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coronary artery calcification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723768/detection-of-incidental-cardiac-findings-in-noncardiac-chest-computed-tomography
#1
Francesco Secchi, Giovanni Di Leo, Moreno Zanardo, Marco Alì, Paola Maria Cannaò, Francesco Sardanelli
The aim of the study was to estimate the rate of incidental cardiac findings (ICF) in patients undergoing noncardiac chest CT.An experienced radiologist retrospectively reviewed 237 consecutive patients (147 males and 90 females with median age of 69 years) undergoing a noncardiac chest CT. ICF at targeted review were compared to those mentioned in original reports (χ test).At review, ≥1 ICF was detected in 124/237 patients (52%), for a total of 229 ICF, 158 of them (69%) not originally mentioned. Valvular calcifications were unmentioned in 23/23 (100%) patients, main pulmonary artery dilation in 21/22 (96%), coronary calcifications in 69/86 (80%), right or left atrial dilation in 7/11 (64%), aortic atherosclerosis in 29/62 (47%), and ascending aorta dilatation in 8/18 (44%)...
July 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721154/obesity-and-inflammation-the-linking-mechanism-and-the-complications
#2
Mohammed S Ellulu, Ismail Patimah, Huzwah Khaza'ai, Asmah Rahmat, Yehia Abed
Obesity is the accumulation of abnormal or excessive fat that may interfere with the maintenance of an optimal state of health. The excess of macronutrients in the adipose tissues stimulates them to release inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, and reduces production of adiponectin, predisposing to a pro-inflammatory state and oxidative stress. The increased level of interleukin 6 stimulates the liver to synthesize and secrete C-reactive protein. As a risk factor, inflammation is an imbedded mechanism of developed cardiovascular diseases including coagulation, atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720499/coronary-artery-disease-associated-gene-phactr1-modulates-severity-of-vascular-calcification-in-vitro
#3
Redouane Aherrahrou, Zouhair Aherrahrou, Heribert Schunkert, Jeanette Erdmann
Calcification of vessels is strongly associated with atherosclerosis and leads to coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) revealed several genes that are associated with and contribute to CAD/MI as well as coronary artery calcification (CAC); however, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. PHACTR1, which encodes phosphatase and actin regulator 1, is among these risk genes. The aim of this study was to functionally test whether Phactr1 regulates calcification in vitro using murine embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
July 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710871/detection-and-quantification-of-coronary-calcium-from-dual-energy-chest-x-rays-phantom-feasibility-study
#4
Bo Zhou, Di Wen, Katelyn Nye, Robert C Gilkeson, Brendan Eck, David Jordan, David L Wilson
PURPOSE: We have demonstrated the ability to identify coronary calcium, a reliable biomarker of coronary artery disease, using non-gated, 2-shot, dual energy (DE) chest x-ray imaging. Here we will use digital simulations, backed up by measurements, to characterize DE calcium signals and the role of potential confounds such as beam hardening, x-ray scatter, cardiac motion, and pulmonary artery pulsation. For the DE calcium signal, we will consider quantification, as compared to CT calcium score, and visualization...
July 15, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707447/cto-revascularization-obstacles-and-options-in-balloon-nonpenetrable-lesions
#5
EDITORIAL
On Topaz
CTO lesions resisting balloon crossing are located in moderate/severe tortuous coronary arteries contain more moderate/severe calcification burden and carry a higher J-CTO score as compared with balloon crossable CTO lesions. CTO lesions resisting balloon crossing do not constitute a homogenous group. In 25% of the patients, the resisting CTO was caused by stent restenosis and thrombus is an integral component of CTO in addition to calcium and fibrosis. The excimer laser and rotational/orbital atherectomy are among useful debulking technologies capable of creating a "pilot recanalization channel" in the CTO that enables completion of the revasularization...
