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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935337/necrotizing-sweet-syndrome-of-the-upper-extremity-after-elective-hand-surgery
#1
Jason S Lipof, Lisa A Beck, Swapna C Reddy, Richard D Southgate, Kimberly Carney-Young, Warren C Hammert
Sweet syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a systemic disease process mainly characterized by hyperpyrexia and skin lesions. A newly described entity, necrotizing Sweet syndrome, is a severe and locally aggressive dermatological condition that clinically and histopathologically resembles a necrotizing soft tissue infection. It is characterized by pathergy, a nonspecific inflammatory response to cutaneous trauma resulting in a propagation of the disease. In contrast to a necrotizing infection, this condition responds to systemic steroids...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932195/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-attenuates-the-apoptosis-of-peripheral-blood-cd4-t-lymphocytes-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#2
Jinping Wang, Ping Wang, Shuiqing Gui, Yun Li, Runhua Chen, Renqing Zeng, Peiyan Zhao, Hanwei Wu, Zheyu Huang, Jianlong Wu
Sepsis is generally considered as a severe condition of inflammation that leads to lymphocyte apoptosis and multiple organ dysfunction. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects in infectious diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of HSYA on polymicrobial sepsis remains unknown. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic effects and the mechanisms of action of HSYA on immunosuppression in a murine model of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929383/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-six-different-dna-extraction-methods-for-the-representation-of-the-microbial-community-associated-with-human-chronic-wound-infections-using-a-gel-based-dna-profiling-method
#3
Ayomi Dilhari, Asanga Sampath, Chinthika Gunasekara, Neluka Fernando, Deepaka Weerasekara, Chris Sissons, Andrew McBain, Manjula Weerasekera
Infected chronic wounds are polymicrobial in nature which include a diverse group of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Majority of these communal microorganisms are difficult to grow in vitro. DNA fingerprinting methods such as polymerase chain reaction-denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) facilitate the microbial profiling of complex ecosystems including infected chronic wounds. Six different DNA extraction methods were compared for profiling of the microbial community associated with chronic wound infections using PCR-DGGE...
September 19, 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927397/detection-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-clinical-specimens-using-conventional-microbial-culture-and-16s-metagenomics-a-comparative-study
#4
Lalanika M Abayasekara, Jennifer Perera, Vishvanath Chandrasekharan, Vaz S Gnanam, Nisala A Udunuwara, Dileepa S Liyanage, Nuwani E Bulathsinhala, Subhashanie Adikary, Janith V S Aluthmuhandiram, Chrishanthi S Thanaseelan, D Portia Tharmakulasingam, Tharaga Karunakaran, Janahan Ilango
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and diagnosis of polymicrobial and fungal infections is increasingly challenging in the clinical setting. Conventionally, molecular detection is still the best method of species identification in clinical samples. However, the limitations of Sanger sequencing make diagnosis of polymicrobial infections one of the biggest hurdles in treatment. The development of massively parallel sequencing or next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the field of metagenomics, with wide application of the technology in identification of microbial communities in environmental sources, human gut and others...
September 19, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924191/metabolic-crosstalk-regulates-porphyromonas-gingivalis-colonization-and-virulence-during-oral-polymicrobial-infection
#5
Masae Kuboniwa, John R Houser, Erik L Hendrickson, Qian Wang, Samar A Alghamdi, Akito Sakanaka, Daniel P Miller, Justin A Hutcherson, Tiansong Wang, David A C Beck, Marvin Whiteley, Atsuo Amano, Huizhi Wang, Edward M Marcotte, Murray Hackett, Richard J Lamont
Many human infections are polymicrobial in origin, and interactions among community inhabitants shape colonization patterns and pathogenic potential (1) . Periodontitis, which is the sixth most prevalent infectious disease worldwide (2) , ensues from the action of dysbiotic polymicrobial communities (3) . The keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and the accessory pathogen Streptococcus gordonii interact to form communities in vitro and exhibit increased fitness in vivo (3,4) . The mechanistic basis of this polymicrobial synergy, however, has not been fully elucidated...
September 18, 2017: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923953/interaction-networks-ecological-stability-and-collective-antibiotic-tolerance-in-polymicrobial-infections
#6
Marjon G J de Vos, Marcin Zagorski, Alan McNally, Tobias Bollenbach
Polymicrobial infections constitute small ecosystems that accommodate several bacterial species. Commonly, these bacteria are investigated in isolation. However, it is unknown to what extent the isolates interact and whether their interactions alter bacterial growth and ecosystem resilience in the presence and absence of antibiotics. We quantified the complete ecological interaction network for 72 bacterial isolates collected from 23 individuals diagnosed with polymicrobial urinary tract infections and found that most interactions cluster based on evolutionary relatedness...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922428/diminished-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-net-formation-is-a-novel-innate-immune-deficiency-induced-by-acute-ethanol-exposure-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-which-can-be-rescued-by-cxcl1
#7
Liliang Jin, Sanjay Batra, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
Polymicrobial sepsis is the result of an exaggerated host immune response to bacterial pathogens. Animal models and human studies demonstrate that acute alcohol intoxication is a key risk factor for sepsis-induced mortality. Multiple chemokines, such as CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL5 are critical for neutrophil recruitment and proper function of neutrophils. However, it is not quite clear the mechanisms by which acute alcohol suppresses immune responses and whether alcohol-induced immunosuppression can be rescued by chemokines...
