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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920067/a-history-of-dystonia-ancient-to-modern
#1
REVIEW
Rachel E Newby, Deborah E Thorpe, Peter A Kempster, Jane E Alty
Before 1911, when Hermann Oppenheim introduced the term dystonia, this movement disorder lacked a unifying descriptor. While words like epilepsy, apoplexy, and palsy have had their meanings since antiquity, references to dystonia are much harder to identify in historical documents. Torticollis is an exception, although there is difficulty distinguishing dystonic torticollis from congenital muscular torticollis. There are, nevertheless, possible representations of dystonia in literature and visual art from the pre-modern world...
July 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912081/towards-understanding-rtms-mechanism-of-action-stimulation-of-the-dlpfc-causes-network-specific-increase-in-functional-connectivity
#2
Martin Tik, André Hoffmann, Ronald Sladky, Livia Tomova, Allan Hummer, Lucia Navarro de Lara, Henryk Bukowski, Jürgen Pripfl, Bharat Biswal, Claus Lamm, Christian Windischberger
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a powerful non-invasive technique for the modulation of brain activity. While the precise mechanism of action is still unknown, TMS is applied in cognitive neuroscience to establish causal relationships between stimulation and subsequent changes in cerebral function and behavioral outcome. In addition, TMS is an FDA-approved therapeutic agent in psychiatric disorders, especially major depression. Successful repetitive TMS in such disorders is usually applied over the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and treatment response mechanism was therefore supposed to be based on modulations in functional networks, particularly the meso-cortico-limbic reward circuit...
September 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886082/haloperidol-induces-pharmacoepigenetic-response-by-modulating-mirna-expression-global-dna-methylation-and-expression-profiles-of-methylation-maintenance-genes-and-genes-involved-in-neurotransmission-in-neuronal-cells
#3
Babu Swathy, Moinak Banerjee
INTRODUCTION: Haloperidol has been extensively used in various psychiatric conditions. It has also been reported to induce severe side effects. We aimed to evaluate whether haloperidol can influence host methylome, and if so what are the possible mechanisms for it in neuronal cells. Impact on host methylome and miRNAs can have wide spread alterations in gene expression, which might possibly help in understanding how haloperidol may impact treatment response or induce side effects. METHODS: SK-N-SH, a neuroblasoma cell line was treated with haloperidol at 10μm concentration for 24 hours and global DNA methylation was evaluated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884977/organoid-technology-for-brain-and-therapeutics-research
#4
REVIEW
Zhi Wang, Shu-Na Wang, Tian-Ying Xu, Zhu-Wei Miao, Ding-Feng Su, Chao-Yu Miao
Brain is one of the most complex organs in human. The current brain research is mainly based on the animal models and traditional cell culture. However, the inherent species differences between humans and animals as well as the gap between organ level and cell level make it difficult to study human brain development and associated disorders through traditional technologies. Recently, the brain organoids derived from pluripotent stem cells have been reported to recapitulate many key features of human brain in vivo, for example recapitulating the zone of putative outer radial glia cells...
October 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872135/methods-and-tips-for-intravenous-administration-of-adeno-associated-virus-to-rats-and-evaluation-of-central-nervous-system-transduction
#5
Mychal S Grames, Kasey L Jackson, Robert D Dayton, John A Stanford, Ronald L Klein
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are a key reagent in the neurosciences for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), optogenetics, cre-lox targeting, etc. The purpose of this manuscript is to aid the investigator attempting expansive central nervous system (CNS) gene transfer in the rat via tail vein injection of AAV. Wide-scale expression is relevant for conditions with widespread pathology, and a rat model is significant due to its greater size and physiologic similarities to humans compared to mice...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869786/population-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-modelling-of-auditory-evoked-event-related-potentials-with-lorazepam
#6
Aurélie Lombard, Claire Brittain, Graham Wishart, Stephen Lowe, Andrew McCarthy, William Landschulz, Georg Dorffner, Peter Anderer, Eunice Yuen
Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are commonly used in Neuroscience research, particularly the P3 waveform because it is associated with cognitive brain functions and is easily elicited by auditory or sensory inputs. ERPs are affected by drugs such as lorazepam, which increase the latency and decrease the amplitude of the P3 wave. In this study, auditory-evoked ERPs were generated in 13 older healthy volunteers using an oddball tone paradigm, after administration of single 0.5 and 2mg doses of lorazepam. Population pharmacokinetics (PK)/ pharmacodynamics (PD) models were developed using non-linear mixed effects methods in order to assess the effect of lorazepam on the latency and amplitude of the P3 waveforms...
