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Hiroyuki Hirai, Sanae Midorikawa, Shinichi Suzuki, Hironobu Sasano, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Hiroaki Satoh
We herein present the findings of a 42-year-old woman with either adrenal pheochromocytoma or intraadrenal paraganglioma that simultaneously secreted somatostatin, thus mimicking insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Pheochromocytoma was clinically diagnosed based on scintigraphy, elevated catecholamine levels, and finally a histopathological analysis of resected specimens. The patient had diabetic ketosis, requiring 40 U insulin for treatment. Following laparoscopic adrenalectomy, insulin therapy was discontinued and the urinary c-peptide levels changed from 5...
2016: Internal Medicine
Robert Ds Pitceathly, Carlo Viscomi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
K Schirmann, D M Weary, W Heuwieser, N Chapinal, R L A Cerri, M A G von Keyserlingk
The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the rumination and feeding behavior of freestall-housed Holstein dairy cows in the weeks around parturition, and (2) to determine the relationship between postpartum disease and precalving rumination and feeding behavior. Eighty cows were enrolled at approximately 2 wk (18 ± 7 d, mean ± standard deviation) before calving. Using automatic monitoring systems, rumination and feeding behavior were recorded continuously from 10 d before until 3 wk after calving...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Tory J Andrews, Robert D Cox, Christina Parker, James Kolb
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor medications are a class of antihyperglycemic agents that increase urinary glucose excretion by interfering with the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubules. In May of 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration released a warning concerning a potential increased risk of ketoacidosis and ketosis in patients taking these medications. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 57-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking a combination of canagliflozin and metformin who presented with progressive altered mental status over the previous 2 days...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Didier Raboisson, Maxime Barbier, Elise Maigné
Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK...
2016: PloS One
Xiaoxia Shi, Dangdang Li, Qinghua Deng, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Xiaobing Li, Zhe Wang, Xinwei Li, Guowen Liu
Dairy cows with fatty liver or ketosis exhibit hyperketonemia, oxidative stress, and a low rate of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly, and there may be a potential link among these characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of acetoacetic acid (AcAc) on the assembly of VLDL in cow hepatocytes. Cultured cow hepatocytes were treated with different concentrations of AcAc with or without N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an antioxidant). AcAc treatment decreased the mRNA expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, indicative of oxidative stress...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
J W Aleri, B C Hine, M F Pyman, P D Mansell, W J Wales, B Mallard, A D Fisher
Common health problems observed during peripartum include milk fever, mastitis, fatty liver disease, ketosis, dystocia, retained placenta, metritis, hypomagnesaemia and abomasal displacements. The increased incidence of health problems observed during the periparturient period can be partly attributed to suboptimal immune responses. Factors contributing to decreased periparturient immunity include the act of parturition itself, impaired leukocytic activity, effects of colostrogenesis and lactogenesis, and associated hypocalcemia and negative energy balance...
October 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
G Jayaprakash, M Sathiyabarathi, M Arokia Robert, T Tamilmani
Choline is a vitamin-like substance it has multi-function in animal production, reproduction, and health. The transition period is most crucial stage in lactation cycle of dairy cows due to its association with negative hormonal and energy balances. Unfortunately, unprotected choline easily degrades in the rumen; therefore, choline added to the diet in a rumen-protected form. The use of rumen-protected choline (RPC) is a preventive measurement for the fatty liver syndrome and ketosis; may improve milk production as well as milk composition and reproduction parameters...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Iwona Zarnowska, Jarogniew J Luszczki, Tomasz Zarnowski, Piotr Wlaz, Stanislaw J Czuczwar, Maciej Gasior
Among non-pharmacological treatments, the ketogenic diet (KD) has the strongest demonstrated evidence of clinical success in drug resistant epilepsy. In an attempt to model the anticonvulsant effects of the KD pre-clinically, the present study assessed the effects of the KD against electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. After confirming that exposure to the KD for 2 weeks resulted in stable ketosis and hypoglycemia, mice were exposed to electroshocks of various intensities to establish general seizure susceptibility...
September 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Z Zhou, M Vailati-Riboni, E Trevisi, J K Drackley, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The onset of lactation in dairy cows is characterized by high output of methylated compounds in milk when sources of methyl group are in short supply. Methionine and choline (CHOL) are key methyl donors and their availability during this time may be limiting for milk production, hepatic lipid metabolism, and immune function. Supplementing rumen-protected Met and CHOL may improve overall performance and health of transition cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental rumen-protected Met and CHOL on performance and health of transition cows...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Nora Luethi, Luca Cioccari, Marco Crisman, Rinaldo Bellomo, Glenn M Eastwood, Johan Mårtensson
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether liberal glucose control in critically ill diabetic patients leads to increased ketone production and ketoacidosis. Therefore, we aimed to assess the prevalence of ketosis, ketonuria and ketoacidosis in critically ill diabetic patients treated in accordance with a liberal glycemic control protocol. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational cohort study of 60 critically ill diabetic patients with blood and/or urine ketone bodies tested in ICU...