September 18, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918832/streptococcus-anginosus-group-bacterial-infections
#8
Tasaduq Fazili, Scott Riddell, Deanna Kiska, Tim Endy, Luca Giurgea, Calden Sharngoe, Waleed Javaid
BACKGROUND: The Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) causes a variety of infections in adults. To better understand the burden of SAG infections and their associated morbidity and mortality, we conducted a retrospective analysis of these infections in adults at a tertiary care center. METHODS: A retrospective review of all cultures positive for SAG in adults and a corresponding review of the patients' medical records were conducted at a tertiary care facility in central New York...
September 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914579/a-polymicrobial-view-of-disease-potential-in-crohn-s-associated-adherent-invasive-e-coli
#9
Wael Elhenawy, Alexander Oberc, Brian K Coombes
The human gut is home to trillions of bacteria and provides the scaffold for one of the most complex microbial ecosystems in nature. Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, involve a compositional shift in the microbial constituents of this ecosystem with a marked expansion of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Escherichia coli. Adherent-invasive E. coli (AIEC) strains are frequently isolated from the biopsies of Crohn's patients, where their ability to elicit inflammation suggests a possible role in Crohn's pathology...
September 15, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910403/polymicrobial-sepsis-impairs-bystander-recruitment-of-effector-cells-to-infected-skin-despite-optimal-sensing-and-alarming-function-of-skin-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells
#10
Derek B Danahy, Scott M Anthony, Isaac J Jensen, Stacey M Hartwig, Qiang Shan, Hai-Hui Xue, John T Harty, Thomas S Griffith, Vladimir P Badovinac
Sepsis is a systemic infection that enhances host vulnerability to secondary infections normally controlled by T cells. Using CLP sepsis model, we observed that sepsis induces apoptosis of circulating memory CD8 T-cells (TCIRCM) and diminishes their effector functions, leading to impaired CD8 T-cell mediated protection to systemic pathogen re-infection. In the context of localized re-infections, tissue resident memory CD8 T-cells (TRM) provide robust protection in a variety of infectious models. TRM rapidly 'sense' infection in non-lymphoid tissues and 'alarm' the host by enhancing immune cell recruitment to the site of the infection to accelerate pathogen clearance...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898440/low-lactobacilli-abundance-and-polymicrobial-diversity-in-the-lower-reproductive-tract-of-female-rhesus-monkeys-do-not-compromise-their-reproductive-success
#11
Wellington Z Amaral, Gabriele R Lubach, Amita Kapoor, Alexandra Proctor, Gregory J Phillips, Mark Lyte, Christopher L Coe
The lower reproductive tract of nonhuman primates is colonized with a diverse microbiota, resembling bacterial vaginosis (BV), a gynecological condition associated with negative reproductive outcomes in women. Our 4 aims were to: (i) assess the prevalence of low Lactobacilli and a BV-like profile in female rhesus monkeys; (ii) quantify cytokines in their cervicovaginal fluid (CVF); (iii) examine the composition and structure of their mucosal microbiota with culture-independent sequencing methods; and (iv) evaluate the potential influence on reproductive success...
September 12, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894828/the-role-of-antibiotics-in-pediatric-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#12
REVIEW
Itzhak Brook
OBJECTIVES: Presenting the role of antibiotics in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis based on its pathophysiology and microbiology. DATA SOURCE: Review of the literature searching PubMed for microbiology and treatment of pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. RESULTS: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses that persists for 12 weeks or longer, despite medical management. The microbiology of rhinosinusitis evolves through several stages...
