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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911438/evolutionary-convergence-in-experimental-pseudomonas-populations
#1
Peter A Lind, Andrew D Farr, Paul B Rainey
Model microbial systems provide opportunity to understand the genetic bases of ecological traits, their evolution, regulation and fitness contributions. Experimental populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens rapidly diverge in spatially structured microcosms producing a range of surface-colonising forms. Despite divergent molecular routes, wrinkly spreader (WS) niche specialist types overproduce a cellulosic polymer allowing mat formation at the air-liquid interface and access to oxygen. Given the range of ways by which cells can form mats, such phenotypic parallelism is unexpected...
December 2, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910966/stem-cell-and-regenerative-medicine-global-conference-scrgc-2016-august-23-24-2016-gyeonggi-do-korea
#2
A Vertès
In its third edition, the Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Global Conference (SCRGC) organized by the Global Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Acceleration Center (GSRAC) was focused on breaking barriers to accelerate the pace of innovation and development of the regenerative medicine industry. GSRAC is both a think tank and a global network of key opinion leaders from the public and the private sectors. GSRAC was commissioned in 2011 by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MOHW) of Korea. GSRAC's primary mission is to enable and accelerate the delivery of innovative technologies to patients who are affected by currently untreatable diseases...
October 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909803/evolutionary-origin-of-endochondral-ossification-the-transdifferentiation-hypothesis
#3
REVIEW
Fret Cervantes-Diaz, Pedro Contreras, Sylvain Marcellini
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a major challenge in vertebrate evolutionary developmental biology. A 150-year-old debate in the field was recently solved by lineage tracing experiments demonstrating that, during mouse endochondral bone development, a subset of chondrocytes evades apoptosis and transdifferentiate into osteoblasts at the chondro-osseous junction...
December 1, 2016: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909445/identification-and-profiling-of-micrornas-expressed-in-elongating-cotton-fibers-using-small-rna-deep-sequencing
#4
Yanmei Wang, Yan Ding, Jin-Yuan Liu
Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play essential roles in the regulation of gene expression. In this study, small RNA deep sequencing was applied to explore novel miRNAs expressed in elongating cotton fibers. A total of 46 novel and 96 known miRNAs, primarily derived from the corresponding specific loci in genome of Gossypium arboreum, were identified. 64 miRNAs were shown to be differentially expressed during the fiber elongation process; 16 were predicted to be novel miRNAs while the remaining 48 belong to known miRNA families...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909100/lhx2-interacts-with-the-nurd-complex-and-regulates-cortical-neuron-subtype-determinants-fezf2-and-sox11
#5
Bhavana Muralidharan, Zeba Khatri, Upasana Maheshwari, Ritika Gupta, Basabdatta Roy, Saurabh J Pradhan, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Hari Padmanabhan, Ashwin Shetty, Chinthapalli Balaji, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam, Jeffrey D Macklis, Sanjeev Galande, Shubha Tole
: In the developing cerebral cortex, sequential transcriptional programs take neuroepithelial cells from proliferating progenitors to differentiated neurons with unique molecular identities. The regulatory changes that occur in the chromatin of the progenitors are not well understood. During deep layer neurogenesis, we show that transcription factor Lhx2 binds to distal regulatory elements of Fezf2 and Sox11, critical determinants of neuron subtype identity in the mouse neocortex. We demonstrate that Lhx2 binds to the NuRD histone remodeling complex subunits LSD1, HDAC2, and RBBP4, which are proximal regulators of the epigenetic state of chromatin...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909059/the-role-of-the-histone-methyltransferase-enhancer-of-zeste-homolog-2-ezh2-in-the-pathobiological-mechanisms-underlying-inflammatory-bowel-disease-ibd
#6
Olga F Sarmento, Phyllis A Svingen, Yuning Xiong, Zhifu Sun, Adebowale O Bamidele, Angela J Mathison, Thomas C Smyrk, Asha A Nair, Michelle M Gonzalez, Mary R Sagstetter, Saurabh Baheti, Dermot P B McGovern, Jessica J Friton, Konstantinos A Papadakis, Goel Gautam, Ramnik J Xavier, Raul A Urrutia, William A Faubion
Regulatory T (Treg) cells expressing the transcription factor FOXP3 play a pivotal role in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance. We and others have previously shown that EZH2 is recruited to the FOXP3 promoter and its targets in Treg cells. To further address the role for EZH2 in Treg cellular function, we have now generated mice that lack EZH2 specifically in Treg cells (EZH2ΔFOXP3+). We find that EZH2 deficiency in FOXP3+ T cells results in lethal multi-organ autoimmunity. We further demonstrate that EZH2ΔFOXP3+ T cells lack a regulatory phenotype in vitro and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909043/an-atlas-of-human-kinase-regulation
#7
David Ochoa, Mindaugas Jonikas, Robert T Lawrence, Bachir El Debs, Joel Selkrig, Athanasios Typas, Judit Villén, Silvia Dm Santos, Pedro Beltrao
The coordinated regulation of protein kinases is a rapid mechanism that integrates diverse cues and swiftly determines appropriate cellular responses. However, our understanding of cellular decision-making has been limited by the small number of simultaneously monitored phospho-regulatory events. Here, we have estimated changes in activity in 215 human kinases in 399 conditions derived from a large compilation of phosphopeptide quantifications. This atlas identifies commonly regulated kinases as those that are central in the signaling network and defines the logic relationships between kinase pairs...
