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Therapeutic neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641510/recent-advances-on-the-role-of-neurogenesis-in-the-adult-brain-therapeutic-potential-in-parkinson-s-and-alzheimer-s-diseases
#1
Khaled Salman Radad, Rudolf Moldzio, Mubarak Al-Shraim, Barbara Kranner, Christopher Krewenka, Wolf-Dieter Rausch
Generation of nascent functional neurons from neural stem cells in the adult brain has recently become largely accepted by the neuroscience community. In adult mammals including humans, the process of neurogenesis has been well documented in two brain regions; the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Some evidence has indicated neurogenesis in other regions of the adult mammalian brain such as the neocortex, cerebellum, striatum, amygdala and hypothalamus...
June 22, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636960/mechanisms-and-therapeutic-relevance-of-neuro-immune-communication
#2
REVIEW
Sangeeta S Chavan, Valentin A Pavlov, Kevin J Tracey
Active research at the frontiers of immunology and neuroscience has identified multiple points of interaction and communication between the immune system and the nervous system. Immune cell activation stimulates neuronal circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Molecular mechanistic insights into the inflammatory reflex and other neuro-immune interactions have greatly advanced our understanding of immunity and identified new therapeutic possibilities in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent successful clinical trials using bioelectronic devices that modulate the inflammatory reflex to significantly ameliorate rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease provide a path for using electrons as a therapeutic modality for targeting molecular mechanisms of immunity...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614970/effect-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-drainage-on-brain-tissue-oxygenation-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Omar S Akbik, Mark Krasberg, Edwin M Nemoto, Howard Yonas
The effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage in lowering high intracranial pressure (ICP) is well established in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, recently the use of external ventricular drains and intracranial pressure monitors in traumatic brain injury has come under question. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the effect of CSF drainage on brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2). Using a multimodality monitoring system, we continuously monitored brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) and parenchymal ICP during CSF drainage events via a ventriculostomy in 40 patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589521/strengthening-the-case-for-epilepsy-drug-development-bridging-experiences-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-field-an-opinion
#4
Roy E Twyman
Given the sheer number of drugs (over 20!) available for treatment of seizures, epilepsy can be considered one of the most successful areas in pharmaceutical development and especially for neuroscience. However, despite the large number of drug treatment options available for managing patients with epilepsy, there remains considerable unmet need. For example, the overall impact on seizure control has not been substantial with approximately 30% of patients remaining refractory or their seizures not adequately controlled...
June 7, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578466/dopaminergic-regulation-of-innate-immunity-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Monica Pinoli, Franca Marino, Marco Cosentino
Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral tissues. Emerging evidence however points to DA also as a key transmitter between the nervous system and the immune system as well as a mediator produced and released by immune cells themselves. Dopaminergic pathways have received so far extensive attention in the adaptive branch of the immune system, where they play a role in health and disease such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and Parkinson's disease...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576511/elucidating-opportunities-and-pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-to-optimize-and-facilitate-clinical-translation
#6
REVIEW
Patricia B de la Tremblaye, Darik A O'Neil, Megan J LaPorte, Jeffrey P Cheng, Joshua A Beitchman, Theresa Currier Thomas, Corina O Bondi, Anthony E Kline
The aim of this review is to discuss the research presented in a symposium entitled "Current progress in characterizing therapeutic strategies and challenges in experimental CNS injury" which was presented at the 2016 International Behavioral Neuroscience Society annual meeting. Herein we discuss diffuse and focal traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ensuing chronic behavioral deficits as well as potential rehabilitative approaches. We also discuss the effects of stress on executive function after TBI as well as the response of the endocrine system and regulatory feedback mechanisms...
