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Water damage

J E Correia, C A Christofoletti, A C C Marcato, J F U Marinho, C S Fontanetti
Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Magdalena Szejk, Tomasz Poplawski, Joanna Sarnik, Izabela Pawlaczyk-Graja, Franciszek Czechowski, Alicja Klaudia Olejnik, Roman Gancarz, Halina Malgorzata Zbikowska
Radioprotective effects of the water-soluble polyphenolic glycoconjugates, isolated from flowers of Sanguisorba officinalis L.(SO) and Erigeron canadensis L.(EC), and from leaves of Fragaria vesca L. (FV) and Rubus plicatus Whe. Et N. E. (RP), against γ-radiation-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes were investigated. Cell treatment with glycoconjugates (1, 5, 25μg/ml) prior exposure to 10/15Gy radiation resulted in concentration-dependent reduction of DNA damage including oxidative DNA lesions (comet assay), substantial inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and restoration of superoxide dismutase and S-glutathione transferase activities...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
A R Fetoni, R Rolesi, F Paciello, S L M Eramo, C Grassi, D Troiani, G Paludetti
Experimental and human investigations have raised the level of concern about the potential ototoxicity of organic solvents and their interaction with noise. The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of the combined noise and styrene exposure on hearing focusing on the mechanism of damage on the sensorineural cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti and neurons of the ganglion of Corti. The impact of single and combined exposures on hearing was evaluated by auditory functional testing and histological analyses of cochlear specimens...
October 18, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Pedro H F Gois, Daniele Canale, Rildo A Volpini, Daniela Ferreira, Mariana M Veras, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Niels O S Câmara, Maria H M Shimizu, Antonio C Seguro
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most severe complication of rhabdomyolysis. Allopurinol (Allo), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has been in the spotlight in the last decade due to new therapeutic applications related to its potent antioxidant effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Allo in the prevention and treatment of rhabdomyolysis-associated AKI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: saline control group; prophylactic Allo (300mg/L of drinking water, 7 days); glycerol (50%, 5ml/kg, IM); prophylactic Allo + glycerol; and therapeutic Allo (50mg/Kg, IV, 30minutes after glycerol injection) + glycerol...
October 18, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Rosiane Gomes da Silva Oliveira, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Carlos Fernando Campos, Júlio Cesar Nepomuceno, Sandra Morelli
Exposure to certain pollutants induces a series of alterations in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that may result in genotoxic/mutagenic effects in exposed individuals. The present study aimed to monitor genotoxic, mutagenic, and recombinogenic potential and consequently water quality in two streams in the Paranaíba River basin in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using two bioindicator fish (Rhamdia quelen and Geophagus brasiliensis). The micronucleus (MN) test and somatic recombination and mutation test (SMART) were employed to assess DNA damage...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
David I Shapiro-Ilan, Ted E Cottrell, Russell F Mizell, Dan L Horton
The peachtree borer, Synanthedon exitiosa (Say 1823), is a major pest of stone fruit trees in North America. Current management relies upon preventative control using broad-spectrum chemical insecticides, primarily chlorpyrifos, applied in the late summer or early fall. However, due to missed applications, poor application timing, or other factors, high levels of S. exitiosa infestation may still occur and persist through the following spring. Curative treatments applied in the spring to established infestations would limit damage to the tree and prevent the next generation of S...
September 2016: Journal of Nematology
Yuan-Bo Wu, Li Zhang, Wen-Ting Li, Yi Yang, Jiang-Ming Zhao
BACKGROUND: Artesunate (ART) is an antimalarial drug with potential anti-inflammatory effect. This study aimed to explore the potential protective role of ART in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), involving its function against ammonia toxicity. METHODS: HE rats were induced by the administration of thioacetamide (TAA, 300mg/kg/day). Spatial learning ability was tested in both Morris water and eight-arm radial maze. Rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were prepared for ammonia treatment in vitro, in line with SH-SY5Y and C6 cells...
October 17, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Felix Ulbrich, Kai B Kaufmann, Alexander Meske, Wolf A Lagrèze, Michael Augustynik, Hartmut Buerkle, Carlos C Ramao, Julia Biermann, Ulrich Goebel
PURPOSE: Ischemia and reperfusion injury may induce apoptosis and lead to sustained tissue damage and loss of function, especially in neuronal organs. While carbon monoxide is known to exert protective effects after various harmful events, the mechanism of carbon monoxide releasing molecules in neuronal tissue has not been investigated yet. We hypothesize that the carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) ALF-186, administered after neuronal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), counteracts retinal apoptosis and its involved signaling pathways and consecutively reduces neuronal tissue damage...
2016: PloS One
Sandro M Krieg, Raimund Trabold, Nikolaus Plesnila
Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1 receptors are known to mediate brain edema formation after traumatic brain injury (TBI). So far, however, AVP V1 receptors were only inhibited by genetic deletion or prior to trauma. Therefore the current study aimed to determine the therapeutic window of AVP V1 receptors anatomization after TBI. Male C57BL/6 mice (n=7 per group) were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI) and 500 ng of a selective peptide V1 receptor antagonist (V1880) were applied by intracerebroventricular injection 5 min, 1, 3, and 6 hours thereafter...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Seok Roh Yoon, Cho Ara, Zhou Zixiong, Jeong Hyuneui, Park Jeong-Eun, Cha Youn-Soo, Oh Suk-Heung, Lim Chae-Woong, Kim Bumseok
<p>Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the most common liver diseases and a major cause of liver fibrosis worldwide. G-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Recently, it has been reported that GABAergic signaling pathways are found in various non-neuronal tissues including the immune system and play a functional role. In the present study, we investigated whether administration of GABA has effects on NASH through its immunomodulatory effects...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Research
Blagovesta K Yaneva, Plamen I Zagorchev, Elena I Firkova, Ivan T Glavinkov
AIM: To assess temperature changes at specified time intervals during Er:YAG laser scaling and root planing of surfaces with dental calculus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen single-rooted teeth with advanced periodontal disease were extracted and fixed in a cylinder thermostat filled with distilled water at constant temperature (35.5°C). A specially designed thermal probe (type K thermocouple) accurate to ±0.1°C over the range from 20°C to 80°C was fitted into the pulp chamber of tooth sample...
