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Therapeutic neuroscience

Peter J Hamilton, Carissa J Lim, Eric J Nestler, Elizabeth A Heller
Studies of the mammalian nervous system have revealed widespread epigenetic regulation underlying gene expression intrinsic to basic neurobiological function as well as neurological disease. Over the past decade, a critical role has emerged for the neural regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes during both development and adulthood, and in response to external stimuli. These biochemical data are complemented by numerous next generation sequencing (NGS) studies that quantify the extent of chromatin and DNA modifications in neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Ana Deligiannis
This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Tania Pietrzak, Christina Lohr, Beverly Jahn, Gernot Hauke
We make the case for the possible integration of affect experience induced via embodiment techniques with CBT for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings. Theoretically we propose a possible integration of cognitive behavioural theory, neuroscience, embodied cognition and important processes of client change outcomes such as the therapeutic alliance to enhance client outcomes. We draw from evidence of bidirectional effects between embodiment modes of bottom-up (sensory-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top-down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes such as CBT in psychotherapy...
February 26, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Fredric N Busch, Elizabeth L Auchincloss
Psychoanalysts have generally avoided discussion of psychoeducational interventions in the context of psychodynamic psychotherapy, despite education being a component of many psychoanalytic techniques. This wariness stems from Freud's early concerns about interventions that could be deemed "suggestion," and a misunderstanding of various aspects of neutrality, including viewing psychoeducational comments as over-gratifying or siding with the ego. Although potential pitfalls exist, the authors review clinical evidence and research that indicate the value of psychoeducational approaches for engaging patients in psychodynamic psychotherapy, considering alternative treatments, providing a psychodynamic formulation, and enhancing the therapeutic alliance...
2018: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
Emanuela Pagliano, Giovanni Baranello, Riccardo Masson, Maria Foscan, Maria Teresa Arnoldi, Alessia Marchi, Giorgia Aprile, Chiara Pantaleoni
The huge contribution of advances in the pediatric neurosciences, improvements in clinical practice, and new therapeutic options, has led to the development of new models of treatment and rehabilitation for dystonia in the last decade. It is now generally agreed that a multidimensional therapeutic approach is needed for children with motor disorders, whose motor function-conceived as a complex perceptive, motor and cognitive process - is impaired at a crucial time in their development, with a fall out on how their various adaptive functions evolve...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
David E Nichols
LSD is one of the most potent psychoactive agents known, producing dramatic alterations of consciousness after submilligram (≥20 g) oral doses. Following the accidental discovery of its potent psychoactive effects in 1943, it was supplied by Sandoz Laboratories as an experimental drug that might be useful as an adjunct for psychotherapy, or to give psychiatrists insight into the mental processes in their patients. The finding of serotonin in the mammalian brain in 1953, and its structural resemblance to LSD, quickly led to ideas that serotonin in the brain might be involved in mental illness, initiating rapid research interest in the neurochemistry of serotonin...
February 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Peter Stilwell, Katherine Harman
Aim: To inform future research and exercise prescription for patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP), this study explored chiropractors' and chiropractic patients' experiences and beliefs regarding the barriers and facilitators to prescribed exercise adherence. Methods: A focused ethnographic approach was used involving 16 semi-structured interviews, including pilot interviews (n = 4) followed by interviews with chiropractors (n = 6) and chiropractic patients with CLBP (n = 6)...
December 2017: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Christo Joannidis
This paper investigates the concept of "total situation" which, even though introduced into psychoanalytic thinking via sister disciplines, such as sociology, the neurosciences, etc., has gradually acquired a relatively prominent position in current therapeutic practice. It is used as a metaphor for the envelopment of the unfolding transferential and related events in the analytic process. Irrespective of whether one focuses on the individual analytic condition or the group-analytic one, contemporary psychoanalytic perspectives include both the bi-personal unconscious interactions and the various levels of the total situation in their conceptualizations of the nature of the process...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
David B Bylund, S J Enna
Although Solomon Snyder authored hundreds of research reports and several books covering a broad range of topics in the neurosciences, he is best known by many as the person who developed neurotransmitter receptor radioligand binding assays. By demonstrating the utility of this approach for studying transmitter receptors in brain, Dr. Snyder provided the scientific community with a powerful new tool for identifying and characterizing these sites, for defining their relationship to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and their involvement in mediating the actions of psychotherapeutics...
2018: Advances in Pharmacology
Fady Girgis, Darrin J Lee, Amir Goodarzi, Jochen Ditterich
Piaget's genetic epistemology has provided the constructivist approach upon which child developmental theories were founded, in that infants are thought to progress through distinct cognitive stages until they reach maturity in their early 20's. However, it is now well established that cognition continues to develop after early adulthood, and several "neo-Piagetian" theories have emerged in an attempt to better characterize adult cognitive development. For example, Kegan's Constructive Developmental Theory (CDT) argues that the thought processes used by adults to construct their reality change over time, and reaching higher stages of cognitive development entails becoming objectively aware of emotions and beliefs that were previously in the realm of the subconscious...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Marom Bikson, Andre R Brunoni, Leigh E Charvet, Vincent P Clark, Leonardo G Cohen, Zhi-De Deng, Jacek Dmochowski, Dylan J Edwards, Flavio Frohlich, Emily S Kappenman, Kelvin O Lim, Colleen Loo, Antonio Mantovani, David P McMullen, Lucas C Parra, Michele Pearson, Jessica D Richardson, Judith M Rumsey, Pejman Sehatpour, David Sommers, Gozde Unal, Eric M Wassermann, Adam J Woods, Sarah H Lisanby
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric disorders are a leading source of disability and require novel treatments that target mechanisms of disease. As such disorders are thought to result from aberrant neuronal circuit activity, neuromodulation approaches are of increasing interest given their potential for manipulating circuits directly. Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) with direct currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) or alternating currents (transcranial alternating current stimulation, tACS) represent novel, safe, well-tolerated, and relatively inexpensive putative treatment modalities...
