiology. The objective of this method is to modulate ongoing/intrinsic brain oscillations, which correspond to rhythmic fluctuations of neural excitability, to causally change behavior. We review the impact of frequency-tuned noninvasive brain stimulation on the research field of human working memory...
April 29, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700896/task-related-fmri-in-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Katerina Gaberova, Iliyana Pacheva, Ivan Ivanov
RATIONALE: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used widely to study reorganization after early brain injuries. Unilateral cerebral palsy (UCP) is an appealing model for studying brain plasticity by fMRI. AIM: To summarize the results of task-related fMRI studies in UCP in order to get better understanding of the mechanism of neuroplasticity of the developing brain and its reorganization potential and better translation of this knowledge to clinical practice...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691958/brain-based-treatment-a-new-approach-or-a-well-forgotten-old-one
#9
Vanya Matanova, Zlatomira Kostova, Martin Kolev
For a relatively long period of time, mental functioning was mainly associated with personal profile while brain functioning went by the wayside. After the 90s of the 20th century, or the so called "Decade of the Brain", today, contemporary specialists work on the boundary between fundamental science and medicine. This brings neuroscience, neuropsychology, psychiatry, and psychotherapy closer to each other. Today, we definitely know that brain structures are being built and altered thanks to experience...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691944/developmental-performance-of-5-year-old-bulgarian-children-an-example-of-translational-neuroscience-in-practice
#10
Ralitsa Yordanova, Ivan Ivanov
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Developmental testing is essential for early recognition of the various developmental impairments. The tools used should be composed of items that are age specific, adapted, and standardized for the population they are applied to. The achievements of neurosciences, medicine, psychology, pedagogy, etc. are applied in the elaboration of a comprehensive examination tool that should screen all major areas of development. The key age of 5 years permits identification of almost all major developmental disabilities leaving time for therapeutic intervention before school entrance...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677475/molecular-and-functional-neuroscience-in-immunity
#11
Valentin A Pavlov, Sangeeta S Chavan, Kevin J Tracey
The nervous system regulates immunity and inflammation. The molecular detection of pathogen fragments, cytokines, and other immune molecules by sensory neurons generates immunoregulatory responses through efferent autonomic neuron signaling. The functional organization of this neural control is based on principles of reflex regulation. Reflexes involving the vagus nerve and other nerves have been therapeutically explored in models of inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, and recently in clinical settings...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661037/lysosomes-and-brain-health
#12
Jaiprakash Sharma, Alberto di Ronza, Parisa Lotfi, Marco Sardiello
One of the fundamental properties of the cell is the capability to digest and remodel its own components according to metabolic and developmental needs. This is accomplished via the autophagy-lysosome system, a pathway of critical importance in the brain, where it contributes to neuronal plasticity and must protect nonreplaceable neurons from the potentially harmful accumulation of cellular waste. The study of lysosomal biogenesis and function in the context of common and rare neurodegenerative diseases has revealed that a dysfunctional autophagy-lysosome system is the shared nexus where multiple, interconnected pathogenic events take place...
April 16, 2018: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600349/delivery-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-by-3d-biocompatible-polymeric-scaffolds-for-neural-tissue-engineering-and-neuronal-regeneration
#13
T Limongi, A Rocchi, F Cesca, H Tan, E Miele, A Giugni, M Orlando, M Perrone Donnorso, G Perozziello, Fabio Benfenati, Enzo Di Fabrizio
Biopolymers are increasingly employed for neuroscience applications as scaffolds to drive and promote neural regrowth, thanks to their ability to mediate the upload and subsequent release of active molecules and drugs. Synthetic degradable polymers are characterized by different responses ranging from tunable distension or shrinkage to total dissolution, depending on the function they are designed for. In this paper we present a biocompatible microfabricated poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) scaffold for primary neuron growth and maturation that has been optimized for the in vitro controlled release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)...
March 29, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593052/long-term-depression-is-independent-of-glun2-subunit-composition
#14
Jonathan M Wong, John A Gray
NMDA receptors (NMDARs) mediate both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) and understanding how a single receptor can initiate both phenomena remains a major question in neuroscience. A prominent hypothesis implicates the NMDAR subunit composition, specifically GluN2A and GluN2B, in dictating the rules of synaptic plasticity. However, studies testing this hypothesis have yielded inconsistent and often contradictory results, especially for LTD. These inconsistent results may be due to challenges in the interpretation of subunit-selective pharmacology and in dissecting out the contributions of differential channel properties versus the interacting proteins unique to GluN2A or GluN2B...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575499/keeping-secrets-leslie-e-keeley-the-gold-cure-and-the-nineteenth-century-neuroscience-of-addiction
#15
Timothy A Hickman
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dr Leslie E. Keeley was perhaps the world's most famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack because he dispensed a secret cure. The article aims to describe Keeley's now largely forgotten story and to draw attention to the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of any theory of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty first century. METHODS: This study is a qualitative assessment and contextualisation of historical documents...
March 25, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561359/title-comparative-transcriptome-profiling-of-the-human-and-mouse-dorsal-root-ganglia-an-rna-seq-based-resource-for-pain-and-sensory-neuroscience-research
#16
Pradipta Ray, Andrew Torck, Lilyana Quigley, Andi Wangzhou, Matthew Neiman, Chandranshu Rao, Tiffany Lam, Ji-Young Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Michael Q Zhang, Gregory Dussor, Theodore J Price
Molecular neurobiological insight into human nervous tissues is needed to generate next generation therapeutics for neurological disorders like chronic pain. We obtained human Dorsal Root Ganglia (DRG) samples from organ donors and performed RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to study the human DRG (hDRG) transcriptional landscape, systematically comparing it with publicly available data from a variety of human and orthologous mouse tissues, including mouse DRG (mDRG). We characterized the hDRG transcriptional profile in terms of tissue-restricted gene co-expression patterns and putative transcriptional regulators, and formulated an information-theoretic framework to quantify DRG enrichment...
March 20, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550689/rethinking-avoidance-toward-a-balanced-approach-to-avoidance-in-treating-anxiety-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Stefan G Hofmann, Aleena C Hay
Avoidance is typically considered a maladaptive behavioral response to excessive fear and anxiety, leading to the maintenance of anxiety disorders. Exposure is a core element of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders. One important aspect of this treatment is repeated and prolonged exposure to a threat while discouraging patients from using avoidance strategies, such as escape or safety behaviors. We will first revisit the role of avoidance learning in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders, including important insights from the neuroscience literature...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524131/neuroepigenetic-editing
#18
Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Studies of the mammalian nervous system have revealed widespread epigenetic regulation underlying gene expression intrinsic to basic neurobiological function as well as neurological disease. Over the past decade, a critical role has emerged for the neural regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes during both development and adulthood, and in response to external stimuli. These biochemical data are complemented by numerous next generation sequencing (NGS) studies that quantify the extent of chromatin and DNA modifications in neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504685/imagining-with-the-body-in-analytical-psychology-movement-as-active-imagination-an-interdisciplinary-perspective-from-philosophy-and-neuroscience
#19
Ana Deligiannis
This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495377/embodied-cognition-and-the-direct-induction-of-affect-as-a-compliment-to-cognitive-behavioural-therapy
#20
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
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