September 4, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867944/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-for-generalized-anxiety
#7
Lucas Borza
As a form of therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is more than a mere "toolbox." CBT allows us to better understand how the human mind is functioning because it is based on neuroscience and experimental and scientific psychology. At the beginning, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was "nontheoretical," but nowadays (the most recent version being DSM-5), it is increasingly based on CBT paradigms (with the insertion of important notions such as cognitions and behaviors). This Brief Report presents what we currently know about generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and how we can treat this condition by nonpharmaceutical means...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859565/neuroplasticity-and-the-brain-connectome-what-can-jean-talairach-s-reflections-bring-to-modern-psychosurgery
#8
Pierre Bourdillon, Caroline Apra, Marc Lévêque, Fabien Vinckier
Contrary to common psychosurgical practice in the 1950s, Dr. Jean Talairach had the intuition, based on clinical experience, that the brain connectome and neuroplasticity had a role to play in psychosurgery. Due to the remarkable progress of pharmacology at that time and to the technical limits of neurosurgery, these concepts were not put into practice. Currently, these concepts are being confirmed by modern techniques such as neuroimaging and computational neurosciences, and could pave the way for therapeutic innovation in psychiatry...
September 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855788/an-abbreviated-therapeutic-neuroscience-education-session-improves-pain-knowledge-in-first-year-physical-therapy-students-but-does-not-change-attitudes-or-beliefs
#9
Terry Cox, Adriaan Louw, Emilio J Puentedura
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a 3-hour therapeutic neuroscience education session alters physical therapy student's knowledge of pain and effects their attitudes and beliefs regarding treating chronic pain. METHODS: Seventy-seven entry-level doctoral physical therapy students participated in the study. Following consent, demographic data were obtained and then the subjects completed the Neuroscience of Pain Questionnaire, the Health Care Provider's Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale and an additional questionnaire designed by the researchers...
February 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854520/neuroplasticity-and-behavioral-effects-of%C3%A2-fluoxetine-after-experimental-stroke
#10
Yefei Sun, Xiaoyu Sun, Huiling Qu, Shanshan Zhao, Ting Xiao, Chuansheng Zhao
The brain can undergo self-repair and has the ability to compensate for functions lost after a stroke. The plasticity of the ischemic brain is influenced by several factors including aging and pharmacotherapy. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant which enhances serotonergic neurotransmission through selective inhibition of neuronal reuptake of serotonin. In clinical practice, fluoxetine alleviates the symptoms of post-stroke depression (PSD), helps motor recovery in stroke patients. In animal experiments, chronic administration of fluoxetine induces increased excitability of mature granule cells (GCs), enhancing axonal and dendritic reorganization, as well as promoting neurogenesis or angiogenesis in the dentate gurus (DG), but the effect of fluoxetine in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains controversial...
August 24, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827727/branching-morphology-determines-signal-propagation-dynamics-in-neurons
#11
Netanel Ofer, Orit Shefi, Gur Yaari
Computational modeling of signal propagation in neurons is critical to our understanding of basic principles underlying brain organization and activity. Exploring these models is used to address basic neuroscience questions as well as to gain insights for clinical applications. The seminal Hodgkin Huxley model is a common theoretical framework to study brain activity. It was mainly used to investigate the electrochemical and physical properties of neurons. The influence of neuronal structure on activity patterns was explored, however, the rich dynamics observed in neurons with different morphologies is not yet fully understood...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822294/does-reconsolidation-occur-in-natural-settings-memory-reconsolidation-and-anxiety-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Rodrigo S Fernández, María E Pedreira, Mariano M Boccia
In normal settings, our brain is able to update its stored representations in content, strength, and/or expectations by the memory reconsolidation process. Thus, a reactivated memory enters in a transient labile state (destabilization) followed by a re-stabilization phase in order to persist (memory reconsolidation). Cognitive neuroscience and its insight into psychiatric problems attributed a close relationship between memory (formation, maintenance, and utilization) and several mental disorders. In this framework, the reconsolidation process could be not only the mechanism for maintenance of some psychopathologies, but also open a novel therapeutic window...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820626/the-clinical-implementation-of-pain-neuroscience-education-a-survey-study
#13
Adriaan Louw, Emilio J Puentedura, Kory Zimney, Terry Cox, Debbie Rico
Pain neuroscience education (PNE) has gained considerable attention in research. Three systematic reviews have shown increasing efficacy of PNE decreasing pain, disability, pain catastrophization, movement restrictions, and healthcare utilization. In the development of any new therapeutic approach, it is proposed that there are three stages: development, validation, and implementation. To date, the development and validation of PNE have been well-established. The third stage, implementation, however, lacks when it comes to PNE...