September 1, 2016: Folia Medica
Yim Tong Szeto, Kam Shing Wong, Andrea Han, Sok Cheon Pak, Wouter Kalle
AIM: The aim of this clinical study is to provide scientific evidence for supporting traditional Chinese application and usage to the patients. For this purpose, we tested the ability if Panax ginseng extract to lower oxidative damage to nuclear DNA in human lymphocytes by comparing the effect of cooked Chinese turnip on this effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven healthy subjects (4 males and 3 females from 37 to 60 years) participated two occasions which were at least 2 weeks apart...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Akinori Higaki, Masaki Mogi, Jun Iwanami, Li-Juan Min, Hirotomo Nakaoka, Bao-Shuai Shan, Masayoshi Kukida, Toshihiro Yamauchi, Takafumi Okura, Jitsuo Higaki, Masatsugu Horiuchi
OBJECTIVE: Classical renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is mainly known as angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/Ang type 1 (AT1) receptor axis which induces various organ damages including cognitive decline. On the other hand, ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis has been known to exert antagonistic actions against the classical RAS axis in cardiovascular system. However, the roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function remain to be elucidated. Here, we examined possible roles of ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas axis in cognitive function in vascular dementia model...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Christopher Wilcox
OBJECTIVE: CKD progression is accelerated by hypertension and impaired myogenic responses (MRs) of renal afferent arterioles leading to renal barotrauma. We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) underlie both these processes and that ROS metabolism by tempol would thereby protect kidneys. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rat and mouse 5/6 nephrectomy models of reduced renal mass (RRM) vs sham were fed high salt for 3 months during BP telemetry. Individual afferent arterioles were isolated and perfused...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Manuela Balen, Gabriela Rotta Gomes, Jadel M Kratz, Cláudia M O Simões, Alexsandra Valério, Débora de Oliveira
Antioxidants are substances that defend cells against damage, kidnapping and destroying free radicals. They have been largely used in the food industry due the possibility to control the oxidation process, aimed to increase shelf life. Thus, esterification reaction to obtain ascorbyl linoleate catalyzed by Novozym 435 lipase assisted by ultrasound bath was investigated. In this work, molecular sieve (4 Å) was added to the reaction medium to remove the water formed during the esterification reaction to improve the process performance...
October 17, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jone Corrales, Lauren A Kristofco, W Baylor Steele, Gavin N Saari, Jakub Kostal, Edward Spencer Williams, Margaret Mills, Evan P Gallagher, Terrance J Kavanagh, Nancy Simcox, Longzhu Q Shen, Fjodor Melnikov, Julie B Zimmerman, Adelina M Voutchkova-Kostal, Paul T Anastas, Bryan W Brooks
Sustainable molecular design of less hazardous chemicals presents a potentially transformative approach to protect public health and the environment. Relationships between molecular descriptors and toxicity thresholds previously identified the octanol-water distribution coefficient, log D, and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap, ∆E, as two useful properties in the identification of reduced aquatic toxicity. To determine whether these two property-based guidelines are applicable to sublethal oxidative stress (OS) responses, two common aquatic in vivo models, the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), were employed to examine traditional biochemical biomarkers (lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, total glutathione) and antioxidant gene activation following exposure to eight structurally diverse industrial chemicals (bisphenol A, cumene hydroperoxide, dinoseb, hydroquinone, indene, perfluorooctanoic acid, R-(-)-carvone, tert-butyl hydroperoxide)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Meng-Meng Dou, Zhi-Hao Zhang, Zhu-Bo Li, Jie Zhang, Xiao-Yan Zhao
Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo has been used for thousands of years to promote body fluid production; however, little is currently known regarding its effects on the heart. The present study aimed to explore the cardioprotective potential of the water extract of Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo (DOE) on myocardial ischemia in mice. A mouse model of myocardial ischemia was induced following ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Prior to the operation, mice were administered a vehicle or DOE for 2 weeks...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Myung-Joo Choi, Hong-Mei Zheng, Jae Min Kim, Kye Wan Lee, Yu Hwa Park, Don Haeng Lee
Oxidative stress in liver injury is a major pathogenetic factor in the progression of liver damage. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, known in the United States as Gotu kola, is widely used as a traditional herbal medicine in Chinese or Indian Pennywort. The efficacy of Centella asiatica is comprehensive and is used as an anti‑inflammatory agent, for memory improvement, for its antitumor activity and for treatment of gastric ulcers. The present study investigated the protective effects of Centella asiatica on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)‑induced liver injury in rats...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Leanne Stannard, Shareen H Doak, Ann Doherty, Gareth J Jenkins
Humans are exposed to carcinogens through air, water, food and tobacco smoke. Nickel chloride (NiCl2 ) is a toxic and carcinogenic environmental and occupational pollutant, which was previously classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen, and thought to not directly alter the DNA. Non-genotoxic carcinogens like NiCl2 are difficult to detect in vitro, hence a heavy reliance on animal studies exists. NiCl2 has previously been classified as a non-genotoxic carcinogen (NGTC); however, after studying the effect of NiCl2 on many mechanistic endpoints, it has become clear that NiCl2 behaves more like a genotoxic carcinogen...
October 17, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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