May 30, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552355/a-mechanistic-link-from-gaba-to-cortical-architecture-and-perception
#7
James Kolasinski, John P Logan, Emily L Hinson, Daniel Manners, Amir P Divanbeighi Zand, Tamar R Makin, Uzay E Emir, Charlotte J Stagg
Understanding both the organization of the human cortex and its relation to the performance of distinct functions is fundamental in neuroscience. The primary sensory cortices display topographic organization, whereby receptive fields follow a characteristic pattern, from tonotopy to retinotopy to somatotopy [1]. GABAergic signaling is vital to the maintenance of cortical receptive fields [2]; however, it is unclear how this fine-grain inhibition relates to measurable patterns of perception [3, 4]. Based on perceptual changes following perturbation of the GABAergic system, it is conceivable that the resting level of cortical GABAergic tone directly relates to the spatial specificity of activation in response to a given input [5-7]...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540771/identifying-therapeutic-targets-for-alzheimer-s-disease-with-big-data
#8
Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner
Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner is a Professor of Neuroscience and Neurology at the Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. A neurogeneticist and board-certified behavioral neurologist, she received her medical degree from Hacettepe University Medical School in Ankara, Turkey and her doctorate degree in Molecular Neuroscience from Mayo Graduate School. She completed her residency training in the Department of Neurology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester (MN, USA) and fellowship in Behavioral Neurology at Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville...
April 2017: Neurodegenerative Disease Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528375/hypothalamic-signaling-in-body-fluid-homeostasis-and-hypertension
#9
REVIEW
Brian J Kinsman, Haley N Nation, Sean D Stocker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system plays a pivotal role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume and consequently arterial blood pressure. Key hypothalamic regions sense and integrate neurohumoral signals to subsequently alter intake (thirst and salt appetite) and output (renal excretion via neuroendocrine and autonomic function). Here, we review recent findings that provide new insight into such mechanisms that may represent new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Implementation of cutting edge neuroscience approaches such as opto- and chemogenetics highlight pivotal roles of circumventricular organs to impact body fluid homeostasis...
June 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524700/what-is-important-in-transdisciplinary-pain-neuroscience-education-a-qualitative-study
#10
Amarins J Wijma, Caroline M Speksnijder, Astrid F Crom-Ottens, J M Corine Knulst-Verlaan, Doeke Keizer, Jo Nijs, C Paul van Wilgen
PURPOSE: The main focus of Pain Neuroscience Education is around changing patients' pain perceptions and minimizing further medical care. Even though Pain Neuroscience Education has been studied extensively, the experiences of patients regarding the Pain Neuroscience Education process remain to be explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the experiences in patients with non-specific chronic pain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with non-specific chronic pain from a transdisciplinary treatment centre were in-depth interviewed...
May 19, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523673/the-function-of-language-in-parent-infant-psychotherapy
#11
Björn Salomonsson
Parent-infant psychotherapy, a rather new field in psychoanalysis, raises questions of how to conceptualize the clinical process. Previous publications have used semiotic concepts to account for the therapist's non-verbal communication and investigated the countertransference, including what the baby might grasp of its variations. The present paper focuses on another argument for using verbal interventions to a baby in therapy; they present him with a symbolic order that differs from that of the parent. The qualitative difference between the parent's and the analyst's address is conceptualized by Dolto's term parler vrai...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522405/challenges-and-opportunities-for-the-development-of-new-antipsychotic-drugs
#12
REVIEW
Carlos Forray, Raimund Buller
In spite of the significant impact that the serendipitous discovery of drugs with antipsychotic properties had on the care of patients with psychotic disorders, there are significant challenges when aiming at therapeutic goals such as remission, recovery, improved health-related quality of life and functioning. The efficacy and effectiveness of existing antipsychotic drugs fail to address the full spectrum of symptoms and functional deficits that currently prevent patients with psychotic disorders from achieving fulfilling lives...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522182/hodotopy-neuroplasticity-and-diffuse-gliomas
#13
H Duffau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The historical approach in neurooncology is used to mainly investigate the tumor, with very few considerations regarding the brain itself. Nonetheless, to select the best personalized therapeutic management for each patient with a diffuse glioma, i.e. to optimize the "onco-functional balance", the brain reaction induced by glioma growth and migration should be studied. Indeed, due to strong interactions between the glioma and the brain, cerebral adaptive phenomena often occur in order to maintain neurological and cognitive functions, as well as to compensate glioma spreading...
May 15, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516669/state-of-the-art-novel-applications-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#14
REVIEW
Holly A Roy, Alexander L Green, Tipu Z Aziz
OBJECTIVES: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a rapidly developing field of neurosurgery with potential therapeutic applications that are relevant to conditions traditionally viewed as beyond the limits of neurosurgery. Our objective, in this review, is to highlight some of the emerging applications of DBS within three distinct but overlapping spheres, namely trauma, neuropsychiatry, and autonomic physiology. REVIEW METHODS: An extensive literature review was carried out in MEDLINE, to identify relevant studies and review articles describing applications of DBS in the areas of trauma, neuropsychiatry and autonomic neuroscience...
