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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545484/timing-of-appropriate-empirical-antimicrobial-administration-and-outcome-of-adults-with-community-onset-bacteremia
#1
Ching-Chi Lee, Chung-Hsun Lee, Ming-Yuan Hong, Hung-Jen Tang, Wen-Chien Ko
BACKGROUND: Early administration of appropriate antimicrobials has been correlated with a better prognosis in patients with bacteremia, but the optimum timing of early antibiotic administration as one of the resuscitation strategies for severe bacterial infections remains unclear. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, adults with community-onset bacteremia at the emergency department (ED) were analyzed. Effects of different cutoffs of time to appropriate antibiotic (TtAa) administration after arrival at the ED on 28-day mortality were examined, after adjustment for independent predictors of mortality identified by multivariate regression analysis...
May 26, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544837/candida-endocarditis-a-review-of-twelve-episodes-in-eleven-patients
#2
Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Mateja Logar
BACKGROUND: Candida spp. are a rare but important cause of infective endocarditis. The study aim was to describe pertinent clinical data on consecutive patients with Candida endocarditis treated at a tertiary referral center between 1984 and 2013. METHODS: A retrospective search of the authors' endocarditis database was performed and the medical records of patients with confirmed Candida endocarditis were reviewed. Important data relating to demographics, medical history and clinical data, as well as information on outcome and treatment, were extracted...
January 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543519/a-new-treatment-of-sepsis-caused-by-veillonella-parvula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#3
J Li, P Chen, J Li, X Gao, X Chen, J Chen
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Veillonella parvula is usually regarded as a contaminant bacteria associated with polymicrobial infection. Here we report a rare case of sepsis caused by V. parvula, which was successfully treated by chloramphenicol. In addition, the therapeutic strategy for V. parvula infection was reviewed. CASE SUMMARY: A 55-year-old woman underwent surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis and developed high fever (39.5°C) after surgery, accompanied by chills and fatigue...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541746/the-evolving-cystic-fibrosis-microbiome-a-comparative-cohort-study-spanning-sixteen-years
#4
Nicole Acosta, Fiona J Whelan, Ranjani Somayaji, Ali Poonja, Michael G Surette, Harvey R Rabin, Michael D Parkins
RATIONALE: The cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are infected with a diverse polymicrobial community. OBJECTIVES: Understanding how changes in the CF microbiome have occurred over time, similar to the observed changes in the prevalence of cultured pathogens, is key in understanding the microbiome's role in disease. METHODS: Drawing from a prospectively collected and maintained sputum biobank, we identified 45 patients with sputum samples collected between the ages of 18-21 years in three successive cohorts of adults transitioning to our CF clinic: A(1997-2000), B(2004-2007), and C(2010-2013)...
May 25, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540567/-the-significance-of-biofilm-for-the-treatment-of-infections-in-orthopedic-surgery-2017-update
#5
REVIEW
C Scheuermann-Poley, C Wagner, J Hoffmann, A Moter, C Willy
BACKGROUND: The increase in endoprosthetic and osteosynthetic surgical treatment is associated with a simultaneous increase in implant-associated infections (surgical site infections, SSI). Biofilms appear to play a significant role in the diagnosis and treatment of these infections and heavily contaminated wounds. This article aims to provide a current overview of biofilm and its relevance in orthopedic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A computer-assisted literature search of MedLine (PubMed) was performed using key word combinations with "biofilm" (as of March 2017)...
May 24, 2017: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540152/epidemiological-clinical-and-microbiological-characteristics-of-patients-with-post-traumatic-osteomyelitis-of-limb-fractures-in-southwest-china-a-hospital-based-study
#6
Jiachen Peng, Youliang Ren, Wenbin He, Zhengdao Li, Jin Yang, Yi Liu, Zhonghui Zheng, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Chao Xie, Youjia Xu
Objective To determine the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics, of patients with post-traumatic osteomyelitis of extremity fractures, and provide evidence-based guidelines for early diagnosis and treatment, including empiric antibiotic therapy. Methods Human subject research was performed using institutional review board approved protocols. A retrospective chart review was conducted on 5,368 patients diagnosed with extremity traumatic fractures from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015, to identify osteomyelitis patients...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538389/antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-clinical-features-and-risk-factors-for-septic-shock-and-death-of-nosocomial-e-coli-bacteremia-in-adult-patients-with-hematological-disease-a-monocenter-retrospective-study-in-china
#7
Jie Ma, Ning Li, Yajie Liu, Chong Wang, Xiaoyan Liu, Shengmei Chen, Xinsheng Xie, Silin Gan, Meng Wang, Weijie Cao, Fang Wang, Yanfan Liu, Dingming Wan, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance, clinical features, and risk factors for septic shock and death of nosocomial E coli bacteremia in adult patients in a single hematological center in China. A retrospective case-control study of 157 adult hematological patients with 168 episodes of E coli bacteremia was initiated from April 2012 to July 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility as well as antimicrobial co-resistance rates were analyzed. Clinical features and outcomes were also studied...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538086/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-agonist-sew2871-causes-severe-cardiac-side-effects-and-does-not-improve-microvascular-barrier-breakdown-in-sepsis
#8
Sven Flemming, Natalie Burkard, Michael Meir, Martin Alexander Schick, Christoph-Thomas Germer, Nicolas Schlegel
BACKGROUND: Endothelial barrier dysfunction is a hallmark in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) has been proposed to be critically involved in the maintenance of endothelial barrier function predominately by activating S1P receptor-1 (S1P1). Previous studies have shown that the specific S1P1 agonist SEW2871 improves endothelial barrier function under inflammatory conditions. However, the effectiveness of SEW2871 and potential side effects remained largely unexplored in a clinically relevant model of sepsis...
