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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516238/foot-pain-severity-is-associated-with-the-ratio-of-visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-mass-fat-mass-index-and-depression-in-women
#1
Tom P Walsh, John B Arnold, Tiffany K Gill, Angela M Evans, Alison Yaxley, Catherine L Hill, E Michael Shanahan
Body composition and poor mental health are risk factors for developing foot pain, but the role of different fat deposits and psychological features related to chronic pain are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body composition, psychological health and foot pain. Eighty-eight women participated in this study: 44 with chronic, disabling foot pain (mean age 55.3 SD 7.0 years, BMI 29.5 SD 6.7 kg/m(2)), and 44 age and BMI matched controls. Disabling foot pain was determined from the functional limitation domain of the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index...
May 17, 2017: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494471/inhibition-of-neurotensin-receptor-1-induces-intrinsic-apoptosis-via-let-7a-3p-bcl-w-axis-in-glioblastoma
#2
Zhen Dong, Qian Lei, Rui Yang, Shunqin Zhu, Xiao-Xue Ke, Liqun Yang, Hongjuan Cui, Liang Yi
Backgroud:Glioblastoma is a kind of highly malignant and aggressive tumours in the central nervous system. Previously, we found that neurotensin (NTS) and its high-affinity receptor 1 (NTSR1) had essential roles in cell proliferation and invasiveness of glioblastoma. Unexpectedly, cell death also appeared by inhibition of NTSR1 except for cell cycle arrest. However, the mechanisms were remained to be further explored. METHODS: Cells treated with SR48692, a selective antagonist of NTSR1, or NTSR1 shRNA were stained with Annexin V-FITC/PI and the apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry...
May 11, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479265/the-amphetamine-associated-context-exerts-a-stronger-motivational-effect-in-low-anxiety-rats-than-in-high-anxiety-rats
#3
Małgorzata Lehner, Marek Gryz, Aleksandra Wisłowska-Stanek, Danuta Turzyńska, Alicja Sobolewska, Anna Skórzewska, Adam Płaźnik
This study used the conditioned place preference test to explore the effects of subchronic amphetamine administration on drug-associated cues in rats with different emotional reactivity. We also examined the changes in markers of dopaminergic activity in brain regions in response to the amphetamine-paired context, after a withdrawal period preceded by subchronic amphetamine treatment. We used low-anxiety (LR) and high-anxiety (HR) rats, which are known to exhibit distinct levels of susceptibility to amphetamine...
May 4, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403198/analgesic-efficacy-of-tramadol-in-cats-with-naturally-occurring-osteoarthritis
#4
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Beatriz P Monteiro, Mary P Klinck, Maxim Moreau, Martin Guillot, Paulo V M Steagall, Jean-Pierre Pelletier, Johanne Martel-Pelletier, Dominique Gauvin, Jérôme R E Del Castillo, Eric Troncy
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to (1) compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2) evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA), in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design. METHODS: Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA) from OA (n = 15) cats...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387936/the-plasticity-of-descending-controls-in-pain-translational-probing
#5
Kirsty Bannister, A H Dickenson
Descending controls, comprising pathways that originate in midbrain and brainstem regions and project onto the spinal cord, have long been recognized as key links in the multiple neural networks that interact to produce the overall pain experience. There is clear evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that both peripheral and central sensitisation play important roles in determining the level of pain perceived. Much emphasis has been put on spinal cord mechanisms in central excitability, but it now becoming clear that spinal hyperexcitability can be regulated by descending pathways from the brain that originate from predominantly noradrenergic and serotonergic systems...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339361/anti-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antibodies-are-associated-with-fibromyalgia-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-control-study
#6
Dong-Jin Park, Yukitoshi Takahashi, Ji-Hyoun Kang, Yi-Rang Yim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jeong-Won Lee, Kyung-Eun Lee, Jung-Kil Lee, Shin-Seok Lee
OBJECTIVES: The high concordance between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and fibromyalgia (FM) suggests common underlying mechanisms related to pain and distress in both patient groups. Increasing evidence indicates that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a major role in the induction and maintenance of central sensitisation with chronic pain. In this study, we evaluated the role of anti-NMDAR antibodies in the development of FM in patients with SLE. METHODS: Sera from 104 patients with SLE, 112 patients with FM, and 110 healthy controls were analysed to detect antibodies to the N-terminus of the 2B subunit of NMDARs (GluN2B)...
