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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737258/preclinical-alterations-in-myocardial-microstructure-in-people-with-metabolic-syndrome
#1
Jennifer E Ho, Youssef Rahban, Harpaul Sandhu, Pranoti G Hiremath, Nir Ayalon, Fuzhong Qin, Alejandro J Perez, Jill Downing, Deepa M Gopal, Susan Cheng, Wilson S Colucci
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can lead to myocardial fibrosis, diastolic dysfunction, and eventual heart failure. This study evaluated alterations in myocardial microstructure in people with MetS by using a novel algorithm to characterize ultrasonic signal intensity variation. METHODS: Among 254 participants without existing cardiovascular disease (mean age 42 ± 11 years, 75% women), there were 162 with MetS, 47 with obesity without MetS, and 45 nonobese controls...
July 24, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737122/preserved-heart-function-after-left-ventricular-pressure-overload-in-adult-mice-subjected-to-neonatal-cardiac-hypoplasia
#2
K Heinecke, A Heuser, F Blaschke, C Jux, L Thierfelder, J-D Drenckhahn
Intrauterine growth restriction in animal models reduces heart size and cardiomyocyte number at birth. Such incomplete cardiomyocyte endowment is believed to increase susceptibility toward cardiovascular disease in adulthood, a phenomenon referred to as developmental programming. We have previously described a mouse model of impaired myocardial development leading to a 25% reduction of cardiomyocyte number in neonates. This study investigated the response of these hypoplastic hearts to pressure overload in adulthood, applied by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737018/increased-myocardial-native-t1-relaxation-time-in-patients-with-nonischemic-dilated-cardiomyopathy-with-complex-ventricular-arrhythmia
#3
Shiro Nakamori, An H Bui, Jihye Jang, Hossam A El-Rewaidy, Shingo Kato, Long H Ngo, Mark E Josephson, Warren J Manning, Reza Nezafat
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between diffuse myocardial fibrosis and complex ventricular arrhythmias (ComVA) in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NICM). We hypothesized that NICM patients with ComVA would have a higher native myocardial T1 time, suggesting more extensive myocardial diffuse fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled NICM patients with a history of ComVA (n = 50) and age-matched NICM patients without ComVA (n = 57)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734790/organ-weights-and-histopathology-of-double-crested-cormorants-phalacrocorax-auritus-dosed-orally-or-dermally-with-artificially-weathered-mississippi-canyon-252-crude-oil
#4
Kendal E Harr, Drury R Reavill, Steven J Bursian, Dave Cacela, Fred L Cunningham, Karen M Dean, Brian S Dorr, Katie C Hanson-Dorr, Kate Healy, Katherine Horak, Jane E Link, Susan Shriner, Robert E Schmidt
A series of toxicity tests were conducted to assess the effects of low to moderate exposure to artificially weathered Deepwater Horizon Mississippi Canyon 252 crude oil on representative avian species as part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment. The present report summarizes effects of oral exposure (n=26) of double-crested cormorants (DCCO; Phalacrocorax auritus) to 5 or 10ml oil kg(-1) day(-1) for up to 21 days or dermal application (n=25) of 13ml oil to breast and back feathers every three days totaling 6 applications in 21 days on organ weights and histopathology...
July 19, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733764/cardiac-sympathetic-neuronal-damage-precedes-myocardial-fibrosis-in-patients-with-anderson-fabry-disease
#5
Massimo Imbriaco, Teresa Pellegrino, Valentina Piscopo, Mario Petretta, Andrea Ponsiglione, Carmela Nappi, Marta Puglia, Serena Dell'Aversana, Eleonora Riccio, Letizia Spinelli, Antonio Pisani, Alberto Cuocolo
PURPOSE: Cardiac sympathetic denervation may be detectable in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD), suggesting its usefulness for early detection of the disease. However, the relationship between sympathetic neuronal damage measured by (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging with myocardial fibrosis on cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is still unclear. METHODS: Cardiac sympathetic innervation was assessed by (123)I-MIBG single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 25 patients with genetically proved AFD...
