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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719033/identification-of-driver-copy-number-alterations-in-diverse-cancer-types-and-application-in-drug-repositioning
#1
Wenbin Zhou, Zhangxiang Zhao, Ruiping Wang, Yue Han, Chengyu Wang, Fan Yang, Ya Han, Haihai Liang, Lishuang Qi, Chenguang Wang, Zheng Guo, Yunyan Gu
Results from numerous studies suggest an important role for somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) in cancer progression. Our work aimed to identify the drivers (oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes) that reside in recurrently aberrant genomic regions, including a large number of genes or non-coding genes, which remain a challenge for decoding the SCNAs involved in carcinogenesis. Here, we propose a new approach to comprehensively identify drivers, using 8740 cancer samples involving 18 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)...
July 18, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714398/nutlin-3-a-p53-mdm2-antagonist-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-treatment
#2
Voon Yee-Lin, Wong Pooi-Fong, Alan Khoo Soo-Beng
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a form of head and neck cancer of multifactorial etiologies that is highly prevalent among men in the populations of Southern China and Southeast Asia. NPC has claimed many thousands of lives worldwide; but the low awareness of NPC remains a hindrance in early diagnosis and prevention of the disease. NPC is highly responsive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but radiocurable NPC is still dependent on concurrent treatment of megavoltage radiotherapy with chemotherapy. Despite a significant reduction in loco-regional and distant metastases, radiotherapy alone has failed to provide a significant improvement in the overall survival rate of NPC, compared to chemotherapy...
July 17, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671620/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Julia Thierauf, Johannes Adrian Veit, Jochen Hess
Head and neck cancer (HNC) is one of the most prevalent human malignancies worldwide, with a high morbidity and mortality. Implementation of interdisciplinary treatment modalities has improved the quality of life, but only minor changes in overall survival have been achieved over the past decades. Main causes for treatment failure are an aggressive and invasive tumor growth in combination with a high degree of intrinsic or acquired treatment resistance. A subset of tumor cells gain these properties during malignant progression by reactivating a complex program of epithelia-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is integral in embryonic development, wound healing, and stem cell behavior...
July 3, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571578/immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-aiming-at-extreme-precision
#4
Petr Szturz, Jan B Vermorken
BACKGROUND: Locoregionally advanced, recurrent, and metastatic squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN) remain difficult to treat disease entities, in which systemic treatment often forms an integral part of their management. Immunotherapy is based on functional restoration of the host immune system, helping to counteract various tumour evasion strategies. Broadly, immunotherapeutic approaches encompass tumour-specific antibodies, cancer vaccines, cytokines, adoptive T-cell transfer, and immune-modulating agents...
June 2, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550447/trends-in-surgical-research-in-head-and-neck-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Genrich Tolstonog, Christian Simon
The task of surgical research is to improve the efficacy of available surgical therapeutic modalities, develop new ones, and balance this well with favorable functional outcome. Therefore, surgical research is composed of a translational and a clinical component. In translational surgical research, animal models are used to better understand the biology of head and neck cancers, but even more importantly, the biology of changes to the disease and the microenvironment created by surgical interventions. Animal models additionally allow for the development of image-guided surgery systems, novel strategies of intraoperative adjuvant treatment, and patient "avatars" to test innovative anticancer drug combinations...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496478/study-of-crocin-radiotherapy-induced-cytotoxicity-and-apoptosis-in-the-head-and-neck-cancer-hn-5-cell-line
#6
Vahid Vazifedan, Seyed Hadi Mousavi, Javad Sargolzaei, Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Azar Fani Pakdel
Malignant tumors of head and neck carcinomas are the sixth most common type of cancer. Current systemic therapies for cancer show side effects in normal tissues and short-term efficacy due to drug resistance. Consequently, there is much interest in identifying new drugs for cancer treatment. Crocin (an active ingredient of saffron) has been shown to have cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines. Chemo radiotherapy is the standard treatment for head and neck cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects, inducing apoptosis and the radiation sensitivity of crocin were evaluated in the head and neck cancer cell line (HN-5)...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488581/repurposing-albendazole-new-potential-as-a-chemotherapeutic-agent-with-preferential-activity-against-hpv-negative-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer
#7
Farhad Ghasemi, Morgan Black, Frederick Vizeacoumar, Nicole Pinto, Kara M Ruicci, Carson Cao Son Huu Le, Matthew R Lowerison, Hon Sing Leong, John Yoo, Kevin Fung, Danielle MacNeil, David A Palma, Eric Winquist, Joe S Mymryk, Paul C Boutros, Alessandro Datti, John W Barrett, Anthony C Nichols
Albendazole is an anti-helminthic drug that has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties, however its activity in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) was unknown. Using a series of in vitro assays, we assessed the ability of albendazole to inhibit proliferation in 20 HNSCC cell lines across a range of albendazole doses (1 nM-10 μM). Cell lines that responded to treatment were further examined for cell death, inhibition of migration and cell cycle arrest. Thirteen of fourteen human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC cell lines responded to albendazole, with an average IC50 of 152 nM...
