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Corollary discharge

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642572/disrupted-pursuit-compensation-during-self-motion-perception-in-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Jingru Wang, Xiaojun Guo, Xianbo Zhuang, Tuanzhi Chen, Wei Yan
Our perception of the world is remarkably stable despite of distorted retinal input due to frequent eye movements. It is considered that the brain uses corollary discharge, efference copies of signals sent from motor to visual regions, to compensate for distortions and stabilize visual perception. In this study, we tested whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have impaired corollary discharge functions as evidenced by reduced compensation during the perception of optic flow that mimics self-motion in the environment...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532350/corollary-discharge-and-oculomotor-proprioception-cortical-mechanisms-for-spatially-accurate-vision
#2
Linus D Sun, Michael E Goldberg
A classic problem in psychology is understanding how the brain creates a stable and accurate representation of space for perception and action despite a constantly moving eye. Two mechanisms have been proposed to solve this problem: Herman von Helmholtz's idea that the brain uses a corollary discharge of the motor command that moves the eye to adjust the visual representation, and Sir Charles Sherrington's idea that the brain measures eye position to calculate a spatial representation. Here, we discuss the cognitive, neuropsychological, and physiological mechanisms that support each of these ideas...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292639/oculomotor-prediction-a-window-into-the-psychotic-mind
#3
REVIEW
Katharine N Thakkar, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Martin Rolfs
Psychosis - an impaired contact with reality - is a hallmark of schizophrenia. Many psychotic symptoms are associated with disruptions in agency - the sense that 'I' cause my actions. A failure to predict sensory consequences of one's own actions may underlie agency disturbances. Such predictions rely on corollary discharge (CD) signals, 'copies' of movement commands sent to sensory regions prior to action execution. Here, we make a case that the oculomotor system is a promising model for understanding CD in psychosis, building on advances in our understanding of the behavioral and neurophysiological correlates of CD associated with eye movements...
May 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025052/holding-visual-attention-for-400millionyears-a-model-of-tectum-and-torus-longitudinalis-in-teleost-fishes
#4
David P M Northmore
Only ray-finned fishes possess a torus longitudinalis (TL), a paired, elongated body attached to the medial margins of the optic tectum. Its granule cells project large numbers of fine fibers running laterally over adjacent tectum, synapsing excitatorily on the spiny dendrites of pyramidal cells. Sustained TL activity is evoked visuotopically by dark stimuli; TL bursting is a corollary discharge of saccadic eye movements. To suggest a function for this ancient structure, neural network models were constructed to show that: (1) pyramidal cells could form an attentional locus, selecting one out of several moving objects to track, but rapid image shifts caused by saccades disrupt tracking; (2) TL could supply both the pre-saccade position of a locus, and the shift predicted from a saccade so as to prime pyramidal dendrites at the target location, ensuring the locus stays with the attended object; (3) that the specific pattern of synaptic connections required for such predictive priming could be learned by an unsupervised rule; (4) temporal and spatial filtering of visual pattern input to TL allows learning from a complex scene...
January 3, 2017: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003409/a-circuit-for-saccadic-suppression-in-the-primate-brain
#5
Rebecca A Berman, James Cavanaugh, Kerry McAlonan, Robert H Wurtz
Saccades should cause us to see a blur as the eyes sweep across a visual scene. Specific brain mechanisms prevent this by producing suppression during saccades. Neuronal correlates of such suppression were first established in the visual superficial layers of the superior colliculus (SC) and subsequently have been observed in cortical visual areas, including the middle temporal visual area (MT). In this study, we investigated suppression in a recently identified circuit linking visual SC (SCs) to MT through the inferior pulvinar (PI)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956073/an-unintended-consequence-of-culture-change-in-va-community-living-centers
#6
Jill Harrison, Denise A Tyler, Renée R Shield, Whitney L Mills, Kristen E Morgan, Maxwell E Cutty, Danielle L Coté, Susan M Allen
OBJECTIVE: Although a growing body of evidence suggests that culture change and its corollary, person-centered care improves resident outcomes in the nursing home setting, little is known about the effect of culture change in a postacute setting in which patients receive skilled nursing and rehabilitation services for a relatively short period of time before returning home. DESIGN: Data for this study were collected as part of a larger project to understand the impact of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) policies to shift the mission of VHA Community Living Centers (CLCs) from long-stay custodial care to short-stay skilled nursing and rehabilitative care...