July 22, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733755/automatic-regional-analysis-of-myocardial-native-t1-values-left-ventricle-segmentation-and-aha-parcellations
#6
Hsiao-Hui Huang, Chun-Yu Huang, Chiao-Ning Chen, Yun-Wen Wang, Teng-Yi Huang
Native T1 value is emerging as a reliable indicator of abnormal heart conditions related to myocardial fibrosis. Investigators have extensively used the standardized myocardial segmentation of the American Heart Association (AHA) to measure regional T1 values of the left ventricular (LV) walls. In this paper, we present a fully automatic system to analyze modified Look-Locker inversion recovery images and to report regional T1 values of AHA segments. Ten healthy individuals participated in the T1 mapping study with a 3...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733311/regional-septal-hinge-point-injury-contributes-to-adverse-biventricular-interactions-in-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Eva Amalie Nielsen, Kenichi Okumura, Mei Sun, Vibeke E Hjortdal, Andrew N Redington, Mark K Friedberg
Death and morbidity in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are often due to right ventricular (RV) failure and associated left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We investigated regional myocardial remodeling and function as the basis for adverse ventricular-ventricular interactions in experimental chronic RV pressure overload. Two distinct animal models were studied: A rabbit model of increased RV pressure-load through progressive pulmonary artery banding A rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)...
July 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733035/mir-18a-5p-inhibits-endothelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cardiac-fibrosis-through-the-notch2-pathway
#8
Huazhi Geng, Jun Guan
Hyperglycemia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications; however, the mechanisms underlying diabetic cardiac fibrosis remain unclear. Endothelial cells are known to contribute to cardiac fibrosis through endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) under high glucose stimulation. Here we investigated the expression of miR-18a-5p and examined its functional role in human aortic valvular endothelial cells (HAVECs). Using HAVECs, we revealed that miR-18a-5p regulated high glucose-induced EndMT...
July 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731675/sustained-release-of-a-peptide-based-matrix-metalloproteinase-2-inhibitor-to-attenuate-adverse-cardiac-remodeling-and-improve-cardiac-function-following-myocardial-infarction
#9
Zhaobo Fan, Minghuan Fu, Zhaobin Xu, Bo Zhang, Zhihong Li, Haichang Li, Xinyu Zhou, Xuanyou Liu, Yunyan Duan, Pei-Hui Lin, Pu Duann, Xiaoyun Xie, Jianjie Ma, Zhenguo Liu, Jianjun Guan
Following myocardial infarction (MI), degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) by upregulated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) especially MMP-2 decreases tissue mechanical properties, leading to cardiac function deterioration. Attenuation of cardiac ECM degradation at the early stage of MI has the potential to preserve tissue mechanical properties, resulting in cardiac function increase. Yet the strategy for efficiently preventing cardiac ECM degradation remains to be established. Current preclinical approaches have shown limited efficacy due to low drug dosage allocated to the heart tissue, dose-limiting side effects, and cardiac fibrosis...