April 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446055/investigational-drugs-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#8
REVIEW
Brigette B Y Ma, Edwin P Hui, Anthony T C Chan
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic to Southern China and Asia and is etiologically associated with the Epstein Barr virus (EBV). Whole exome and genome sequencing (WES, WGS) studies of NPC have reported several actionable therapeutic targets, and that the mutational load of NPC maybe comparable to that of squamous head and neck cancer. These unique biological characteristics have been exploited as potential targets and a wide range of investigational drugs are being investigated in clinical trials. Area covered: This review focused on the latest clinical development of the most promising classes of investigational agents in the treatment of advanced NPC...
June 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434400/role-of-modern-immunotherapy-in-gastrointestinal-malignancies-a-review-of-current-clinical-progress
#9
REVIEW
Zin W Myint, Gaurav Goel
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are a group of highly aggressive malignancies with a huge disease burden worldwide. There is clearly a significant unmet need for new drugs and therapies to further improve the treatment outcomes of GI malignancies. Immunotherapy is a novel treatment strategy that is emerging as an effective and promising treatment option against several types of cancers. CTLA-4 and PD-1 are critical immune checkpoint molecules that negatively regulate T cell activation via distinct mechanisms...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404956/cabazitaxel-in-recurrent-metastatic-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-phase-ii-unicancer-trial-orl03
#10
Jerome Fayette, Joel Guigay, Christophe Le Tourneau, Marian Degardin, Frederic Peyrade, Eve-Marie Neidhardt, Marie-Paule Sablin, Caroline Even, Florence Orlandini, Béata Juzyna, Carine Bellera
Treatments are limited after platinum Cetuximab or anti-PD1 failure for patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cabazitaxel has increased overall survival in hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer after failure of Docetaxel. Our aim was to detect a signal of activity with Cabazitaxel in patients with head and neck cancer who had failed platinum-, Cetuximab- and taxanes-based chemotherapy.This multicenter phase II trial included progressive patients with an ECOG ≤2...
March 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382569/targeted-therapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-an-update-on-current-clinical-developments-in-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-targeted-therapy-and-immunotherapies
#11
REVIEW
Jonathan Moreira, Alexander Tobias, Michael P O'Brien, Mark Agulnik
Most patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) will present with locally advanced disease, requiring multimodality therapy. Despite this curative approach, a significant subset of these patients will develop locoregional failure and/or distant metastases. Despite significant progress in the treatment and subsequent prognosis of locally advanced HNSCC, the prognosis of those patients with recurrent and/or metastatic (R/M) HNSCC is poor, with short-lived responses to palliative chemotherapy and few therapeutic agents available...
May 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374020/current-state-and-future-of-photodynamic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#12
Christina Mimikos, Gal Shafirstein, Hassan Arshad
Photodynamic therapy has shown promise in the treatment of early head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In photodynamic therapy (PDT), a light sensitive drug (photosensitizer) and visible light cause cancer cell death by the creation of singlet oxygen and free radicals, inciting an immune response, and vascular collapse. In this paper, we review several studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of early stage SCC of the head and neck, with some showing a similar response rate to surgery...
June 2016: World journal of otorhinolaryngology—head and neck surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357576/a-novel-external-carotid-arterial-sheath-system-for-intra-arterial-infusion-chemotherapy-of-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
Noriko Ii, Nobukazu Fuwa, Yutaka Toyomasu, Akinori Takada, Miwako Nomura, Tomoko Kawamura, Hajime Sakuma, Yoshihito Nomoto
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe a novel system for treating advanced head and neck cancer consisting of an external carotid arterial sheath (ECAS) and a microcatheter to inject drugs retrogradely into multiple feeding arteries through the superficial temporal artery (STA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four consecutive patients with head and neck cancer that had more than one feeding artery were enrolled in this study. The ECAS was made of polyurethane and surface-coated with heparin resin to prevent thrombus formation, allowing it to remain in place for a prolonged period of time...
