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myocardial fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219917/isosorbide-dinitrate-with-or-without-hydralazine-does-not-reduce-wave-reflections-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-or-myocardial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#1
Payman Zamani, Scott Akers, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Melissa Beraun, Maheswara R Koppula, Swapna Varakantam, Deepa Rawat, Prithvi Shiva-Kumar, Philip G Haines, Jesse Chittams, Raymond R Townsend, Walter R Witschey, Patrick Segers, Julio A Chirinos
BACKGROUND: Wave reflections, which are increased in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, impair diastolic function and promote pathologic myocardial remodeling. Organic nitrates reduce wave reflections acutely, but whether this is sustained chronically or affected by hydralazine coadministration is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomized 44 patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a double-blinded fashion to isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN; n=13), ISDN+hydralazine (ISDN+hydral; n=15), or placebo (n=16) for 6 months...
February 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219198/-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ursodeoxycholic-acid-on-isoprenaline-induced-myocardial-fibrosis-in-mice
#2
X Li, K Q Han, Y N Shi, S Z Men, S Li, M H Sun, H Dong, J J Lu, L J Ma, M Zhao, D Li, W Liu
Objective: To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on myocardial fibrosis in mice. Method: To observe the expression of transforming growth factor(TGF) -β1, CTGF, MMPs and the degree of myocardial fibrosis, 61 male Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal group, low dose UDCA group, high dose of UDCA group, spironolactone group, and the control group.Isoproterenol (ISO) injection was given subcutaneously (30 d) to make the model of myocardial fibrosis.Corresponding anti-fibrosis drugs (UDCA or spironolactone) were given by gavage...
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217927/hypertension-induced-remodelling-on-the-interactions-of-cardiac-risk-factors
#3
Jakub Tomek, Gil Bub
Hypertension induces considerable cardiac remodelling, such as hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and abnormal activity of cardiac sympathetic nervous system, which are established risk factors in several highly dangerous heart diseases, such as ventricular fibrillation and congestive heart failure. All these risk factors and heart diseases are studied extensively in isolation, but to our knowledge, there is no comprehensive review of their interactions. At the same time, there is growing evidence suggesting that such interactions are numerous and that a successful therapy against a particular condition may have unexpectedly weak effects on mortality, as treated patients may die of a different cause exacerbated by the therapy...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217233/bidirectional-ventricular-tachycardia-in-cardiac-sarcoidosis
#4
Mina M Benjamin, Kevin Hayes, Michael E Field, Melvin M Scheinman, Kurt S Hoffmayer
A 73-year-old man with history of pulmonary sarcoidosis was found to have runs of non-sustained bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BVT) with two different QRS morphologies on a Holter monitor. Cardiac magnetic resonance delayed gadolinium imaging revealed a region of patchy mid-myocardial enhancement within the left ventricular basal inferolateral myocardium. An 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed increased uptake in the same area, consistent with active sarcoid, with no septal involvement...
February 2017: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216152/1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-prevents-the-development-of-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-type-1-diabetic-rats-by-enhancing-autophagy-via-inhibiting-the-%C3%AE-catenin-tcf4-gsk-3%C3%AE-mtor-pathway
#5
Huili Wei, Hua Qu, Hang Wang, Baolan Ji, Yao Ding, Dan Liu, Yang Duan, Huimin Liang, Chuan Peng, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Huacong Deng
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) can increase the risk of heart failure and death in diabetic patients. However, no effective approaches are available to prevent its progression and development. Studies have shown that vitamin D is greatly implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, and there is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in diabetic patients. In this study, we investigated whether 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin-D3 (1,25D3) can improve DCM through a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism associated with autophagy and the β-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF4)/glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214964/speckle-tracking-in-alcapa-patients-after-surgical-repair-as-predictor-of-residual-coronary-disease
#6
Biagio Castaldi, Vladimiro Vida, Elena Reffo, Massimo Padalino, Queenette Daniels, Giovanni Stellin, Ornella Milanesi
Surgical re-implantation of the left coronary artery (LCA) is the treatment of choice in anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). Despite normalization of left ventricular function after surgery, residual coronary lesions or myocardial fibrosis may be found. The aim of this study was to detect regional left ventricular dysfunction predictive of coronary lesions or residual myocardial fibrosis using speckle tracking. We enrolled ten patients treated with surgical re-implantation of LCA for ALCAPA...
February 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214892/baicalin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-remodeling-in-a-chronic-pressure-overload-mice-model
#7
Yanqing Zhang, Pingping Liao, Meng'en Zhu, Wei Li, Dan Hu, Siming Guan, Long Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Baicalin has been shown to be effective for various animal models of cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemic injury. However, whether baicalin plays a role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and explored the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: C57BL/6J-mice were treated with baicalin or vehicle following transverse aortic constriction or Sham surgery for up to 8 weeks, and at different time points, cardiac function and heart size measurement and histological and biochemical examination were performed...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214881/attenuation-of-low-ambient-temperature-induced-myocardial-hypertrophy-by-atorvastatin-via-promoting-bcl-2-expression
#8
Jing Liang, Kun Yin, Xuefeng Cao, Zhenbo Han, Qi Huang, Lai Zhang, Wenya Ma, Fengzhi Ding, Chongwei Bi, Dan Feng, Zhenwei Pan, Yu Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is well documented that myocardial hypertrophy is associated with low ambient temperature. Atorvastatin (Atv) has been shown to protect against atherosclerosis, cardiac fibrosis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, etc. In this study, we aim to determine whether atorvastatin is effective in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy induced by cold exposure and to shed light on underlying mechanism. METHODS: The mice aged 4-week were randomized to Control (Ctl) group (raised at room temperature), Cold group (raised at 3-5ºC) and Atv treatment group (raised at 3-5ºC followed by 10mg/kg/day Atv infusion)...
