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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#1
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101794/diabetic-foot-infections-an-update-in-diagnosis-and-management
#2
REVIEW
Pinelopi Grigoropoulou, Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Edward B Jude, Nikolaos Tentolouris
Foot infections are a common problem in patients with diabetes and a risk factor for limb amputation. They occur as a result of skin ulceration, which facilitates penetration of pathogens to deeper tissues. The diagnosis of infection is clinical. Aerobic gram-positive cocci are the most common pathogens. Ulcers which are chronic, preceded by administration of antibiotics and hospitalization or complicated by severe infection are polymicrobial. Antibiotic therapy is initially empiric based on the severity of the infection...
January 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100271/evaluation-of-three-sample-preparation-methods-for-the-direct-identification-of-bacteria-in-positive-blood-cultures-by-maldi-tof
#3
Hannah Tanner, Jason T Evans, Savita Gossain, Abid Hussain
BACKGROUND: Patient mortality is significantly reduced by rapid identification of bacteria from sterile sites. MALDI-TOF can identify bacteria directly from positive blood cultures and multiple sample preparation methods are available. We evaluated three sample preparation methods and two MALDI-TOF score cut-off values. Positive blood culture bottles with organisms present in Gram stains were prospectively analysed by MALDI-TOF. Three lysis reagents (Saponin, SDS, and SepsiTyper lysis bufer) were applied to each positive culture followed by centrifugation, washing and protein extraction steps...
January 18, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097512/deletion-of-nlrp3-protects-from-inflammation-induced-skeletal-muscle-atrophy
#4
Nora Huang, Melanie Kny, Fabian Riediger, Katharina Busch, Sibylle Schmidt, Friedrich C Luft, Hortense Slevogt, Jens Fielitz
BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients develop atrophic muscle failure, which increases morbidity and mortality. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is activated early in sepsis. Whether IL-1β acts directly on muscle cells and whether its inhibition prevents atrophy is unknown. We aimed to investigate if IL-1β activation via the Nlrp3 inflammasome is involved in inflammation-induced atrophy. METHODS: We performed an experimental study and prospective animal trial. The effect of IL-1β on differentiated C2C12 muscle cells was investigated by analyzing gene-and-protein expression, and atrophy response...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096441/improved-outcome-of-enteric-peritonitis-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-aged-50-years-and-older-with-temporary-discontinuation-of-peritoneal-dialysis-and-intravenous-meropenem
#5
Alferso C Abrahams, Wim Rüger, Pieter M Ter Wee, Frans J van Ittersum, Walther H Boer
♦ Background: Peritonitis is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and technique failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, especially when caused by enteric microorganisms (EM). We have implemented a treatment protocol specifically aimed at improving the outcome in EM peritonitis. The adapted protocol was applied in all PD patients 50 years and older presenting with peritonitis who were considered to be at risk of EM peritonitis and involves 3 interventions: 1) temporary discontinuation of PD without removing the catheter (peritoneal rest), 2) intravenous meropenem, and 3) meropenem intracatheter as lock (Mero-PerRest protocol)...
January 17, 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094312/unraveling-the-microbial-processes-of-black-band-disease-in-corals-through-integrated-genomics
#6
Yui Sato, Edmund Y S Ling, Dmitrij Turaev, Patrick Laffy, Karen D Weynberg, Thomas Rattei, Bette L Willis, David G Bourne
Coral disease outbreaks contribute to the ongoing degradation of reef ecosystems, however, microbial mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of most coral diseases are poorly understood. Black band disease (BBD) manifests as a cyanobacterial-dominated microbial mat that destroys coral tissues as it rapidly spreads over coral colonies. To elucidate BBD pathogenesis, we apply a comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to identify taxonomic and functional changes within microbial lesions during in-situ development of BBD from a comparatively benign stage termed cyanobacterial patches...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093936/biological-activities-of-rosmarinus-officinalis-l-rosemary-extract-as-analyzed-in-microorganisms-and-cells
#7
Jonatas Rafael de Oliveira, Daiane de Jesus, Leandro Wagner Figueira, Felipe Eduardo de Oliveira, Cristina Pacheco Soares, Samira Estves Afonso Camargo, Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge, Luciane Dias de Oliveira
R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093834/seasonality-of-pathogens-causing-community-acquired-pneumonia
#8
Catia Cilloniz, Santiago Ewig, Albert Gabarrus, Miquel Ferrer, Jorge Puig de la Bella Casa, Josep Mensa, Antoni Torres
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Seasonal distribution of microbial aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may add important information both for epidemiologists and clinicians. We investigate the seasonal distribution of microbial aetiology in CAP. METHODS: This prospective observational study was carried out in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain (January 2003-December 2014). RESULTS: We studied 4431 patients with CAP, of whom 2689 (61%) were males...
January 17, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093107/characterization-and-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bovine-necrotic-vulvovaginitis
#9
N Y Shpigel, L Adler-Ashkenazy, S Scheinin, T Goshen, A Arazi, Z Pasternak, Y Gottlieb
Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response...
