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Corollary discharge

Thomas J Hureau, Lee M Romer, Markus Amann
Neuromuscular fatigue compromises exercise performance and is determined by central and peripheral mechanisms. Interactions between the two components of fatigue can occur via neural pathways, including feedback and feedforward processes. This brief review discusses the influence of feedback and feedforward mechanisms on exercise limitation. In terms of feedback mechanisms, particular attention is given to group III/IV sensory neurons which link limb muscle with the central nervous system. Central corollary discharge, a copy of the neural drive from the brain to the working muscles, provides a signal from the motor system to sensory systems and is considered a feedforward mechanism that might influence fatigue and consequently exercise performance...
November 7, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Jianing Yu, Diego A Gutnisky, S Andrew Hires, Karel Svoboda
We rely on movement to explore the environment, for example, by palpating an object. In somatosensory cortex, activity related to movement of digits or whiskers is suppressed, which could facilitate detection of touch. Movement-related suppression is generally assumed to involve corollary discharges. Here we uncovered a thalamocortical mechanism in which cortical fast-spiking interneurons, driven by sensory input, suppress movement-related activity in layer 4 (L4) excitatory neurons. In mice locating objects with their whiskers, neurons in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) fired in response to touch and whisker movement...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Brian E Russ, Takaaki Kaneko, Kadharbatcha S Saleem, Rebecca A Berman, David A Leopold
UNLABELLED: Visual motion responses in the brain are shaped by two distinct sources: the physical movement of objects in the environment and motion resulting from one's own actions. The latter source, termed visual reafference, stems from movements of the head and body, and in primates from the frequent saccadic eye movements that mark natural vision. To study the relative contribution of reafferent and stimulus motion during natural vision, we measured fMRI activity in the brains of two macaques as they freely viewed >50 hours of naturalistic video footage depicting dynamic social interactions...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Jacob Engelmann, Tim Walther, Kirsty Grant, Elisabetta Chicca, Leonel Gómez-Sena
Understanding the coding of sensory information under the temporal constraints of natural behavior is not yet well resolved. There is a growing consensus that spike timing or latency coding can maximally exploit the timing of neural events to make fast computing elements and that such mechanisms are essential to information processing functions in the brain. The electric sense of mormyrid fish provides a convenient biological model where this coding scheme can be studied. The sensory input is a physically ordered spatial pattern of current densities, which is coded in the precise timing of primary afferent spikes...
2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Nathan Wages, Travis Beck, Xin Ye, Joshua Carr
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Alexandre Tiriac, Mark S Blumberg
Nervous systems distinguish between self- and other-generated movements by monitoring discrepancies between planned and performed actions. To do so, corollary discharges are conveyed to sensory areas and gate expected reafference. Such gating is observed in neonatal rats during wake-related movements. In contrast, twitches, which are self-generated movements produced during active (or REM) sleep, differ from wake movements in that they reliably trigger robust neural activity. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the gating actions of corollary discharge are absent during twitching...
2016: ELife
Joaquim P Brasil-Neto
Both invasive and non-invasive motor cortex stimulation techniques have been successfully employed in the treatment of chronic pain, but the precise mechanism of action of such treatments is not fully understood. It has been hypothesized that a mismatch of normal interaction between motor intention and sensory feedback may result in central pain. Sensory feedback may come from peripheral nerves, vision and also from corollary discharges originating from the motor cortex itself. Therefore, a possible mechanism of action of motor cortex stimulation might be corollary discharge reinforcement, which could counterbalance sensory feedback deficiency...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Deb K Pal, Colin Ferrie, Laura Addis, Tomoyuki Akiyama, Giuseppe Capovilla, Roberto Caraballo, Anne de Saint-Martin, Natalio Fejerman, Renzo Guerrini, Khalid Hamandi, Ingo Helbig, Andreas A Ioannides, Katsuhiro Kobayashi, Dennis Lal, Gaetan Lesca, Hiltrud Muhle, Bernd A Neubauer, Tiziana Pisano, Gabrielle Rudolf, Caroline Seegmuller, Takashi Shibata, Anna Smith, Pasquale Striano, Lisa J Strug, Pierre Szepetowski, Thalia Valeta, Harumi Yoshinaga, Michalis Koutroumanidis
The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Hrishikesh M Rao, Juan San Juan, Fred Y Shen, Jennifer E Villa, Kimia S Rafie, Marc A Sommer
As we look around a scene, we perceive it as continuous and stable even though each saccadic eye movement changes the visual input to the retinas. How the brain achieves this perceptual stabilization is unknown, but a major hypothesis is that it relies on presaccadic remapping, a process in which neurons shift their visual sensitivity to a new location in the scene just before each saccade. This hypothesis is difficult to test in vivo because complete, selective inactivation of remapping is currently intractable...
2016: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Jhao-An Meng, Kourosh Saberi, I-Hui Hsieh
The auditory system encounters motion cues through an acoustic object's movement or rotation of the listener's head in a stationary sound field, generating a wide range of naturally occurring velocities from a few to several hundred degrees per second. The angular velocity of moving acoustic objects relative to a listener is typically slow and does not exceed tens of degrees per second, whereas head rotations in a stationary acoustic field may generate fast-changing spatial cues in the order of several hundred degrees per second...