January 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214792/suppression-of-tumorigenicity-2-in-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#9
Omar F AbouEzzeddine, Paul M McKie, Shannon M Dunlay, Susanna R Stevens, G Michael Felker, Barry A Borlaug, Horng H Chen, Russell P Tracy, Eugene Braunwald, Margaret M Redfield
BACKGROUND: Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) receptor is a biomarker that is elevated in certain systemic inflammatory diseases. Comorbidity-driven microvascular inflammation is postulated to play a key role in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) pathophysiology, but data on how sST2 relates to clinical characteristics or inflammatory conditions or biomarkers in HFpEF are limited. We sought to determine circulating levels and clinical correlates of sST2 in HFpEF...
February 18, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214509/haplodeficiency-of-activin-receptor-like-kinase-4-alleviates-myocardial-infarction-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-and-preserves-cardiac-function
#10
Yi-He Chen, Qian Wang, Chang-Yi Li, Jian-Wen Hou, Xiao-Meng Chen, Qing Zhou, Jie Chen, Yue-Peng Wang, Yi-Gang Li
Cardiac fibrosis (CF), a repairing process following myocardial infarction (MI), is characterized by abnormal proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts and excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting in inevitable resultant heart failure. TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β)/ALK5 (Activin receptor-like kinase 5)/Smad2/3/4 pathways have been reported to be involved in the process. Recent studies have implicated both activin and its specific downstream component ALK4 in stimulating fibrosis in non-cardiac organs...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203568/mirna-sequence-indicates-that-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-exosomes-have-similar-mechanism-to-enhance-cardiac-repair
#11
Lianbo Shao, Yu Zhang, Beibei Lan, Juanjuan Wang, Zhiwei Zhang, Lulu Zhang, Pengli Xiao, Qingyou Meng, Yong-Jian Geng, Xi-Yong Yu, Yangxin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) repair infarcted heart through paracrine mechanism. We sought to compare the effectiveness of MSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-Exo) in repairing infarcted hearts and to identify how MSC-Exo mediated cardiac repair is regulated. In a rat myocardial infarction model, we found that MSC-Exo inhibited cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, and improved cardiac function. The beneficial effects of MSC-Exo were significantly superior compared to that of MSCs. To explore the potential mechanisms underlying MSC-Exo's effects, we performed several in vitro experiments and miRNA-sequence analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202417/triptolide-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-myocardial-remodeling-in-mice-via-the-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression
#12
Rujun Li, Kuiying Lu, Yao Wang, Mingxing Chen, Fengyu Zhang, Hui Shen, Deshan Yao, Kaizheng Gong, Zhengang Zhang
Triptolide is the predominant active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) that has been widely used to treat several chronic inflammatory diseases due to its immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. In the present study, we elucidated the cardioprotective effects of triptolide against cardiac dysfunction and myocardial remodeling in chronic pressure-overloaded hearts. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of triptolide were investigated. For this purpose, C57/BL6 mice were anesthetized and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198439/miat-is-a-pro-fibrotic-long-non-coding-rna-governing-cardiac-fibrosis-in-post-infarct-myocardium
#13
Xuefeng Qu, Yue Du, You Shu, Ming Gao, Fei Sun, Shenjian Luo, Ti Yang, Linfeng Zhan, Yin Yuan, Wenfeng Chu, Zhenwei Pan, Zhiguo Wang, Baofeng Yang, Yanjie Lu
A long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), named myocardial infarction associated transcript (MIAT), has been documented to confer risk of myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of this study is to elucidate the pathophysiological role of MIAT in regulation of cardiac fibrosis. In a mouse model of MI, we found that MIAT was remarkably up-regulated, which was accompanied by cardiac interstitial fibrosis. MIAT up-regulation in MI was accompanied by deregulation of some fibrosis-related regulators: down-regulation of miR-24 and up-regulation of Furin and TGF-β1...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193640/grk2-mediates-arginine-vasopressin-induced-il-6-production-via-nf-kb-signaling-in-neonatal-rat-cardiac-fibroblast
#14
Feifei Xu, Suzhen Sun, Xiaojun Wang, Eran Ni, Lingling Zhao, Weizhong Zhu
: Elevated interleukin 6(IL-6) levels in congestive heart failure are associated with myocardial damage during acute exacerbation and with chronic inflammation. Arginine vasopressin (AVP), a hormone released in response to cardiac stress, could be a factor of inflammation and fibrosis in the pathogenesis of heart failure. Recently, we have shown that AVP promotes the proliferation of neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts (NRCFs) through a V1Avasopressin receptor-mediated G protein-coupled receptor kinase2 (GRK2) signaling...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191775/noninvasive-assessment-of-an-engineered-bioactive-graft-in-myocardial-infarction-impact-on-cardiac-function-and-scar-healing
#15