January 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088924/microbiology-of-otitis-media-in-indigenous-australian-children-review
#10
J Jervis-Bardy, A S Carney, R Duguid, A J Leach
OBJECTIVES: To review research addressing the polymicrobial aetiology of otitis media in Indigenous Australian children in order to identify research gaps and inform best practice in effective prevention strategies and therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Literature review. RESULTS: Studies of aspirated middle-ear fluid represented a minor component of the literature reviewed. Most studies relied upon specimens from middle-ear discharge or the nasopharynx...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076388/risk-factors-for-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-and-failure-of-empiric-first-line-therapy-in-acute-cholangitis
#11
Philipp A Reuken, Dorian Torres, Michael Baier, Bettina Löffler, Christoph Lübbert, Norman Lippmann, Andreas Stallmach, Tony Bruns
BACKGROUND: Acute cholangitis (AC) requires the immediate initiation of antibiotic therapy in addition to treatment for biliary obstruction. Against a background of an increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the risk factors for the failure of empiric therapy must be defined. METHODS: Using a pathogen-based approach, 1764 isolates from positive bile duct cultures were retrospectively analyzed to characterize the respective pathogen spectra in two German tertiary centers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068267/clinicopathologic-correlation-mixed-density-lesion-in-the-posterior-mandible
#12
Aram Sun, Pallavi Parashar, James J Closmann
A middle-aged man presented for evaluation of a mixed-density lesion of the left posterior mandible. This clinicopathologic correlation presents the radiographic, clinical, and histopathologic findings; differential diagnosis; and treatment plan for this case. The lesion was deemed to be of bacteriologic origin, likely a polymicrobial infection containing actinomycetes. Clinical care and follow-up for the patient are discussed.
January 2017: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067837/kaempferol-and-chrysin-synergies-to-improve-septic-mice-survival
#13
Omar A Harasstani, Chau Ling Tham, Daud A Israf
Previously, we reported the role of synergy between two flavonoids-namely, chrysin and kaempferol-in inhibiting the secretion of a few major proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), and nitric oxide (NO) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of this combination on a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Severe sepsis was induced in male ICR mice (n = 7) via the CLP procedure...
January 6, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054228/polymicrobial-pneumococcal-bacteraemia-a-case-control-study
#14
I Grau, C Ardanuy, M H Schulze, J Liñares, R Pallares
Polymicrobial bacteraemia involving Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenza, viridans streptococci, Salmonella spp.) occurred in 3.4% of our pneumococcal bacteraemia cases. Compared with 308 controls (monomicrobial bacteraemia), the 77 polymicrobial cases included more males (83 vs 62%, p = 0.001), had serious underlying diseases (100 vs 80%, p < 0.001), abdominal infection (18 vs 5%, p < 0.001), nosocomial infection (33 vs 8%, p < 0...
January 4, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045455/the-pseudomonas-putida-t6ss-is-a-plant-warden-against-phytopathogens
#15
Patricia Bernal, Luke P Allsopp, Alain Filloux, María A Llamas
Bacterial type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) are molecular weapons designed to deliver toxic effectors into prey cells. These nanomachines have an important role in inter-bacterial competition and provide advantages to T6SS active strains in polymicrobial environments. Here we analyze the genome of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and identify three T6SS gene clusters (K1-, K2- and K3-T6SS). Besides, 10 T6SS effector-immunity pairs were found, including putative nucleases and pore-forming colicins...
January 3, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043925/fatal-community-acquired-ribotype-002-clostridium-difficile-bacteremia
#16
Nicolas Dauby, Agnès Libois, Johan Van Broeck, Michel Delmée, Olivier Vandenberg, Delphine Martiny
Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate...
December 30, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039666/use-of-ceftaroline-fosamil-in-children-review-of-current-knowledge-and-its-application
#17
REVIEW
Juwon Yim, Leah M Molloy, Jason G Newland
Ceftaroline is a novel cephalosporin recently approved in children for treatment of acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and other susceptible bacteria. With a favorable tolerability profile and efficacy proven in pediatric patients and excellent in vitro activity against resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, ceftaroline may serve as a therapeutic option for polymicrobial infections, CABP caused by penicillin- and ceftriaxone-resistant S...
December 30, 2016: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033847/impact-of-polymicrobial-biofilms-in-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections
#18
Andreia S Azevedo, Carina Almeida, Luís F Melo, Nuno F Azevedo
Recent reports have demonstrated that most biofilms involved in catheter-associated urinary tract infections are polymicrobial communities, with pathogenic microorganisms (e.g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and uncommon microorganisms (e.g. Delftia tsuruhatensis, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) frequently co-inhabiting the same urinary catheter. However, little is known about the interactions that occur between different microorganisms and how they impact biofilm formation and infection outcome...
December 30, 2016: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031338/deletion-of-nlrp3-augments-survival-during-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-decreasing-autophagy-and-enhancing-phagocytosis
#19
Liliang Jin, Sanjay Batra, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical player in innate immunity. Neutrophil recruitment to tissues and effective neutrophil function are critical innate immune mechanisms for bacterial clearance. However, the role of NLRP3 in neutrophil-dependent bacterial clearance in polymicrobial sepsis is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of NLRP3 in polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Our results showed protection from death in NLRP3-deficient (Nlrp3(-/-)) and NLRP3 inhibitor-treated wild-type (C57BL/6) mice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028754/alteration-of-lysophosphatidylcholine-related-metabolic-parameters-in-the-plasma-of-mice-with-experimental-sepsis
#20
Won-Gyun Ahn, Jun-Sub Jung, Hyeok Yil Kwon, Dong-Keun Song
Plasma concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was reported to decrease in patients with sepsis. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels are not currently well known. In mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis, we examined alterations in LPC-related metabolic parameters in plasma, i.e., the plasma concentration of LPC-related substances (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)), and activities or levels in the plasma of some enzymes that can be involved in the regulation of plasma LPC concentration (i...
December 28, 2016: Inflammation
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