March 10, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319882/pain-characteristics-as-important-contributing-factors-to-upper-limb-dysfunctions-in-breast-cancer-survivors-at-long-term
#7
An De Groef, Mira Meeus, Tessa De Vrieze, Lore Vos, Marijke Van Kampen, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Patrick Neven, Inge Geraerts, Nele Devoogdt
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the treatment, patient, and impairment-related risk factors associated with upper limb dysfunctions in breast cancer survivors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 274 women treated for breast cancer. The following risk factors were analysed by bivariable and multivariable analysis: 1) treatment-related variables (type of surgery, levels of lymph node dissected, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy and trastuzumab); 2) patient's related variables (age and Body Mass Index); 3) and finally impairment-related variables such as pain (intensity, quality and pressure hypersensitivity, signs of central sensitisation, the degree of pain catastrophizing and vigilance and awareness to pain), active ROM and upper limb strength were investigated...
June 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270155/non-invasive-continuous-monitoring-of-pro-oxidant-effects-of-engineered-nanoparticles-on-aquatic-microorganisms
#8
REVIEW
Christian Santschi, Nadia Von Moos, Volodymyr B Koman, Vera I Slaveykova, Paul Bowen, Olivier J F Martin
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are key drivers for the development of highly sophisticated new technologies. As all new attainments, the rapidly increasing used of ENMs raise concerns about their safety for the environment and humans. There is growing evidence showing that if engineered nanomaterials are released into the environment, there is a possibility that they could cause harm to aquatic microorganisms. Among the divers effects triggering their toxicity the ability of ENMs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) capable of oxidizing biomolecules is currently considered a central mechanism of toxicity...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262914/prophylactic-levosimendan-for-the-prevention-of-low-cardiac-output-syndrome-and-mortality-in-paediatric-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-congenital-heart-disease
#9
REVIEW
Johanna Hummel, Gerta Rücker, Brigitte Stiller
BACKGROUND: Low cardiac output syndrome remains a serious complication, and accounts for substantial morbidity and mortality in the postoperative course of paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. Standard prophylactic and therapeutic strategies for low cardiac output syndrome are based mainly on catecholamines, which are effective drugs, but have considerable side effects. Levosimendan, a calcium sensitiser, enhances the myocardial function by generating more energy-efficient myocardial contractility than achieved via adrenergic stimulation with catecholamines...
March 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229922/mandevilla-longiflora-desf-pichon-improves-airway-inflammation-in-a-murine-model-of-allergic-asthma
#10
Danielle Ayr Tavares de Almeida, Suellen Iara Guirra Rosa, Thais Campos Dias da Cruz, Eduarda Pavan, Amílcar Sabino Damazo, Ilsamar Mendes Soares, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio, Antonio Macho, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mandevilla longiflora, popularly known as "velame" in central Brazil, is a subshrub and widely distributed in South America. Its xylopodium is used in the form of a decoction or infusion to treat inflammation and other ailments. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of M. longiflora in an in vivo model of ovalbumin-induced immediate hypersensitivity, identifying its effects on leukocyte infiltration, IgE and LTB4 levels, and Th2 cytokine production...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216388/advances-in-mechanisms-and-management-of-chronic-cough-the-ninth-london-international-cough-symposium-2016
#11
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
At the Ninth London International Cough Symposium held in June 2016, advances in chronic cough were presented. Chronic cough has been labelled as a cough hypersensitivity syndrome (CHS) with neuroinflammatory mechanisms likely to be the underlying mechanisms. The concept is that there is a stage of peripheral sensitisation induced by inflammatory factors setting up the scene for a central component that can be visualised by functional magnetic resonance imaging. There has also been progress in assessing CHS patients in the clinic in terms of measuring cough, with an increasing interest in assessing different types of cough associated with respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis...
February 16, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205224/muc13-overexpression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-plays-a-central-role-in-tumor-progression-and-drug-resistance
#12
Yonghua Sheng, Choa Ping Ng, Rohan Lourie, Esha T Shah, Yaowu He, Kuan Yau Wong, Inge Seim, Iulia Oancea, Christudas Morais, Penny L Jeffery, John Hooper, Glenda C Gobe, Michael A McGuckin
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma is a largely incurable disease, and existing treatments targeting angiogenesis and tyrosine kinase receptors are only partially effective. Here we reveal that MUC13, a cell surface mucin glycoprotein, is aberrantly expressed by most renal cell carcinomas, with increasing expression positively correlating with tumor grade. Importantly, we demonstrated that high MUC13 expression was a statistically significant independent predictor of poor survival in two independent cohorts, particularly in stage 1 cancers...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191525/obesity-diabetes-and-the-role-of-bile-acids-in-metabolism
#13
Gerald H Tomkin, Daphne Owens
Bile acids have many activities over and above their primary function in aiding absorption of fat and fat soluble vitamins. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol, and thus are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) production in the distal small bowel and colon, stimulating insulin secretion, and therefore, are involved in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Bile acids through their insulin sensitising effect play a part in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137663/central-mechanisms-of-airway-sensation-and-cough-hypersensitivity
#14
REVIEW
Alexandria K Driessen, Alice E McGovern, Monica Narula, Seung-Kwon Yang, Jennifer A Keller, Michael J Farrell, Stuart B Mazzone
The airway sensory nervous system is composed of two anatomically distinct processing pathways that allow for the production of respiratory reflexes and voluntary evoked respiratory behaviours in response to sensing an airway irritation. Disordered sensory processing is a hallmark feature of many pulmonary disorders and results in the development of cough hypersensitivity syndrome, characterised by chronic cough and a persistent urge-to-cough in affected individuals. However, the mechanism underpinning how the airway sensory circuits become disordered, especially at the level of the central nervous system, is not well understood...