July 21, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727797/prophylactic-supplementation-of-resveratrol-is-more-effective-than-its-therapeutic-use-against-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#10
Heba Samy Shoukry, Hania Ibrahim Ammar, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Maha Balegh Zikri, Ashraf Ali Shamaa, Sahar Gamal Abou Elfadl, Ejlal Abu-Al Rub, Sekaran Saravanan, Sanjiv Dhingra
Resveratrol (RSV), a polyphenolic compound and naturally occurring phytoalexin, has been reported to exert cardio-protective effects in several animal studies. However, the outcome of initial clinical trials with RSV was less effective compared to pre-clinical studies. Therefore, RSV treatment protocols need to be optimized. In this study we evaluated prophylactic versus therapeutic effect of resveratrol (RSV) in mitigating doxorubicin (Dox)-induced cardiac toxicity in rats. To investigate prophylactic effects, RSV was supplemented for 2 weeks along with Dox administration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724792/pediatric-and-adult-dilated-cardiomyopathy-represent-distinct-pathological-entities
#11
Meghna D Patel, Jayaram Mohan, Caralin Schneider, Geetika Bajpai, Enkhsaikhan Purevjav, Charles E Canter, Jeffrey Towbin, Andrea Bredemeyer, Kory J Lavine
Pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common indication for heart transplantation in children. Despite similar genetic etiologies, medications routinely used in adult heart failure patients do not improve outcomes in the pediatric population. The mechanistic basis for these observations is unknown. We hypothesized that pediatric and adult DCM comprise distinct pathological entities, in that children do not undergo adverse remodeling, the target of adult heart failure therapies. To test this hypothesis, we examined LV specimens obtained from pediatric and adult donor controls and DCM patients...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724653/haplodeficiency-of-ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-accelerates-heart-failure-after-myocardial-infarction
#12
Lixin Jia, Wenmei Zhang, Youcai Ma, Boya Chen, Yan Liu, Chunmei Piao, Yuan Wang, Min Yang, Tingting Liu, Junmeng Zhang, Taotao Li, Shaoping Nie, Jie Du
BACKGROUND: Cell senescence is involved in the process of organ damage and repair; however, the underlying molecular mechanism needs to be further explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: Senescence-related genes (ie, p21, p53, and ataxia telangiectasia mutated [ATM]) were shown to be elevated after myocardial infarction (MI) in both mouse and human hearts. Ten- to 12-week-old male wild-type littermates (ATM(+/+)) and ATM heterozygous mice (ATM(+/-)) were subjected to MI...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724315/persistent-atrial-fibrillation-vs-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-differences-in-management
#13
Andrei D Margulescu, Lluis Mont Girbau
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common human arrhythmia. AF is a progressive disease, initially being nonsustained and induced by trigger activity, and progressing towards persistent AF through alteration of the atrial myocardial substrate. Treatment of AF aims to decrease the risk of stroke and improve the quality of life, by preventing recurrences (rhythm control) or controlling the heart rate during AF (rate control). In the last 20 years, catheter-based and, less frequently, surgical and hybrid ablation techniques have proven more successful compared with drug therapy in achieving rhythm control in patients with AF...
July 20, 2017: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721830/redox-state-in-atrial-fibrillation-pathogenesis-and-relevant-therapeutic-approaches
#14
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Athina Goliopoulou, Evangelos Oikonomou, Sotiris Tsalamandris, Georgios-Angelos Papamikroulis, George Lazaros, Eleftherios Tsiamis, George Latsios, Stella Brili, Spyridon Papaioannou, Vasiliki Gennimata, Dimitris Tousoulis
Myocardial redox state is a critical determinant of myocardial biology, regulating cardiomyocytes' apoptosis, hypertrophy, ion channels function and cardiac contractility and relaxation. Data from animal models have shown that altered myocardial nitroso-redox balance and NADPH oxidases activity are pivotally involved in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Similarly experimental animal data have demonstrated that increased reactive oxygen / nitrogen species formation in the atrial tissue is associated with altered electrophysiological properties of atrial myocytes and electrical remodeling...
July 18, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721450/smad3-and-bmal1-regulate-p21-and-s100a4-expression-in-myocardial-stromal-fibroblasts-via-tnf-%C3%AE
#15
Fuyuki Sato, Akira Kohsaka, Kana Takahashi, Saki Otao, Yusuke Kitada, Yoshiyuki Iwasaki, Yasuteru Muragaki
Bmal1, a clock gene, is associated with depression, hypertrophy, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Smad3, which is involved in the TGF-β signaling pathway, plays an important role in the regulation of tumor progression, fibrosis, obesity and diabetes. Our previous report showed that Smad3 has circadian expression in mouse livers. In the current study, we focused on the heart, especially on the myocardial stromal fibroblasts because the roles of Bmal1 and Smad3 in this tissue are poorly understood. Bmal1 and Smad3 have circadian expression in mouse hearts, and their circadian expression patterns were similar...