July 2017: Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224235/oral-mucosal-changes-induced-by-anticancer-targeted-therapies-and-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuelle Vigarios, Joel B Epstein, Vincent Sibaud
Development of biological targeted therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors has redefined the treatment for many cancers; however, the increasing use of new protocols has led to physicians observing a new spectrum of toxicities. To date, oral adverse events induced by these new anticancer therapies have been mainly reported using nonspecific terminology ("stomatitis," "mucosal inflammation," "mucositis") and remain poorly characterized, with the exception of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-associated stomatitis...
February 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109468/preclinical-models-in-hnscc-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Benoite Méry, Chloé Rancoule, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Sophie Espenel, Anne-Sophie Wozny, Priscilla Battiston-Montagne, Dominique Ardail, Michael Beuve, Gersende Alphonse, Claire Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Nicolas Magné
Head and neck cancer remains a significant public health concern. About 60% of patients die within 5years due to local recurrence. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines are important preclinical models in the search for new therapies against this disease. Furthermore, there is a need to test novel drugs before introduction into clinical practice. A preclinical model that closely resembles the in vivo situation would be highly valuable. In the last few decades, a multicellular spheroid model has gained attention as its behavior was comparable to in vivo tumors...
February 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098869/core%C3%A2-shell-lipid-polymer-nanoparticles-for-combined-chemo%C3%A2-and-gene-therapy-of-childhood-head-and-neck-cancers
#16
Tiesong Zhang, Jing Ma, Chao Li, Ken Lin, Fan Lou, Hongchao Jiang, Yingqin Gao, Yanli Yang, Cheng Ming, Biao Ruan
Pediatric head and neck cancers account for overall 12% of all pediatric cancers. Despite recent advances in therapeutic modalities, children with tumor metastasis have poor prognosis. Therefore, there is an unmet need for new and effective treatment modalities for pediatric head and neck cancers. The present study describes a simple and efficient method for fabrication of cationic lipid‑polymer hybrid nanoparticles (CLPNs) for co‑delivery of cisplatin (CDDP) and DNA (CDDP/DNA CLPNs) for the therapy of childhood head and neck cancers...
March 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079973/a-regulatory-bmi1-let-7i-erk3-pathway-controls-the-motility-of-head-and-neck-cancer-cells
#17
Lobna Elkhadragy, Minyi Chen, Kennon Miller, Muh-Hwa Yang, Weiwen Long
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 3 (ERK3) is an atypical mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), whose biological activity is tightly regulated by its cellular abundance. Recent studies have revealed that ERK3 is upregulated in multiple cancers and promotes cancer cell migration/invasion and drug resistance. Little is known, however, about how ERK3 expression level is upregulated in cancers. Here, we have identified the oncogenic polycomb group protein BMI1 as a positive regulator of ERK3 level in head and neck cancer cells...
February 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900730/understanding-the-interactions-of-high-mobility-group-of-protein-domain-b1-with-dna-adducts-generated-by-platinum-anticancer-molecules-using-in-silico-approaches
#18
Gauri Misra, Shipra Gupta, Neetu Jabalia
Platinum coordination compounds having cis geometry are frequently prescribed for various types of cancers. Protein dysregulation is one of the major factors contributing towards cancer metastasis. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the cancers where platinum-based compounds are used either alone or in combination with radiation as therapy. The underlying interactions of these compounds with both DNA and proteins are crucial for the drug response. The compounds forms DNA adducts which are recognized by conserved, non-chromosomal high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) proteins...
November 30, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869439/immunology-update-long-term-care-of-solid-organ-transplant-recipients
#19
REVIEW
S Paul Starr
Nearly 31,000 US patients received solid organ transplants in 2015 and the number is increasing. Care of transplant recipients includes management of a variety of common posttransplantation issues. Skin cancers are common because of immunosuppression and require skin examinations at intervals. Patients should be educated about the need to report new skin lesions. The rates of other cancers also are increased, including cancers of the head and neck, lung, esophagus, cervix, and urinary tract. Osteoporosis is common in transplant recipients; monitoring and early therapy are important...
November 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837212/-preclinical-models-in-head-and-neck-tumors-evaluation-of-cellular-and-molecular-resistance-mechanisms-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#20
REVIEW
A Affolter, J Hess
Because head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by a distinct intertumorigenic and intratumorigenic heterogeneity, they often show substantial differences in the response to established therapy strategies. At present, a multitude of biologics and new pharmacological compounds for targeted therapies are available that allow more efficient and less toxic treatment. There is increasing pressure to establish predictive assays not only for ex ante analysis of the individual patient response to combined chemoradiotherapy and targeted therapies but also for investigation of the efficacy of new drugs...
December 2016: HNO
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