May 23, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536291/evolution-of-bacterial-frenemies
#9
Sophie E Darch, Carolyn B Ibberson, Marvin Whiteley
Chronic polymicrobial infections are associated with increased virulence compared to monospecies infections. However, our understanding of microbial dynamics during polymicrobial infection is limited. A recent study by Limoli and colleagues (D. H. Limoli, G. B. Whitfield, T. Kitao, M. L. Ivey, M. R. Davis, Jr., et al., mBio 8:e00186-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00186-17) provides insight into a mechanism that may contribute to the coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung...
May 23, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533769/celecoxib-enhances-the-efficacy-of-low-dose-antibiotic-treatment-against-polymicrobial-sepsis-in-mice-and-clinical-isolates-of-eskape-pathogens
#10
Madhavi Annamanedi, Gajapati Y N Varma, K Anuradha, Arunasree M Kalle
Treatment of multidrug resistant bacterial infections has been a great challenge globally. Previous studies including our study have highlighted the use of celecoxib, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in combination with antibiotic has decreased the minimal inhibitory concentration to limit Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the efficacy of this combinatorial treatment against various pathogenic bacteria is not determined. Therefore, we have evaluated the potential use of celecoxib in combination with low doses of antibiotic in limiting Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vivo in murine polymicrobial sepsis developed by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) method and against clinically isolated human ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529867/efficacy-of-antibiotic-suppressive-therapy-in-patients-with-a-prosthetic-joint-infection
#11
Marjan Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Jasperina M Nijman, Greetje A Kampinga, Sander van Assen, Paul C Jutte
Introduction: For chronic prosthetic joint infections (PJI), complete removal of the infected prosthesis is necessary in order to cure the infection. Unfortunately, a subgroup of patients is not able to undergo a revision surgery due to high surgical risk. Alternatively, these patients can be treated with antibiotic suppressive therapy (AST) to suppress the infection. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of AST. Methods: We retrospectively collected data (period 2009-2015) from patients with a PJI (of hip, knee or shoulder) who were treated with AST at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands...
2017: J Bone Jt Infect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526094/patients-with-community-acquired-bacteremia-of-unknown-origin-clinical-characteristics-and-usefulness-of-microbiological-results-for-therapeutic-issues-a-single-center-cohort-study
#12
Johan Courjon, Elisa Demonchy, Nicolas Degand, Karine Risso, Raymond Ruimy, Pierre-Marie Roger
Bacteremia of unknown origin (BUO) are associated with increased mortality compared to those with identified sources. Microbiological data of those patients could help to characterize an appropriate empirical antibiotic treatment before bloodcultures results are available during sepsis of unknown origin. Based on the dashboard of our ward that prospectively records several parameters from each hospitalization, we report 101 community-acquired BUO selected among 1989 bacteremic patients from July 2005 to April 2016, BUO being defined by the absence of clinical and paraclinical infectious focus and no other microbiological samples retrieving the bacteria isolated from blood cultures...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523894/primary-cutaneous-mucormycosis-in-an-extremely-preterm-infant-successfully-treated-with-liposomal-amphotericin-b
#13
Christopher D Lowe, Rebecca J Sainato, David R Stagliano, Maribel M Morgan, Brian P Green
Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare but often fatal invasive fungal infection that occurs most commonly in patients with diabetes, malignancy, and other immunocompromising conditions. We report an extremely preterm (<28 weeks) baby boy who developed polymicrobial sepsis and primary cutaneous mucormycosis within his first 10 days of life. He was successfully treated with medical management alone since he was not a candidate for surgery. Successful treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis without surgical debridement has been reported on only two other occasions...