April 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821022/the-sensory-tolerance-limit-a-hypothetical-construct-determining-exercise-performance
#7
Thomas J Hureau, Lee M Romer, Markus Amann
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749825/layer-4-fast-spiking-interneurons-filter-thalamocortical-signals-during-active-somatosensation
#8
Jianing Yu, Diego A Gutnisky, S Andrew Hires, Karel Svoboda
We rely on movement to explore the environment, for example, by palpating an object. In somatosensory cortex, activity related to movement of digits or whiskers is suppressed, which could facilitate detection of touch. Movement-related suppression is generally assumed to involve corollary discharges. Here we uncovered a thalamocortical mechanism in which cortical fast-spiking interneurons, driven by sensory input, suppress movement-related activity in layer 4 (L4) excitatory neurons. In mice locating objects with their whiskers, neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) fired in response to touch and whisker movement...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629710/distinct-fmri-responses-to-self-induced-versus-stimulus-motion-during-free-viewing-in-the-macaque
#9
Brian E Russ, Takaaki Kaneko, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, Rebecca A Berman, David A Leopold
UNLABELLED: Visual motion responses in the brain are shaped by two distinct sources: the physical movement of objects in the environment and motion resulting from one's own actions. The latter source, termed visual reafference, stems from movements of the head and body, and in primates from the frequent saccadic eye movements that mark natural vision. To study the relative contribution of reafferent and stimulus motion during natural vision, we measured fMRI activity in the brains of two macaques as they freely viewed >50 hours of naturalistic video footage depicting dynamic social interactions...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623047/modeling-latency-code-processing-in-the-electric-sense-from-the-biological-template-to-its-vlsi-implementation
#10
Jacob Engelmann, Tim Walther, Kirsty Grant, Elisabetta Chicca, Leonel Gómez-Sena
Understanding the coding of sensory information under the temporal constraints of natural behavior is not yet well resolved. There is a growing consensus that spike timing or latency coding can maximally exploit the timing of neural events to make fast computing elements and that such mechanisms are essential to information processing functions in the brain. The electric sense of mormyrid fish provides a convenient biological model where this coding scheme can be studied. The sensory input is a physically ordered spatial pattern of current densities, which is coded in the precise timing of primary afferent spikes...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584505/examination-of-the-corollary-discharge-mechanism-using-electromyographic-signals-from-the-first-dorsal-interosseous-muscle-3359-board-1-june-3-3-15-pm-5-15-pm
#11
Nathan Wages, Travis Beck, Xin Ye, Joshua Carr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487470/gating-of-reafference-in-the-external-cuneate-nucleus-during-self-generated-movements-in-wake-but-not-sleep
#12
Alexandre Tiriac, Mark S Blumberg
Nervous systems distinguish between self- and other-generated movements by monitoring discrepancies between planned and performed actions. To do so, corollary discharges are conveyed to sensory areas and gate expected reafference. Such gating is observed in neonatal rats during wake-related movements. In contrast, twitches, which are self-generated movements produced during active (or REM) sleep, differ from wake movements in that they reliably trigger robust neural activity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the gating actions of corollary discharge are absent during twitching...