December 29, 2017: Brain Stimulation
Salim Senturk, Mesut Emre Yaman, Hasan Emre Aydin, Guven Guney, Ismail Bozkurt, Kemal Paksoy, Ahmet Atilla Abdioglu
AIM: Reversing the disastrous effects spinal cord injury has become the most prominent topic of neuroscience. Although many therapeutic interventions are being examined, there is yet no definitive cure for spinal cord injury (SCI). In view of this, an experimental study on rats after spinal trauma was performed to test the effects of a natural phenol; Resveratrol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 18 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. All groups underwent thoracic laminectomy...
December 6, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
Steven E Hyman
An epochal opportunity to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of psychiatric disorders has emerged from advances in genomic technology, new computational tools and the growth of international consortia committed to data sharing. The resulting large-scale, unbiased genetic studies have begun to yield new biological insights and with them the hope that a half century of stasis in psychiatric therapeutics will come to an end. Yet a sobering picture is coming into view; it reveals daunting genetic and phenotypic complexity portending enormous challenges for neurobiology...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Amy L Milton, Emily A Holmes
The science of mental life is critical for understanding both how we function, and impairments in our functioning. However, understanding the causal mechanisms underlying mental health disorders and developing new treatments are challenges too great to be solved by any individual approach. There is a growing awareness that translational research-from laboratory to patient and back again to animal models-will be critical for the improved understanding and treatment of mental health disorders. The motivation and intention to pursue translational approaches is therefore strong in mental health research, but critically, opportunities for interaction between basic scientists and clinicians are relatively limited, and vary depending on the institution in which researchers are working...
March 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Maria Gulinello, Heather A Mitchell, Qiang Chang, W Timothy O'Brien, Zhaolan Zhou, Ted Abel, Li Wang, Joshua G Corbin, Surabi Veeraragavan, Rodney C Samaco, Nick A Andrews, Michela Fagiolini, Toby B Cole, Thomas M Burbacher, Jacqueline N Crawley
Behavioral neuroscience research incorporates the identical high level of meticulous methodologies and exacting attention to detail as all other scientific disciplines. To achieve maximal rigor and reproducibility of findings, well-trained investigators employ a variety of established best practices. Here we explicate some of the requirements for rigorous experimental design and accurate data analysis in conducting mouse and rat behavioral tests. Novel object recognition is used as an example of a cognitive assay which has been conducted successfully with a range of methods, all based on common principles of appropriate procedures, controls, and statistics...
January 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Govindhan Maduraiveeran, Manickam Sasidharan, Vellaichamy Ganesan
Introduction of novel functional nanomaterials and analytical technologies signify a foremost possibility for the advance of electrochemical sensor and biosensor platforms/devices for a broad series of applications including biological, biomedical, biotechnological, clinical and medical diagnostics, environmental and health monitoring, and food industries. The design of sensitive and selective electrochemical biological sensor platforms are accomplished conceivably by offering new surface modifications, microfabrication techniques, and diverse nanomaterials with unique properties for in vivo and in vitro medical analysis via relating a sensibly planned electrode/solution interface...
December 22, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Erin L Boespflug, Jeffrey J Iliff
Amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques are a key histopathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and soluble Aβ species are believed to play an important role in the clinical development of this disease. Emerging biomarker data demonstrate that Aβ plaque deposition begins decades before the onset of clinical symptoms, suggesting that understanding the biological determinants of the earliest steps in the development of AD pathology may provide key opportunities for AD treatment and prevention. Although a clinical association between sleep disruption and AD has long been appreciated, emerging clinical studies and insights from the basic neurosciences have shed important new light on how sleep and Aβ homeostasis may be connected in the setting of AD...
February 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Qi Wu, Kenji Ono, Hiromi Suzuki, Megumi Eguchi, Shun Yamaguchi, Makoto Sawada
Visualization of direct neuronal activity to understand brain function is one of the most important challenges in neuroscience. We have previously demonstrated that in vivo and in vitro gene expression of the ferritin reporter system could be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, increased neuronal activity induces Arc, an immediate early gene, and insertion of a destabilized fluorescent reporter dVenus under Arc promoter control has been used for monitoring neuronal activities in the brain by optical imaging...
December 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
Andrea Serio, Rickie Patani
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is incurable and devastating. A dearth of therapies has galvanized experimental focus onto the cellular and molecular mechanisms that both initiate and subsequently drive motor neuron (MN) degeneration. A traditional view of ALS pathogenesis posits that disease-specific injury to a subtype of neurons is mechanistically cell-autonomous. This "neuron-centric" view has biased past research efforts. However, a wealth of accumulating evidence now strongly implicates non-neuronal cells as being major determinants of ALS...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
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