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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772525/vaginal-microbiota-dysmicrobism-and-role-of-biofilm-forming-bacteria
#1
Giuseppina Campisciano, Nunzia Zanotta, Vincenzo Petix, Lucia Corich, Francesco De Seta, Manola Comar
Bacterial vaginosis involves the presence of a polymicrobial biofilm on the vaginal epithelium, guaranteeing immune escape and spread of antibiotic resistance. To spot known biofilm-forming bacteria, we profiled the vaginal microbiome of sixty-four symptomatic women suffering from a different grade of vaginal disorders and sixty asymptomatic healthy women. Specific microbial profiles distinguished symptomatic from asymptomatic women and characterized the grade of dysmicrobism within the symptomatic group. Lactobacillus crispatus and iners predominated on the healthy vaginal mucosa, while Lactobacillus gasseri predominated in the intermediate dysmicrobism...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771131/mouthwash-containing-croton-doctoris-essential-oil-in-vitro-study-using-a-validated-model-of-caries-induction
#2
Yasmin Etienne Albuquerque, Marcelle Danelon, Marcos José Salvador, Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Román Yesid Ramirez-Rueda, Aline Vidal Lacerda Gontijo, Fernanda Lourenção Brighenti
AIM: To validate an in vitro caries model and to evaluate an experimental mouthwash containing Croton doctoris essential oil.  Materials & methods: To validate the experimental model, we used McBain medium and polymicrobial biofilms. The EOM (essential oil mouthwash) was tested using the validated model. Microbial composition (colony-forming unit/ml), acidogenicity, enamel demineralization (percentage of surface enamel hardness loss), cytotoxicity and essential oil composition were evaluated...
May 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769762/polymicrobial-synergy-and-dysbiosis-an-overview
#3
REVIEW
Hawaabi Faqeer Mohd Shaikh, Suvarna Hanmantgouda Patil, Tanvi Shyamsundar Pangam, Khushboo Vijaysinh Rathod
The oral fissure is immensely inhabited with a number of polymicrobial colonies similar to the intestinal system. Periodontitis is a dysbiotic disease resulting from deviation in subgingival Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria shift from Gram-positive bacteria. The development of periodontal dysbiosis occurs over a broadened timeframe, which slowly turns the symbiotic association of host and microbe to pathogenic. This review highlights a recent paradigm of periodontitis progression has been postulated which challenges the traditional concept of periodontitis being induced by few particular periopathogens such as belonging to red complex, but by a more comprehensive dysbiotic-synergistic community...
March 2018: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768132/post-operative-infections-among-patients-undergoing-radical-cystectomy-at-a-tertiary-center
#4
Krystian Kaczmarek, Artur Lemiński, Aleksandra Bańcarz, Alicja Zakrzewska, Marcin Słojewski
BACKGROUND: Post-operative infection after radical cystectomy is a common complication. It is essential to identify modifiable risk factors that can predict post-operative infection to reduce the incidence of infection after radical cystectomy. We investigated the incidence of post-operative infection, associated pathogens, and risk factors for post-operative infection after radical cystectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer in a single urologic department from 2014 to 2016 were included...
May 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765558/the-fallopian-tube-microbiome-implications-for-reproductive-health
#5
Elise S Pelzer, Dana Willner, Melissa Buttini, Louise M Hafner, Christina Theodoropoulos, Flavia Huygens
Objective: There is a paucity of data characterizing the microbiota of the female upper genital tract, which controversially is described as a sterile site. We examine whether the fallopian tube harbours an endogenous microbial community. Design: This prospective study collected from women undergoing total hysterectomy or salpingectomy-oophorectomy. Setting: Private hospital gynaecology department. Patients: Fallopian tubes were collected from women diagnosed with benign disease or for prophylaxis...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762676/interleukin-38-is-a-protective-cytokine-for-lethal-sepsis
#6
Fang Xu, Shihui Lin, Xingxing Yan, Chuanjiang Wang, Hongmei Tu, Yibing Yin, Ju Cao
Background: IL-38 is the most recently characterized cytokine of the IL-1 family. However, its role in sepsis remains unknown. Methods: Circulating IL-38 was measured in two cohorts of adult and pediatric patients with sepsis. Using two murine models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxinemia and cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, the effects of IL-38 on survival, inflammation, tissue injury, or bacterial clearance were assessed. Results: Serum IL-38 concentrations were significantly elevated in adult and pediatric patients with sepsis relative to corresponding healthy adult and pediatric controls, respectively...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760707/the-yin-and-yang-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibition-during-experimental-polymicrobial-sepsis
#7
Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Ina Rohwedder, Adriana Ribeiro Silva, Alessandra Silveira Ferreira, Angela R M Kurz, Céline Cougoule, Sarah Klapproth, Tanja Eggersmann, Johnatas D Silva, Gisele Pena de Oliveira, Vera Luiza Capelozzi, Gabriel Gutfilen Schlesinger, Edlaine Rijo Costa, Rita de Cassia Elias Estrela Marins, Attila Mócsai, Isabelle Maridonneau-Parini, Barbara Walzog, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Markus Sperandio, Hugo Caire de Castro-Faria-Neto
Neutrophils are the first cells of our immune system to arrive at the site of inflammation. They release cytokines, e.g., chemokines, to attract further immune cells, but also actively start to phagocytose and kill pathogens. In the case of sepsis, this tightly regulated host defense mechanism can become uncontrolled and hyperactive resulting in severe organ damage. Currently, no effective therapy is available to fight sepsis; therefore, novel treatment targets that could prevent excessive inflammatory responses are warranted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760148/bacterial-silver-resistance-gained-by-cooperative-interspecies-redox-behavior
#8
Michael Muller
Silver has emerged as an important therapeutic option for wound infections in recent years due to its broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The silver cation (Ag+ ), but not the bulk metal (Ag0 ), is highly toxic for most microorganisms although resistance due to genetic modification or horizontal gene transfer does occur. Pseudomonas aeruginosa , however, achieves silver resistance by producing the redox active metabolite pyocyanin that reduces Ag+ to non-toxic Ag0 Pyocyanin also possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity...