August 3, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27445763/motor-cortex-stimulation-for-pain-relief-do-corollary-discharges-play-a-role
#13
Joaquim P Brasil-Neto
Both invasive and non-invasive motor cortex stimulation techniques have been successfully employed in the treatment of chronic pain, but the precise mechanism of action of such treatments is not fully understood. It has been hypothesized that a mismatch of normal interaction between motor intention and sensory feedback may result in central pain. Sensory feedback may come from peripheral nerves, vision and also from corollary discharges originating from the motor cortex itself. Therefore, a possible mechanism of action of motor cortex stimulation might be corollary discharge reinforcement, which could counterbalance sensory feedback deficiency...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27435520/idiopathic-focal-epilepsies-the-lost-tribe
#14
REVIEW
Deb K Pal, Colin Ferrie, Laura Addis, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Giuseppe Capovilla, Roberto Caraballo, Anne de Saint-Martin, Natalio Fejerman, Renzo Guerrini, Khalid Hamandi, Ingo Helbig, Andreas A Ioannides, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Dennis Lal, Gaetan Lesca, Hiltrud Muhle, Bernd A Neubauer, Tiziana Pisano, Gabrielle Rudolf, Caroline Seegmuller, Takashi Shibata, Anna Smith, Pasquale Striano, Lisa J Strug, Pierre Szepetowski, Thalia Valeta, Harumi Yoshinaga, Michalis Koutroumanidis
The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27313528/neural-network-evidence-for-the-coupling-of-presaccadic-visual-remapping-to-predictive-eye-position-updating
#15
Hrishikesh M Rao, Juan San Juan, Fred Y Shen, Jennifer E Villa, Kimia S Rafie, Marc A Sommer
As we look around a scene, we perceive it as continuous and stable even though each saccadic eye movement changes the visual input to the retinas. How the brain achieves this perceptual stabilization is unknown, but a major hypothesis is that it relies on presaccadic remapping, a process in which neurons shift their visual sensitivity to a new location in the scene just before each saccade. This hypothesis is difficult to test in vivo because complete, selective inactivation of remapping is currently intractable...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294673/velocity-selective-networks-in-human-cortex-reveal-two-functionally-distinct-auditory-motion-systems
#16
Jhao-An Meng, Kourosh Saberi, I-Hui Hsieh
The auditory system encounters motion cues through an acoustic object's movement or rotation of the listener's head in a stationary sound field, generating a wide range of naturally occurring velocities from a few to several hundred degrees per second. The angular velocity of moving acoustic objects relative to a listener is typically slow and does not exceed tens of degrees per second, whereas head rotations in a stationary acoustic field may generate fast-changing spatial cues in the order of several hundred degrees per second...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27121584/auditory-golgi-cells-are-interconnected-predominantly-by-electrical-synapses
#17
Daniel B Yaeger, Laurence O Trussell
The mossy fiber-granule cell-parallel fiber system conveys proprioceptive and corollary discharge information to principal cells in cerebellum-like systems. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), Golgi cells inhibit granule cells and thus regulate information transfer along the mossy fiber-granule cell-parallel fiber pathway. Whereas excitatory synaptic inputs to Golgi cells are well understood, inhibitory and electrical synaptic inputs to Golgi cells have not been examined. Using paired recordings in a mouse brain slice preparation, we find that Golgi cells of the cochlear nucleus reliably form electrical synapses onto one another...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27049014/increased-mri-based-cortical-grey-white-matter-contrast-in-sensory-and-motor-regions-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#18
K N Jørgensen, S Nerland, L B Norbom, N T Doan, R Nesvåg, L Mørch-Johnsen, U K Haukvik, I Melle, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Agartz
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors and one possible illness mechanism is abnormal myelination. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue intensities are sensitive to myelin content. Therefore, the contrast between grey- and white-matter intensities may reflect myelination along the cortical surface. METHOD: MRI images were obtained from patients with schizophrenia (n = 214), bipolar disorder (n = 185), and healthy controls (n = 278) and processed in FreeSurfer...
July 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26917065/a-noninvasive-electromagnetic-perturbation-approach-to-probe-extraocular-proprioception
#19
Martin O Bohlen, Lewis L Chen
BACKGROUND: Extraocular proprioception has been shown to participate in spatial perception and binocular alignment. Yet the physiological approaches used to study this sensory signal are limited because proprioceptive signaling takes place at the same time as visuomotor signaling. It is critical to dissociate this sensory signal from other visuomotor events that accompany eye movements. METHODS: We present a novel noninvasive and quantifiable method for probing extraocular proprioception independent of other visuomotor processing by attaching a rare-earth magnet to a real-time model eye and placing an electromagnet <20 mm from the eye...
February 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877117/studies-of-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#20
COMMENT
Stephan Heckers
Neuroscientists have been exploring the mechanism of auditory verbal hallucinations. In this commentary, I review studies by Judy Ford, who employed a vocalization paradigm to test the hypothesis of impaired corollary discharge in psychotic patients who experience auditory verbal hallucinations. I highlight the strengths of this research program and reflect on the challenge of reducing a complex clinical feature to an abnormality of basic cognitive processes, such as language and memory.
March 2016: Psychophysiology
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