May 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515693/rolipram-improves-outcome-in-a-rat-model-of-infant-sepsis-induced-cardiorenal-syndrome
#14
Clark R Sims, Sharda P Singh, Shengyu Mu, Neriman Gokden, Dala Zakaria, Trung C Nguyen, Philip R Mayeux
While the mortality rate associated with sepsis in children has fallen over the years, it still remains unacceptably high. The development of both acute cardiac dysfunction and acute kidney injury during severe sepsis is categorized as type 5 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and is poorly understood in infants. To address this lack of understanding and the need for an appropriate animal model in which to conduct relevant preclinical studies, we developed a model of infant sepsis-induced CRS in rat pups then evaluated the therapeutic potential of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, rolipram...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513576/biofilm-is-a-major-virulence-determinant-in-bacterial-colonization-of-chronic-skin-ulcers-independently-from-the-multidrug-resistant-phenotype
#15
Enea Gino Di Domenico, Ilaria Farulla, Grazia Prignano, Maria Teresa Gallo, Matteo Vespaziani, Ilaria Cavallo, Isabella Sperduti, Martina Pontone, Valentina Bordignon, Laura Cilli, Alessandra De Santis, Fabiola Di Salvo, Fulvia Pimpinelli, Ilaria Lesnoni La Parola, Luigi Toma, Fabrizio Ensoli
Bacterial biofilm is a major factor in delayed wound healing and high levels of biofilm production have been repeatedly described in multidrug resistant organisms (MDROs). Nevertheless, a quantitative correlation between biofilm production and the profile of antimicrobial drug resistance in delayed wound healing remains to be determined. Microbial identification, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm production were assessed in 135 clinical isolates from 87 patients. Gram-negative bacteria were the most represented microorganisms (60...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513569/intravenous-arginine-administration-promotes-proangiogenic-cells-mobilization-and-attenuates-lung-injury-in-mice-with-polymicrobial-sepsis
#16
Chiu-Li Yeh, Man-Hui Pai, Yao-Ming Shih, Juey-Ming Shih, Sung-Ling Yeh
This study investigated the influence of intravenous arginine (Arg) administration on alteration of circulating proangiogenic cells and remote lung injury in a model of polymicrobial sepsis. Mice were assigned to one normal control group (NC) and two sepsis groups that were induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). One of the sepsis groups was injected with saline (SS), whereas the other (SA) was administered with a single bolus of 300 mg Arg/kg body weight via the tail vein 1 h after CLP. Septic mice were sacrificed at either 24 or 48 h after CLP, with their blood and lung tissues collected for analysis...
May 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509357/characterization-of-microbial-mixtures-by-mass-spectrometry
#17
REVIEW
Todd R Sandrin, Plamen A Demirev
MS applications in microbiology have increased significantly in the past 10 years, due in part to the proliferation of regulator-approved commercial MALDI MS platforms for rapid identification of clinical infections. In parallel, with the expansion of MS technologies in the "omics" fields, novel MS-based research efforts to characterize organismal as well as environmental microbiomes have emerged. Successful characterization of microorganisms found in complex mixtures of other organisms remains a major challenge for researchers and clinicians alike...
May 16, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501669/an-update-on-bacterial-brain-abscess-in-immunocompetent-patients
#18
REVIEW
R Sonneville, R Ruimy, N Benzonana, L Riffaud, A Carsin, J-M Tadié, C Piau, M Revest, P Tattevin
BACKGROUND: Brain abscess is a focal infection of the brain, that begins as a localized area of cerebritis. In immunocompetent patients, bacteria are responsible for >95% of brain abscess, and enter the brain either through contiguous spread following otitis, sinusitis, neurosurgery, or cranial trauma, or through hematogenous dissemination. AIMS: To identify recent advents in the field. Sources We searched Medline and Embase for articles published during years 2012-2016, with the keywords 'brain', and 'abscess'...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487855/liver-abscess-caused-by-pannonibacter-phragmitetus-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Mingxi Wang, Xia Zhang, Tao Jiang, Shaohua Hu, Zhengjun Yi, Yajun Zhou, Desong Ming, Shicheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Bacterial hepatic abscess is a common occurrence in developing countries, which is mostly caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Pannonibacter phragmitetus is a Gram-negative alkali-tolerant bacillus that exists in the natural environment. Human infection by this bacterium is rare, with only four cases reported. METHOD: We presented one of these cases with a bacterial liver abscess by a polymicrobial infection involving P. phragmitetus and Streptococcus oralis, with P...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481721/s-oralis-activates-the-efg1-filamentation-pathway-in-c-albicans-to-promote-cross-kingdom-interactions-and-mucosal-biofilms
#20
Hongbin Xu, Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson, Margaret Vickerman, Clarissa J Nobile, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou
Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis are ubiquitous oral commensal organisms. Under host-permissive conditions these organisms can form hypervirulent mucosal biofilms. C. albicans biofilm formation is controlled by six master transcriptional regulators: Bcr1, Brg1, Efg1, Tec1, Ndt80, and Rob1. The objective of this work was to test whether any of these regulators play a role in cross-kingdom interactions between C. albicans and S. oralis in oral mucosal biofilms, and identify downstream target gene(s) that promote these interactions...
May 8, 2017: Virulence
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