June 2017: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894116/characterization-of-tonsillar-il10-secreting-b-cells-and-their-role-in-the-pathophysiology-of-tonsillar-hypertrophy
#13
Lindybeth Sarmiento Varon, Javier De Rosa, Andrés Machicote, Luis Ariel Billordo, Plácida Baz, Pablo Mariano Fernández, Isabel Kaimen Maciel, Andrés Blanco, Eloísa I Arana
The comprehension of unconventional immune functions of tonsillar B cells, their role in tolerance induction and protective immune responses, is crucial to unveil the dynamic interactions of the upper aero digestive tract with polymicrobial commensal flora and pathogens, in health and disease. Here, we describe the kinetics of IL10 intracellular expression and compare it with that of cytokines known to be produced by tonsillar B cells. Additionally, we detected a relevant proportion of IL17-expressing tonsillar B cells, which has not previously been reported...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893918/enterococcus-faecalis-promotes-innate-immune-suppression-and-polymicrobial-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#14
Brenda Yin Qi Tien, Hwee Mian Sharon Goh, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Soumili Bhaduri-Tagore, Sarah Holec, Regine Dress, Florent Ginhoux, Molly A Ingersoll, Rohan B H Williams, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis, a member of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, is an opportunistic pathogen associated with hospital-acquired wound, bloodstream, and urinary tract infections. E. faecalis can subvert or evade immune-mediated clearance, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we examined E. faecalis-mediated subversion of macrophage activation. We observed that E. faecalis actively prevents NF-κB signaling in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence of Toll-like receptor agonists and during polymicrobial infection with Escherichia coliE...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893789/gemini-cationic-amphiphiles-control-biofilm-formation-by-bacterial-vaginosis-pathogens
#15
Ammar Algburi, Yingyue Zhang, Richard Weeks, Nicole Comito, Saskia Zehm, Juanita Pinto, Kathryn E Uhrich, Michael L Chikindas
Antibiotic resistance and recurrence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a polymicrobial infection, justify the need for novel antimicrobials to counteract microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics. Previously, two series of cationic amphiphiles (CAms), which self-assemble into supramolecular nanostructures with membrane-lytic properties, were designed with hydrophilic head groups and non-polar domains. The combination of CAms with commonly prescribed antibiotics is suggested as a promising strategy for targeting microorganisms that are resistant to conventional antibiotics...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893777/modulation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-response-to-antimicrobials-by-the-candida-albicans-quorum-sensing-molecule-farnesol
#16
Eric F Kong, Christina Tsui, Sona Kucharíková, Patrick Van Dijck, Mary Ann Jabra-Rizk
In microbial biofilms, microorganisms utilize secreted signaling chemical molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. Farnesol is a quorum-sensing molecule secreted by the fungal species Candida albicans, shown to play a central physiological role during fungal biofilm growth. Our pervious in vitro and in vivo studies characterized an intricate interaction between C. albicans and the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, as these species co-exist in biofilm. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of farnesol on S...
September 11, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892897/anaerobic-bacteria-in-clinical-specimens-frequent-but-a-neglected-lot-a-five-year-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Padmaja Ananth Shenoy, Shashidhar Vishwanath, Ashwini Gawda, Seema Shetty, Renuka Anegundi, Muralidhar Varma, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Kiran Chawla
INTRODUCTION: Anaerobic bacteria which constitute a significant proportion of the normal microbiota also cause variety of infections involving various anatomic sites. Considering the tedious culture techniques with longer turnaround time, anaerobic cultures are usually neglected by clinicians and microbiologists. AIM: To study the frequency of isolation of different anaerobic bacteria from various clinical specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study to analyse the frequency of isolation of different anaerobic bacteria, was conducted over a period of five years from 2011 to 2015 including various clinical specimens submitted to anaerobic division of Microbiology laboratory...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890868/surgical-and-immune-reconstitution-murine-models-in-bone-marrow-research-potential-for-exploring-mechanisms-in-sepsis-trauma-and-allergy
#18
REVIEW
Pedro Xavier-Elsas, Renato Nunes Ferreira, Maria Ignez C Gaspar-Elsas
Bone marrow, the vital organ which maintains lifelong hemopoiesis, currently receives considerable attention, as a source of multiple cell types which may play important roles in repair at distant sites. This emerging function, distinct from, but closely related to, bone marrow roles in innate immunity and inflammation, has been characterized through a number of strategies. However, the use of surgical models in this endeavour has hitherto been limited. Surgical strategies allow the experimenter to predetermine the site, timing, severity and invasiveness of injury; to add or remove aggravating factors (such as infection and defects in immunity) in controlled ways; and to manipulate the context of repair, including reconstitution with selected immune cell subpopulations...
August 20, 2017: World Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889401/severity-of-drug-resistance-and-co-existence-of-enterococcus-faecalis-in-diabetic-foot-ulcer-infections
#19
Kavitha Shettigar, Deepika V Bhat, Kapaettu Satyamoorthy, Thokur Sreepathy Murali
The genes encoding aminoglycoside resistance in Enterococcus faecalis may promote collateral aminoglycoside resistance in polymicrobial wounds. We studied a total of 100 diabetic foot ulcer samples for infection and found 60 samples to be polymicrobial, 5 to be monomicrobial, and 35 samples to be culture negative. A total of 65 E. faecalis isolates were screened for six genes coding for aminoglycoside resistance, antibiotic resistance patterns, and biofilm production. Infectious Diseases Society of America/International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot system was used to classify the wound ulcers...
September 9, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882626/epinecidin-1-protects-mice-from-lps-induced-endotoxemia-and-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced-polymicrobial-sepsis
#20
Bor-Chyuan Su, Han-Ning Huang, Tai-Wen Lin, Chwan-Deng Hsiao, Jyh-Yih Chen
The antimicrobial peptide, epinecidin-1 (Epi), was identified from Epinephelus coioides and may have clinical application for treating sepsis. Epi has been shown to ameliorate antibiotic-resistant bacteria-induced sepsis in mice, but further evaluation in mixed-flora models and a description of the protective mechanisms are essential to establish this peptide as a potential therapeutic. Therefore, we first tested the protective effects of Epi against polymicrobial sepsis-induced bactericidal infection, inflammation and lung injury that result from cecal ligation and puncture in mice...
September 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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