January 27, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100479/evidence-of-central-sensitisation-in-those-with-dry-eye-symptoms-and-neuropathic-like-ocular-pain-complaints-incomplete-response-to-topical-anaesthesia-and-generalised-heightened-sensitivity-to-evoked-pain
#15
Ashley M Crane, William Feuer, Elizabeth R Felix, Roy C Levitt, Allison L McClellan, Konstantinos D Sarantopoulos, Anat Galor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how closely neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP) symptoms align with a metric of central sensitisation (ie, the presence of persistent ocular pain after topical anaesthetic placement) in individuals with dry eye (DE) symptoms. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 224 individuals with DE symptoms seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic. An evaluation was performed consisting of questionnaires regarding DE symptoms, NOP descriptors and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092404/metformin-vs-myoinositol-which-is-better-in-obese-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-a-randomized-controlled-crossover-study
#16
Valeria Tagliaferri, Daniela Romualdi, Valentina Immediata, Simona De Cicco, Christian Di Florio, Antonio Lanzone, Maurizio Guido
CONTEXT: Due to the central role of metabolic abnormalities in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin sensitizing agents have been proposed as a feasible treatment option. OBJECTIVE: To investigate which is the more effective between metformin and myoinositol (MYO) on hormonal, clinical and metabolic parameters in obese patients with PCOS. STUDY DESIGN: Crossover randomized controlled study. PATIENTS: Thirty-four PCOS obese women (age: 25·62 ± 4·7 years; BMI: 32·55 ± 5·67 kg/m(2) ) were randomized to receive metformin (850 mg twice a day) or MYO (1000 mg twice a day) for 6 months...
May 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035535/the-role-of-the-gastrointestinal-microbiota-in-visceral-pain
#17
Kieran Rea, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
A growing body of preclinical and clinical evidence supports a relationship between the complexity and diversity of the microorganisms that inhabit our gut (human gastrointestinal microbiota) and health status. Under normal homeostatic conditions this microbial population helps maintain intestinal peristalsis, mucosal integrity, pH balance, immune priming and protection against invading pathogens. Furthermore, these microbes can influence centrally regulated emotional behaviour through mechanisms including microbially derived bioactive molecules (amino acid metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters), mucosal immune and enteroendocrine cell activation, as well as vagal nerve stimulation...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034321/comorbidity-in-allergic-asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-functional-somatic-syndromes
#18
Georgios Tsiakiris, Gregory Neely, Nina Lind, Steven Nordin
Based on the concept of central sensitisation, the present study tested the hypothesis of comorbidity in allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis with diagnoses of functional somatic syndromes (FSSs), including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and migraine. Data were used from the population-based Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406). The participants consisted of 164 individuals with allergic asthma and 298 individuals with allergic rhinitis as well as 2876 individuals without allergic or non-allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis...
December 30, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011992/appl1-prevents-pancreatic-beta-cell-death-and-inflammation-by-dampening-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#19
Xue Jiang, Yawen Zhou, Kelvin K L Wu, Zhanrui Chen, Aimin Xu, Kenneth K Y Cheng
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Beta cell inflammation and demise is a feature of type 1 diabetes. The insulin-sensitising molecule 'adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interacting with PH domain and leucine zipper 1' (APPL1), which contains an NH2-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs domain, a central pleckstrin homology domain and a COOH-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding domain, has been shown to modulate inflammatory response in various cell types but its role in regulating beta cell mass and inflammation in type 1 diabetes remains unknown...
March 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976369/clomiphene-and-other-antioestrogens-for-ovulation-induction-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Subfertility due to anovulation is a common problem in women. First-line oral treatment is with antioestrogens such as clomiphene citrate, but resistance may be apparent with clomiphene. Alternative and adjunctive treatments have been used including tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and bromocriptine. The effectiveness of these is to be determined. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relative effectiveness of antioestrogen agents including clomiphene alone or in combination with other medical therapies in women with subfertility associated with anovulation, possibly caused by polycystic ovarian syndrome...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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