May 14, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758368/infections-following-cranial-neurosurgery-prospective-cohort-of-103-episodes-treated-according-to-a-standardized-algorithm
#9
Nora Renz, Burcin Özdirik, Tobias Finger, Peter Vajkoczy, Andrej Trampuz
OBJECTIVE: The optimal surgical and antimicrobial treatment for intracranial infections following neurosurgery is unknown. We investigated the clinical, laboratory and microbiological characteristics of intracranial infections following neurosurgery. In addition, treatment outcome in patients treated according to a standardized algorithm was evaluated. METHODS: Consecutive patients with extradural, intradural and device-related infections following cranial neurosurgery were prospectively included...
May 11, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756489/sevoflurane-exerts-brain-protective-effects-against-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy-and-memory-impairment-through-caspase-3-9-and-bax-bcl-signaling-pathway-in-a-rat-model-of-sepsis
#10
Nurdan Bedirli, Emin Umit Bagriacik, Guldal Yilmaz, Zerrin Ozkose, Mustafa Kavutçu, Aslı Cavunt Bayraktar, Abdulkadir Bedirli
Objective We compared the effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on systemic inflammation, sepsis-associated encephalopathy, and memory impairment in a rat sepsis model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced polymicrobial peritonitis. Methods Twenty-four rats were assigned to sham, CLP, CLP + sevoflurane, and CLP + isoflurane groups. At 72 hours after CLP, the rats underwent behavior tests. Serum cytokines were evaluated. Brain tissue samples were collected for determination of glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase; the wet/dry weight ratio; myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA); apoptotic gene release; and histologic examinations...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754971/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia
#11
Shi-Qi An, Gabriele Berg
This infographic describes the key regulated traits of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, important for beneficial plant interactions, and also its increasing incidence as a nosocomial and community-acquired infection. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a cosmopolitan and ubiquitous bacterium found in a range of environmental habitats, including extreme ones, although in nature it is mainly associated with plants. S. maltophilia fulfils important ecosystem functions in the sulfur and nitrogen cycles, in degradation of complex compounds and pollutants, and in promoti on of plant growth and health...
May 10, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743366/regulation-of-virus-associated-lymphoma-growth-and-gene-expression-by-bacterial-quorum-sensing-molecules
#12
Jing Qiao, Yueyu Cao, Jovanny Zabaleta, Liang Yang, Lu Dai, Zhiqiang Qin
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can cause several human cancers including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), which frequently occur in immunocompromised patients. KSHV infected patients often suffer from polymicrobial infections caused by opportunistic bacterial pathogens. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how these co-infected microorganisms or their secreted metabolites may affect KSHV infection and virus-associated malignancies pathogenesis. Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density-based intercellular communication system, employs extracellular diffusible signaling molecules to regulate bacterial virulence mechanisms in a wide range of bacterial pathogens, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa , which is one of mostly common opportunistic microorganisms found in immunocompromised individuals...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739103/bacteramia-caused-by-gardnerella-vaginalis-in-a-cesarean-section-patient
#13
Yili Chen, Xinhong Han, Penghao Guo, Han Huang, Zhongwen Wu, Kang Liao
BACKGROUND: Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative anaerobic and small gram-variable rod bacterium. G. vaginalis, which can be transmitted through sexual contact, is the common pathogen for the feminine bacterial pathogen (BV). Here we describe a case of bacteremia in a patient after cesarean section caused by G. vaginalis in China. Case presentation: A 35-year-old woman suffered bacteremia caused by G. vaginalis after cesarean section. This patient, without evidence of polymicrobial infection, was treated with cefuroxime and had a good outcome...