Carolina Gálvez-Montón, Ramon Bragós, Carolina Soler-Botija, Idoia Díaz-Güemes, Cristina Prat-Vidal, Verónica Crisóstomo, Francisco M Sánchez-Margallo, Aida Llucià-Valldeperas, Paco Bogónez-Franco, Isaac Perea-Gil, Santiago Roura, Antoni Bayes-Genis
Cardiac tissue engineering, which combines cells and biomaterials, is promising for limiting the sequelae of myocardial infarction (MI). We assessed myocardial function and scar evolution after implanting an engineered bioactive impedance graft (EBIG) in a swine MI model. The EBIG comprises a scaffold of decellularized human pericardium, green fluorescent protein-labeled porcine adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (pATPCs), and a customized-design electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) monitoring system...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191635/the-role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cardiac-biology-classic-concepts-and-emerging-roles
#16
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, the mechanical protection of coronaries, the innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological (EP) and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186704/mesenchymal-stromal-cells-modulate-monocytes-trafficking-in-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#17
Kapka Miteva, Kathleen Pappritz, Muhammad El-Shafeey, Fengquan Dong, Jochen Ringe, Carsten Tschöpe, Sophie Van Linthout
Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) application in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis reduces myocardial inflammation and fibrosis, exerts prominent extra-cardiac immunomodulation, and improves heart function. Although the abovementioned findings demonstrate the benefit of MSC application, the mechanism of the MSC immunomodulatory effects leading to a final cardioprotective outcome in viral myocarditis remains poorly understood. Monocytes are known to be a trigger of myocardial tissue inflammation. The present study aims at investigating the direct effect of MSC on the mobilization and trafficking of monocytes to the heart in CVB3-induced myocarditis...
January 3, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186692/targeted-genome-engineering-to-control-vegf-expression-in-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-potential-implications-for-the-treatment-of-myocardial-infarction
#18
Hyun-Min Cho, Pyung-Hwan Kim, Hyun-Kyung Chang, Yi-Ming Shen, Kwaku Bonsra, Byung-Jae Kang, Soo-Young Yum, Joo-Hyun Kim, So-Yeong Lee, Min-Cheol Choi, Hyongbum Henry Kim, Goo Jang, Je-Yoel Cho
Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) exhibit potency for the regeneration of infarcted hearts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is capable of inducing angiogenesis and can boost stem cell-based therapeutic effects. However, high levels of VEGF can cause abnormal blood vessel growth and hemangiomas. Thus, a controllable system to induce therapeutic levels of VEGF is required for cell therapy. We generated an inducible VEGF-secreting stem cell (VEGF/hUCB-MSC) that controls the expression of VEGF and tested the therapeutic efficacy in rat myocardial infarction (MI) model to apply functional stem cells to MI...
January 3, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185705/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-pattern-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-of-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-connective-tissue-diseases
#19
Sophie Mavrogeni, George Markousis-Mavrogenis, Loukia Koutsogeorgopoulou, Theodoros Dimitroulas, Konstantinos Bratis, George D Kitas, Petros Sfikakis, Maria Tektonidou, Georgia Karabela, Efthymios Stavropoulos, Gikas Katsifis, Kyriaki A Boki, Anastasia Kitsiou, Vasiliki Filaditaki, Elias Gialafos, Sotiris Plastiras, Vasiliki Vartela, Genovefa Kolovou
BACKGROUND-AIM: Cardiac involvement at diagnosis of connective tissue disease (CTD) has been described by echocardiography. We hypothesized that cardio-vascular magnetic resonance (CMR) detects occult lesions at CTD diagnosis. PATIENTS-METHODS: CMR was performed early after diagnosis in 78 treatment-naïve CTDs (aged 43±11, 59F/19M) without cardiac involvement [5 Takayasu arteritis (TA), 4 Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), 5 Wegener granulomatosis (WG), 16 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 12 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 8 mixed connective tissue diseases (MCTD), 12 ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 3 polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), 8 systemic sclerosis (SSc) and 5 dermatomyositis (DM)]...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185610/hydrogen-sulfide-reduces-recruitment-of-cd11b-gr-1-cells-in-mice-with-myocardial-infarction
#20
Ting Wu, Hua Li, Bing Wu, Lei Zhang, San-Wu Wu, Jia-Ning Wang, You-En Zhang
The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which hydrogen sulfide (H<sub>2</sub>S) attenuates left ventricular remodeling after MI. Myocardial infarction was created in mice by left coronary artery ligation. One group of mice received injections of the H<sub>2</sub>S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaSH) immediately before and one hour after ligation, while the control group received saline alone. During both the subacute and chronic stages (1 and 4 weeks post-infarction, respectively), NaHS-treated mice demonstrated attenuation of cardiac dilation in the infarcted myocardium...
February 9, 2017: Cell Transplantation
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