May 17, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515548/culturally-relevant-family-therapy-practice-with-parents-of-children-and-adolescents
#15
Tania Roy, A Thirumoorthy, R Parthasarathy
BACKGROUND: India is diverse in culture, with multiple aspects that may not match with the Western societal picture. Hence, it has often been seen that therapists encounter unique aspects of therapy that is faced during actual practice, which is never written in any textbook or research papers. Substantial information is present through both outcome (efficacy and effectiveness) studies and process research, but it has very little impact of actual Marital and Family Therapy (MFT) practice...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508358/degradomics-in-neurotrauma-profiling-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Hadi Abou-El-Hassan, Fares Sukhon, Edwyn Jeremy Assaf, Hisham Bahmad, Hussein Abou-Abbass, Hussam Jourdi, Firas H Kobeissy
Degradomics has recently emerged as a subdiscipline in the omics era with a focus on characterizing signature breakdown products implicated in various disease processes. Driven by promising experimental findings in cancer, neuroscience, and metabolomic disorders, degradomics has significantly promoted the notion of disease-specific "degradome." A degradome arises from the activation of several proteases that target specific substrates and generate signature protein fragments. Several proteases such as calpains, caspases, cathepsins, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases that disturb the physiologic balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499100/probing-for-neuroadaptations-to-unpredictable-stressors-in-addiction-translational-methods-and-emerging-evidence
#17
Jesse T Kaye, Daniel E Bradford, Katherine P Magruder, John J Curtin
Stressors clearly contribute to addiction etiology and relapse in humans, but our understanding of specific mechanisms remains limited. Rodent models of addiction offer the power, flexibility, and precision necessary to delineate the causal role and specific mechanisms through which stressors influence alcohol and other drug use. This review describes a program of research using startle potentiation to unpredictable stressors that is well positioned to translate between animal models and clinical research with humans on stress neuroadaptations in addiction...
May 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468946/novel-mode-of-antagonist-binding-in-nmda-receptors-revealed-by-the-crystal-structure-of-the-glun1-glun2a-ligand-binding-domain-complexed-to-nvp-aam077
#18
Annabel Romero-Hernandez, Hiro Furukawa
Competitive antagonists against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have played critical roles throughout the history of neuropharmacology and basic neuroscience. There are currently numerous NMDA receptor antagonists containing a variety of chemical groups. Among those compounds, a GluN2-specific antagonist, (R)-[(S)-1-(4-bromo-phenyl)-ethylamino]-(2,3-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxalin-5-yl)-methyl-phosphonic acid (NVP-AAM077), contains a unique combination of a dioxoquinoxalinyl ring, a bromophenyl group, and a phosphono group...
July 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464865/empathy-in-psychoanalysis-and-medical-education-what-can-we-learn-from-each-other
#19
Henriette Löffler-Stastka, Felicitas Datz, Karoline Parth, Ingrid Preusche, Xenia Bukowski, Charles Seidman
BACKGROUND: Several research areas, including medical education (ME), focus on empathy as an important topic in interpersonal relationships. This focus is central to the use of communication skills related to empathy and even more crucial to provide information in a way that makes patients feel more involved in the treatment process. Psychoanalysis (PA) provides its initial concept of empathy based on affective aspects including findings from neuroscience and brain research. Enhancing cooperation between ME and PA can help to integrate both aspects of empathy into a longitudinal training program...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459656/a-short-guide-to-electrophysiology-and-ion-channels
#20
Hussein Nori Rubaiy
The birth and discovery of electrophysiological science took place in the 18--th century laying the path for our understanding of nerve membrane ionic currents. The pore-forming proteins, ion channels, are involved and play critical roles in very important physiological and pathological processes, such as neuronal signaling and cardiac excitability, therefore, they serve as therapeutic drug targets. The study of physiological, pharmacological and biophysical properties of ion channels can be done by patch clamp, a gold standard and powerful electrophysiological technique...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
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