December 1, 2016: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908973/environmental-public-health-tracking-a-cost-effective-system-for-characterizing-the-sources-distribution-and-public-health-impacts-of-environmental-hazards
#8
P J Saunders, J D Middleton, G Rudge
BACKGROUND: The contemporary environment is a complex of interactions between physical, biological, socio-economic systems with major impacts on public health. However, gaps in our understanding of the causes, extent and distribution of these effects remain. The public health community in Sandwell West Midlands has collaborated to successfully develop, pilot and establish the first Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) programme in Europe to address this 'environmental health gap' through systematically linking data on environmental hazards, exposures and diseases...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907891/analysis-of-translation-using-polysome-profiling
#9
Héloïse Chassé, Sandrine Boulben, Vlad Costache, Patrick Cormier, Julia Morales
During the past decade, there has been growing interest in the role of translational regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Polysome profiling has been developed to infer the translational status of a specific mRNA species or to analyze the translatome, i.e. the subset of mRNAs actively translated in a cell. Polysome profiling is especially suitable for emergent model organisms for which genomic data are limited. In this paper, we describe an optimized protocol for the purification of sea urchin polysomes and highlight the critical steps involved in polysome purification...
October 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907090/forkhead-box-c1-regulates-human-primary-keratinocyte-terminal-differentiation
#10
Lianghua Bin, Liehua Deng, Hengwen Yang, Leqing Zhu, Xiao Wang, Michael G Edwards, Brittany Richers, Donald Y M Leung
The epidermis serves as a critical protective barrier between the internal and external environment of the human body. Its remarkable barrier function is established through the keratinocyte (KC) terminal differentiation program. The transcription factors specifically regulating terminal differentiation remain largely unknown. Using a RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling approach, we found that forkhead box c 1 (FOXC1) was significantly up-regulated in human normal primary KC during the course of differentiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907007/exploring-regulatory-mechanisms-of-atrial-myocyte-hypertrophy-of-mitral-regurgitation-through-gene-expression-profiling-analysis-role-of-nfat-in-cardiac-hypertrophy
#11
Tzu-Hao Chang, Mien-Cheng Chen, Jen-Ping Chang, Hsien-Da Huang, Wan-Chun Ho, Yu-Sheng Lin, Kuo-Li Pan, Yao-Kuang Huang, Wen-Hao Liu, Chia-Chen Wu
BACKGROUND: Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR) predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD), and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC). We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906931/repeal-and-replace-of-affordable-care-a-complex-but-not-an-impossible-task
#12
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Joshua A Hirsch
The Affordable Care Act (ACA), signature legislation of President Obama, was arguably the most consequential and comprehensive health care reform since Medicare was introduced as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's great society. It has been claimed that many of the law's reforms are now so integrated in the health system that full repeal would be impractical, while others including President Elect Trump have rejected that idea and called for full repeal and replacement claiming ACA law cannot be fixed. A tsunami of increasing regulatory burden over the past 8 years, the current health care milieu has moved independent practitioners towards hospital employment in great numbers...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906902/comparison-of-transcriptome-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-fasting-glucose
#13
Ying Cui, Wen Chen, Jinfeng Chi, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the transcriptome between impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and further research their molecular mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS The original microarray GSE21321, including miRNA and mRNA expression profiles, was downloaded from the GEO database. Data preprocessing was processed by limma package, and differentially expressed genes (DGs) and miRNA (DMs) were screened. Then, the regulatory relationships among miRNA, TF, and genes were screened and the regulatory network was constructed...