2016: PloS One
Daniel B Yaeger, Laurence O Trussell
The mossy fiber-granule cell-parallel fiber system conveys proprioceptive and corollary discharge information to principal cells in cerebellum-like systems. In the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), Golgi cells inhibit granule cells and thus regulate information transfer along the mossy fiber-granule cell-parallel fiber pathway. Whereas excitatory synaptic inputs to Golgi cells are well understood, inhibitory and electrical synaptic inputs to Golgi cells have not been examined. Using paired recordings in a mouse brain slice preparation, we find that Golgi cells of the cochlear nucleus reliably form electrical synapses onto one another...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
K N Jørgensen, S Nerland, L B Norbom, N T Doan, R Nesvåg, L Mørch-Johnsen, U K Haukvik, I Melle, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Agartz
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors and one possible illness mechanism is abnormal myelination. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue intensities are sensitive to myelin content. Therefore, the contrast between grey- and white-matter intensities may reflect myelination along the cortical surface. METHOD: MRI images were obtained from patients with schizophrenia (n = 214), bipolar disorder (n = 185), and healthy controls (n = 278) and processed in FreeSurfer...
July 2016: Psychological Medicine
Martin O Bohlen, Lewis L Chen
BACKGROUND: Extraocular proprioception has been shown to participate in spatial perception and binocular alignment. Yet the physiological approaches used to study this sensory signal are limited because proprioceptive signaling takes place at the same time as visuomotor signaling. It is critical to dissociate this sensory signal from other visuomotor events that accompany eye movements. METHODS: We present a novel noninvasive and quantifiable method for probing extraocular proprioception independent of other visuomotor processing by attaching a rare-earth magnet to a real-time model eye and placing an electromagnet <20 mm from the eye...
February 2016: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Stephan Heckers
Neuroscientists have been exploring the mechanism of auditory verbal hallucinations. In this commentary, I review studies by Judy Ford, who employed a vocalization paradigm to test the hypothesis of impaired corollary discharge in psychotic patients who experience auditory verbal hallucinations. I highlight the strengths of this research program and reflect on the challenge of reducing a complex clinical feature to an abnormality of basic cognitive processes, such as language and memory.
March 2016: Psychophysiology
Zhenyu Gao, Martina Proietti-Onori, Zhanmin Lin, Michiel M Ten Brinke, Henk-Jan Boele, Jan-Willem Potters, Tom J H Ruigrok, Freek E Hoebeek, Chris I De Zeeuw
Closed-loop circuitries between cortical and subcortical regions can facilitate precision of output patterns, but the role of such networks in the cerebellum remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterize the role of internal feedback from the cerebellar nuclei to the cerebellar cortex in classical eyeblink conditioning. We find that excitatory output neurons in the interposed nucleus provide efference-copy signals via mossy fibers to the cerebellar cortical zones that belong to the same module, triggering monosynaptic responses in granule and Golgi cells and indirectly inhibiting Purkinje cells...
February 3, 2016: Neuron
James Cavanaugh, Rebecca A Berman, Wilsaan M Joiner, Robert H Wurtz
UNLABELLED: Saccadic eye movements direct the high-resolution foveae of our retinas toward objects of interest. With each saccade, the image jumps on the retina, causing a discontinuity in visual input. Our visual perception, however, remains stable. Philosophers and scientists over centuries have proposed that visual stability depends upon an internal neuronal signal that is a copy of the neuronal signal driving the eye movement, now referred to as a corollary discharge (CD) or efference copy...
January 6, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Laurence C Jayet Bray, Sonia Bansal, Wilsaan M Joiner
Extraretinal information, such as corollary discharge (CD), is hypothesized to help compensate for saccade-induced visual input disruptions. However, support for this hypothesis is largely for one-dimensional transsaccadic visual changes, with little comprehensive information on the spatial characteristics. Here we systematically mapped the two-dimensional extent of this compensation by quantifying the insensitivity to different displacement metrics. Human subjects made saccades to targets positioned at different amplitudes (4° or 8°) and directions (rightward, oblique, or upward)...
March 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Bartholomaeus Odoj, Daniela Balslev
The most common neural representations for spatial attention encode locations retinotopically, relative to center of gaze. To keep track of visual objects across saccades or to orient toward sounds, retinotopic representations must be combined with information about the rotation of one's own eyes in the orbits. Although gaze input is critical for a correct allocation of attention, the source of this input has so far remained unidentified. Two main signals are available: corollary discharge (copy of oculomotor command) and oculoproprioception (feedback from extraocular muscles)...
March 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Robert Numan
The hypothesis of this article is that the interactions between the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus play a critical role in the modulation of goal-directed self-action and the strengthening of episodic memories. We describe various theories that model a comparator function for the hippocampus, and then elaborate the empirical evidence that supports these theories. One theory which describes a prefrontal-hippocampal comparator for voluntary action is emphasized. Action plans are essential for successful goal-directed behavior, and are elaborated by the prefrontal cortex...
2015: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Akira Murata, Wen Wen, Hajime Asama
The network between the parietal cortex and premotor cortex has a pivotal role in sensory-motor control. Grasping-related neurons in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (F5) showed complementary properties each other. The object information for grasping is sent from the parietal cortex to the premotor cortex for sensory-motor transformation, and the backward signal from the premotor cortex to parietal cortex can be considered an efference copy/corollary discharge that is used to predict sensory outcome during motor behavior...
March 2016: Neuroscience Research
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