July 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720123/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-an-adult-human-population-serial-observations-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Kihei Yoneyama, Bharath A Venkatesh, David A Bluemke, Robyn L McClelland, João A C Lima
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is the first large-scale multi-ethnic population study in the U.S. to use advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. MESA participants were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline between 2000 and 2002, and were followed up between 2009 and 2011 with repeated CMR examinations as part of MESA. CMR allows the clinician to visualize and accurately quantify volume and dimensions of all four cardiac chambers; measure systolic and diastolic ventricular function; assess myocardial fibrosis; assess vessel lumen size, vessel wall morphology, and vessel stiffness...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718833/coconut-oil-aggravates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiomyopathy-without-inducing-obesity-systemic-insulin-resistance-or-cardiac-steatosis
#17
Ilayaraja Muthuramu, Ruhul Amin, Andrey Postnov, Mudit Mishra, Frank Jacobs, Olivier Gheysens, Paul P Van Veldhoven, Bart De Geest
Studies evaluating the effects of high-saturated fat diets on cardiac function are most often confounded by diet-induced obesity and by systemic insulin resistance. We evaluated whether coconut oil, containing C12:0 and C14:0 as main fatty acids, aggravates pressure overload-induced cardiomyopathy induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in C57BL/6 mice. Mortality rate after TAC was higher (p < 0.05) in 0.2% cholesterol 10% coconut oil diet-fed mice than in standard chow-fed mice (hazard ratio 2.32, 95% confidence interval 1...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718055/early-anti-inflammatory-and-pro-angiogenic-myocardial-effects-of-intravenous-serelaxin-infusion-for-72%C3%A2-h-in-an-experimental-rat-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#18
Jesus Sanchez-Mas, Antonio Lax, Mari C Asensio-Lopez, Miriam Lencina, Maria J Fernandez-Del Palacio, Angela Soriano-Filiu, Rudolf A de Boer, Domingo A Pascual-Figal
Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At the time of AMI, a subcutaneous mini-osmotic pump was implanted and animals were randomized into three groups, according to the intravenous therapy received during the first 72 h: placebo-treated (saline), serelaxin10-treated (SRLX10 = 10 μg/kg/day), or serelaxin30-treated (SRLX30 = 30 μg/kg/day). Treatment with SRLX30 reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as the infiltration of macrophages, and increased the expression of pro-angiogenic markers and vessel density in the infarcted myocardium after 7 days...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716801/diabetes-mellitus-microalbuminuria-and-subclinical-cardiac-disease-identification-and-monitoring-of-individuals-at-risk-of-heart-failure
#19
Peter P Swoboda, Adam K McDiarmid, Bara Erhayiem, David P Ripley, Laura E Dobson, Pankaj Garg, Tarique A Musa, Klaus K Witte, Mark T Kearney, Julian H Barth, Ramzi Ajjan, John P Greenwood, Sven Plein
BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) have increased risk of heart failure. We hypothesized this was because of cardiac tissue changes rather than silent coronary artery disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a case-controlled observational study 130 subjects including 50 ACR+ve diabetes mellitus patients with persistent microalbuminuria (ACR >2.5 mg/mol in males and >3.5 mg/mol in females, ≥2 measurements, no previous renin-angiotensin-aldosterone therapy, 50 ACR-ve diabetes mellitus patients and 30 controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance for investigation of myocardial fibrosis, ischemia and infarction, and echocardiography...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716707/non-oxidizable-hmgb1-induces-cardiac-fibroblasts-migration-via-cxcr4-in-a-cxcl12-independent-manner-and-worsens-tissue-remodeling-after-myocardial-infarction
#20
Stefania Di Maggio, Giuseppina Milano, Francesco De Marchis, Alessandro D'Ambrosio, Matteo Bertolotti, Blanca Soler Palacios, Ileana Badi, Elena Sommariva, Giulio Pompilio, Maurizio C Capogrossi, Angela Raucci
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major health burden worldwide. Extracellular High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) regulates tissue healing after injuries. The reduced form of HMGB1 (fr-HMGB1) exerts chemotactic activity by binding CXCL12 through CXCR4, while the disulfide form, (ds-HMGB1), induces cytokines expression by TLR4. Here, we assessed the role of HMGB1 redox forms and the non-oxidizable mutant (3S) on human cardiac fibroblast (hcFbs) functions and cardiac remodeling after infarction. Among HMGB1 receptors, hcFbs express CXCR4...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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