March 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738295/antibiotic-resistance-and-biofilm-tolerance-a-combined-threat-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-infections
#14
Philip G Bowler
Since the introduction of antibiotics into human medicine in the 1940's, antibiotic resistance has emerged at an alarming rate and is now a major threat to public health. This problem is amplified by pathogenic bacteria existing most commonly in biofilm form, creating additional bacterial tolerance to antimicrobial agents. Biofilm is now considered to be a primary cause of chronic infection, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria are prevalent in biofilm form. In particular, chronic non-healing wounds commonly harbour complex polymicrobial, pathogenic biofilm that is tolerant to systemic and topical antimicrobial therapy...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735520/identification-of-specific-components-of-the-eicosanoid-biosynthetic-and-signaling-pathway-involved-in-pathological-inflammation-during-intra-abdominal-infection-with-candida-albicans-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Mélanie A C Ikeh, Paul L Fidel, Mairi C Noverr
Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAI) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly when fungal pathogens are involved. Our experimental murine model of IAI involving intra-peritoneal inoculation of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus results in synergistic lethality (∼80%) due to exacerbated inflammation. Monomicrobial infection results in no mortality despite similar microbial burden and dissemination as a co-infection. In the co-infection model, the immunomodulatory eicosanoid, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) was determined to be necessary and sufficient to induce mortality implicating PGE2 as the central mediator of the amplified inflammatory response...
May 7, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731748/oral-bacterial-and-fungal-microbiome-impacts-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Klara Klimesova, Zuzana Jiraskova Zakostelska, Helena Tlaskalova-Hogenova
Host's physiology is significantly influenced by microbiota colonizing the epithelial surfaces. Complex microbial communities contribute to proper mucosal barrier function, immune response, and prevention of pathogen invasion and have many other crucial functions. The oral cavity and large intestine are distant parts of the digestive tract, both heavily colonized by commensal microbiota. Nevertheless, they feature different proportions of major bacterial and fungal phyla, mostly due to distinct epithelial layers organization and different oxygen levels...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721543/odontogenic-sinusitis-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#17
REVIEW
Ryan E Little, Christopher M Long, Todd A Loehrl, David M Poetker
Objectives: To present current literature on the topic of odontogenic sinusitis. Data Source: PubMed literature search for odontogenic sinusitis. Results: Odontogenic sinusitis is an inflammatory condition of the paranasal sinuses that is the result of dental pathology, most often resulting from prior dentoalveolar procedures, infections of maxillary dentition, or maxillary dental trauma. Infections are often polymicrobial with an anaerobe-predominant microbiome requiring special considerations for antimicrobial therapy...
April 2018: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720274/aerobic-bacteria-associated-with-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-in-angola
#18
Fabian Uddén, Matuba Filipe, Åke Reimer, Maria Paul, Erika Matuschek, John Thegerström, Sven Hammerschmidt, Tuula Pelkonen, Kristian Riesbeck
BACKGROUND: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important cause of hearing loss in children and constitutes a serious health problem globally with a strong association to resource-limited living conditions. Topical antibiotics combined with aural toilet is the first-hand treatment for CSOM but antimicrobial resistance and limited availability to antibiotics are obstacles in some areas. The goal of this study was to define aerobic pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola with the overall aim to provide a background for local treatment recommendations...
May 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713994/dimethyl-fumarate-limits-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress-and-improves-cognitive-impairment-after-polymicrobial-sepsis
#19
Graciela Freitas Zarbato, Mariana Pereira de Souza Goldim, Amanda Della Giustina, Lucinéia Gainski Danielski, Khiany Mathias, Drielly Florentino, Aloir Neri de Oliveira Junior, Naiana da Rosa, Ana Olivia Laurentino, Taina Trombetta, Maria Luiza Gomes, Amanda Valnier Steckert, Ana Paula Moreira, Patricia Fernanda Schuck, Jucelia Jeremias Fortunato, Tatiana Barichello, Fabricia Petronilho
Sepsis is caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, often associated with acute central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, which results in long-term cognitive impairment. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an important agent against inflammatory response and reactive species in CNS disorders. Evaluate the effect of DMF on acute and long-term brain dysfunction after experimental sepsis in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model. The groups were divided into sham (control) + vehicle, sham + NAC, sham + DMF, CLP + vehicle, CLP + NAC, and CLP + DMF...
April 30, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710503/inhibition-of-microrna-23b-prevents-polymicrobial-sepsis-induced-cardiac-dysfunction-by-modulating-tgif1-and-pten
#20
Haiju Zhang, Yi Caudle, Aamir Shaikh, Baozhen Yao, Deling Yin
Cardiovascular dysfunction is a major complication associated with sepsis induced mortality. Cardiac fibrosis plays a critical role in sepsis induced cardiac dysfunction. The mechanisms of the activation of cardiac fibrosis is unclarified. In this study, we found that microRNA-23b (miR-23b) was up-regulated in heart tissue during cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis and transfection of miR-23b inhibitor improved survival in late sepsis. Inhibition of miR-23b in the myocardium protected against cardiac output and enhanced left ventricular systolic function...
April 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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