August 18, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819790/contemplative-meditation-and-neuroscience-prospects-for-mental-health
#14
Denis Larrivee, Luis Echarte
Numerous studies show that personal spirituality developed through prayer positively influences mental health. Phenomenological and neuroscientific studies of mindfulness, an Eastern meditative prayer form, reveal significant health benefits now yielding important insights useful for guiding treatment of psychological disorders. By contrast, and despite its practice for millennia, Christian meditation is largely unrepresented in studies of clinical efficacy. Resemblances between mindfulness and disciplinary acts in Christian meditation taken from the ancient Greek practice of askesis suggest that Christian meditation will prove similarly beneficial; furthermore, psychological and neuroscientific studies suggest that its retention of a dialogical and transcendent praxis will additionally benefit social and existential psychotherapy...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809019/lentiviral-mediated-transgenesis-in-songbirds
#15
Wan-Chun Liu, Marian Hruska-Plochan, Atsushi Miyanohara
Transgenesis involves the insertion of an exogenous gene into an animal's genome, which allows the identification of the expressed phenotypes in brain function or behavior. Lentiviral-mediated transgenesis offers unique transduction potency making it possible to deliver and stably integrate transgenes into a wide variety of dividing and nondividing cells. The ability to establish long-term expression of such transgenes allows their use for transgenesis which is especially useful in organisms lacking quality pluripotent stem cell lines and which is otherwise difficult to produce via traditional pronuclear microinjection, such as songbirds...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802636/cardiac-neuroanatomy-imaging-nerves-to-define-functional-control
#16
REVIEW
Peter Hanna, Pradeep S Rajendran, Olujimi A Ajijola, Marmar Vaseghi, J Andrew Armour, Jefrrey L Ardell, Kalyanam Shivkumar
The autonomic nervous system regulates normal cardiovascular function and plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Further understanding of the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular system holds promise for the development of neuroscience-based cardiovascular therapeutics. To this end, techniques to image myocardial innervation will help provide a basis for understanding the fundamental underpinnings of cardiac neural control. In this review, we detail the evolution of gross and microscopic anatomical studies for functional mapping of cardiac neuroanatomy...
July 29, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802366/formula-for-the-prediction-of-apnea-hypopnea-index-in-children-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-without-polysomnography-according-to-the-clinical-parameters-is-it-reliable
#17
Zlatko Kljajić, Željka Roje, Kristijan Bečić, Vesna Čapkun, K Vilović, Petar Ivanišević, Eugenija Marušić
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to propose "the risk formula" for obstructive sleep apnea in children according to the general and local clinical parameters and findings relevant for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity. The unmet need for this formula arises from the economic burden of polysomnography (device, staff, training, special sleep centers, etc) as the golden standard for the diagnostics. MATERIALS AND METHODS USED: The study was performed from January 2013 until January 2016 in the Sleep Center, Department for Neuroscience, School of Medicine of the University of Split, Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Split, Croatia and ENT Dept...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802219/development-and-validation-of-a-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-to-quantify-ly-354-740-in-rat-and-marmoset-plasma
#18
Fleur Gaudette, Adjia Hamadjida, Dominique Bédard, Stephen G Nuara, Francis Beaudry, Philippe Huot
LY-354,740 (eglumegad) is a selective and potent agonist of the metabotropic glutamate group II receptors (mGluR2,3) that has already entered clinical trials as a potential anti-psychotic agent and therefore has well-documented pharmacokinetic (PK), safety and tolerability profiles in human. Whereas its development as an anti-psychotic agent has not been pursued, LY-354,740 may have potential in other neuroscience-related fields, notably anxiety and neuro-protection. The common marmoset is a small primate that has long been used in neuroscience...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791729/applications-of-optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-methods-to-seizure-circuits-where-to-go-next
#19
REVIEW
Patrick A Forcelli
Epilepsy is the quintessential circuit disorder, with seizure activity propagating through anatomically constrained pathways. These pathways, necessary for normal sensory, motor, and cognitive function, are hijacked during seizures. Understanding the network architecture at the level of both local microcircuits and distributed macrocircuits may provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of epilepsy. Over the past decade, optogenetic and chemogenetic tools have enabled previously impossible levels of functional circuit mapping in neuroscience...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790883/therapeutic-use-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia
#20
REVIEW
Angelo Quartarone, Vincenzo Rizzo, Carmen Terranova, Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Gaetana Chillemi, Paolo Girlanda
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive methods for stimulating cortical neurons that have been increasingly used in the neurology realm and in the neurosciences applied to movement disorders. In addition, these tools have the potential to be delivered as clinically therapeutic approach. Despite several studies support this hypothesis, there are several limitations related to the extreme variability of the stimulation protocols, clinical enrolment and variability of rTMS and tDCS after effects that make clinical interpretation very difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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