December 1, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906714/central-nervous-system-regulation-of-hepatic-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism
#14
Jennifer Taher, Sarah Farr, Khosrow Adeli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic lipid and lipoprotein metabolism is an important determinant of fasting dyslipidemia and the development of fatty liver disease. Although endocrine factors like insulin have known effects on hepatic lipid homeostasis, emerging evidence also supports a regulatory role for the central nervous system (CNS) and neuronal networks. This review summarizes evidence implicating a bidirectional liver-brain axis in maintaining metabolic lipid homeostasis, and discusses clinical implications in insulin-resistant states...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903980/identification-of-biomarker-micrornas-for-predicting-the-response-of-colorectal-cancer-to-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-based-on-microrna-regulatory-network
#15
Yaqun Zhu, Qiliang Peng, Yuxin Lin, Li Zou, Peipei Shen, Feifei Chen, Ming Min, Li Shen, Jiajia Chen, Bairong Shen
Preoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy has become a standard procedure for treatment of patients with locally advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). However, patients' responses to treatment are different and personalized. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for predicting personalized responses. In this study, we collected 30 publicly reported miRNAs associated with chemoradiotherapy of CRC. We extracted 46 differentially expressed miRNAs from samples of responders and non-responders to preoperative radiotherapy from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset (Student's t test, p-value < 0...
November 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903918/reactive-oxygen-species-in-hevea-brasiliensis-latex-and-relevance-to-tapping-panel-dryness
#16
REVIEW
Yi Zhang, Julie Leclercq, Pascal Montoro
Environmental stress can lead to oxidative stress resulting from an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and involves redox adjustments. Natural rubber is synthesized in laticifers, which is a non-photosynthetic tissue particularly prone to oxidative stress. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on the ROS production and ROS-scavenging systems in laticifers. These regulations have been the subject of intense research into a physiological syndrome, called Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD), affecting latex production in Hevea brasiliensis In order to prevent TPD occurrence, monitoring thiol content appeared to be a crucial factor of latex diagnosis...
November 29, 2016: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903818/properties-of-alternative-microbial-hosts-used-in-synthetic-biology-towards-the-design-of-a-modular-chassis
#17
REVIEW
Juhyun Kim, Manuel Salvador, Elizabeth Saunders, Jaime González, Claudio Avignone-Rossa, Jose Ignacio Jiménez
The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903783/uncovering-the-mechanisms-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-ageing-from-global-quantification-of-the-underlying-landscape
#18
Lei Zhao, Jin Wang
Recent studies on Caenorhabditis elegans reveal that gene manipulations can extend its lifespan several fold. However, how the genes work together to determine longevity is still an open question. Here we construct a gene regulatory network for worm ageing and quantify its underlying potential and flux landscape. We found ageing and rejuvenation states can emerge as basins of attraction at certain gene expression levels. The system state can switch from one attractor to another driven by the intrinsic or external perturbations through genetics or the environment...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902735/role-of-hepatic-specific-transcription-factors-and-polycomb-repressive-complex-2-during-induction-of-fibroblasts-to-hepatic-fate
#19
Shima Rastegar-Pouyani, Niusha Khazaei, Ping Wee, Abdulshakour Mohammadnia, Moein Yaqubi
Direct reprogramming using defined sets of transcription factors (TFs) is a recent strategy for generating induced hepatocytes (iHeps) from fibroblasts for use in regenerative medicine and drug development. Comprehensive studies detailing the regulatory role of TFs during this reprogramming process could help increase its efficiency. This study aimed to find the TFs with the greatest influences on the generation of iHeps from fibroblasts, and to further understand their roles in the regulation of the gene expression program...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901020/structural-decoding-of-netrin-4-reveals-a-regulatory-function-towards-mature-basement-membranes
#20
Raphael Reuten, Trushar R Patel, Matthew McDougall, Nicolas Rama, Denise Nikodemus, Benjamin Gibert, Jean-Guy Delcros, Carina Prein, Markus Meier, Stéphanie Metzger, Zhigang Zhou, Jennifer Kaltenberg, Karen K McKee, Tobias Bald, Thomas Tüting, Paola Zigrino, Valentin Djonov, Wilhelm Bloch, Hauke Clausen-Schaumann, Ernst Poschl, Peter D Yurchenco, Martin Ehrbar, Patrick Mehlen, Jörg Stetefeld, Manuel Koch
Netrins, a family of laminin-related molecules, have been proposed to act as guidance cues either during nervous system development or the establishment of the vascular system. This was clearly demonstrated for netrin-1 via its interaction with the receptors DCC and UNC5s. However, mainly based on shared homologies with netrin-1, netrin-4 was also proposed to play a role in neuronal outgrowth and developmental/pathological angiogenesis via interactions with netrin-1 receptors. Here, we present the high-resolution structure of netrin-4, which shows unique features in comparison with netrin-1, and show that it does not bind directly to any of the known netrin-1 receptors...
November 30, 2016: Nature Communications
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