2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Alexandre Courchesne-Loyer, Etienne Croteau, Christian-Alexandre Castellano, Valérie St-Pierre, Marie Hennebelle, Stephen C Cunnane
Ketones (principally β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate (AcAc)) are an important alternative fuel to glucose for the human brain, but their utilisation by the brain remains poorly understood. Our objective was to use positron emission tomography (PET) to assess the impact of diet-induced moderate ketosis on cerebral metabolic rate of acetoacetate (CMRa) and glucose (CMRglc) in healthy adults. Ten participants (35 ± 15 y) received a very high fat ketogenic diet (KD) (4.5:1; lipid:protein plus carbohydrates) for four days...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Brendan Egan, Dominic P D'Agostino
Ketone body metabolites serve as alternative energy substrates during prolonged fasting, calorie restriction, or reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability. Using a ketone ester supplement, Cox et al. (2016) demonstrate that acute nutritional ketosis alters substrate utilization patterns during exercise, reduces lactate production, and improves time-trial performance in elite cyclists.
September 13, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Basilio Moreno, Ana B Crujeiras, Diego Bellido, Ignacio Sajoux, Felipe F Casanueva
The long-term effect of therapeutic diets in obesity treatment is a challenge at present. The current study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet on excess adiposity. Especial focus was set on visceral fat mass, and the impact on the individual burden of disease. A group of obese patients (n = 45) were randomly allocated in two groups: either the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group (n = 22), or a standard low-calorie diet group; (n = 23). Both groups received external support...
September 13, 2016: Endocrine
S Paudyal, F Maunsell, J Richeson, C Risco, A Donovan, P Pinedo
Our objective was to evaluate the effect of season of calving, associated with variable levels of heat stress, on the dynamics of rumination during the prepartum period and early lactation of cows that were healthy or affected by peripartal health disorders. Three weeks before the estimated due date, 210 multiparous Holstein cows at the University of Florida Dairy Unit were affixed with a neck collar containing rumination loggers, providing rumination time (RT) in 2-h periods. One blood sample was collected in a subpopulation of cows (n = 76) at 12 to 48 h postcalving to assess metabolic status by determining serum calcium, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
SeokHyun Lee, KwangHyun Cho, MiNa Park, TaeJung Choi, SiDong Kim, ChangHee Do
This study was conducted to estimate the genetic parameters of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and acetone concentration in milk by FTIR spectroscopy along with test-day milk production traits including fat %, protein % and milk yield based on monthly samples of milk obtained as part of a routine milk recording program in Korea. Additionally, the feasibility of using such data in the official dairy cattle breeding system for selection of cows with low susceptibility of ketosis was evaluated. A total of 57,190 monthly test-day records for parities 1, 2, and 3 of 7,895 cows with pedigree information were collected from April 2012 to August 2014 from herds enrolled in the Korea Animal Improvement Association...
September 9, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
A Espadamala, P Pallarés, A Lago, N Silva-Del-Río
The aim of the present study was to describe fresh cow-handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Ivan Kruljac, Miroslav Ćaćić, Petra Ćaćić, Vedran Ostojić, Mario Štefanović, Aljoša Šikić, Milan Vrkljan
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have impaired ketogenesis due to high serum insulin and low growth hormone levels. Evidence exists that ketone bodies might improve kidney and cardiac function. In theory, improved ketogenesis in diabetics may have positive effects. We aimed to assess the impact of diabetic ketosis on all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with hyperglycemic crisis. We analyzed 486 patients with diabetic ketosis and 486 age and sex-matched patients with non-ketotic hyperglycemia presenting to the emergency department...
September 3, 2016: Endocrine
Naoto Tani, Tomomi Michiue, Jian-Hua Chen, Shigeki Oritani, Takaki Ishikawa
A severely malnourished, Japanese female in her twenties was found dead in her apartment. On autopsy, most of the findings from the internal examination were suggestive of hypothermia. Postmortem biochemistry, however, showed severely increased levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and blood and urine glucose levels. Levels of acetone, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetate in various body fluids were also highly increased, indicating ketosis. The serum insulin and c-peptide levels were severely low, and subsequent testing was positive for anti-GAD antibodies...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Raquel Farias-Moeller, Luca Bartolini, Archana Pasupuleti, R D Brittany Cines, Amy Kao, Jessica L Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) ensues when there is no improvement of seizure control in response to anesthetic therapy or seizure recurrence after reduction of anesthetic agents. There is no consensus on standard of care for SRSE. Ketogenic diet (KD) has reported success, but technical challenges exist including inability to feed patients, concomitant steroid use, acidotic states, and lack of dieticians with experience. The optimal protocol for KD is yet to be determined...
August 23, 2016: Neurocritical Care
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