July 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703931/rationale-and-design-of-a-randomized-trial-of-apixaban-vs-warfarin-to-evaluate-atherosclerotic-calcification-and-vulnerable-plaque-progression
#6
Kazuhiro Osawa, Rine Nakanishi, Theingi Tiffany Win, Dong Li, Sina Rahmani, Negin Nezarat, Nasim Sheidaee, Matthew J Budoff
Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are known to increase vascular calcification, suggesting increased cardiovascular disease events. Apixaban is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor superior to warfarin at preventing stroke or systemic embolism and may stabilize coronary atherosclerosis. The potential benefits of avoiding VKA therapy and the favorable effects of factor Xa inhibitors could contribute to cardiovascular disease event reduction. We hypothesized that apixaban inhibits vascular calcification and coronary atherosclerosis progression compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF)...
July 13, 2017: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703899/the-coronary-artery-calcification-score-and-common-iliac-artery-calcification-score-in-non-dialysis-ckd-patients
#7
Sonoo Mizuiri, Yoshiko Nishizawa, Kazuomi Yamashita, Kenji Mizuno, Masahiro Ishine, Doi Shigehiro, Takao Masaki, Shigemoto Kenichiro
AIM: Many studies have validated Agatston's coronary artery calcification score (CACS) for assessing vascular calcification (VC) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the CACS and common iliac artery calcification score (IACS) and to examine the variables related to each score. METHODS: The subjects were 145 non-dialysis CKD patients. The CACS and IACS were determined using the same thoracicoabdominal multi-detector computed tomography...
July 13, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696264/coronary-artery-calcification-among-endurance-athletes-hearts-of-stone
#8
EDITORIAL
Aaron L Baggish, Benjamin D Levine
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692481/differences-in-coronary-plaque-characteristics-between-patients-with-and-those-without-peripheral-arterial-disease
#9
Krzysztof L Bryniarski, Erika Yamamoto, Higuma Takumi, Lei Xing, Thomas Zanchin, Tomoyo Sugiyama, Hang Lee, Ik-Kyung Jang
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular mortality of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) is twice as high as that in those with either disease alone. It is known that patients with PAD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention have a higher incidence of adverse cardiac events such as myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compared the detailed characteristics of culprit and nonculprit plaques between patients with and those without PAD using optical coherence tomography...
July 7, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686633/increased-risk-for-development-of-coronary-artery-calcification-in-subjects-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-systemic-inflammation
#10
Jihyun Kim, Da Young Lee, Se Eun Park, Cheol-Young Park, Won-Young Lee, Ki-Won Oh, Sung-Woo Park, Eun-Jung Rhee
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested the importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and systemic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to compare the risk for coronary artery calcification (CAC) development according to the status of NAFLD and inflammation over four years of follow-up in subjects without baseline CAC. METHODS: A total of 1,575 participants in a health screening program were divided into four groups according to baseline NAFLD state and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (median 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681124/toe-brachial-index-as-a-predictor-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-all-cause-mortality-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes-and-microalbuminuria
#11
Emilie H Zobel, Bernt Johan von Scholten, Henrik Reinhard, Frederik Persson, Tine W Hansen, Hans-Henrik Parving, Peter K Jacobsen, Peter Rossing
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The study aimed to evaluate toe-brachial index (TBI) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) as determinants of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality in people with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. METHODS: This was a prospective study including 200 participants. Unadjusted and adjusted (traditional risk factors and additional inclusion of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP] and coronary artery calcification) Cox regression models were performed...
July 5, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679558/effect-modification-of-chronic-kidney-disease-on-the-association-of-circulating-and-imaging-cardiac-biomarkers-with-outcomes
#12
L Parker Gregg, Beverley Adams-Huet, Xilong Li, Gates Colbert, Nishank Jain, James A de Lemos, S Susan Hedayati
BACKGROUND: Cardiac troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are elevated in >50% of dialysis patients and are associated with poor outcomes. Few data investigated these associations in earlier chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied whether CKD modified associations of elevated BNP, N-terminal-pro-BNP, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, coronary artery calcification, and left ventricular hypertrophy with all-cause death and cardiovascular death/events in 3218 multiethnic individuals followed for 12...
July 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668412/impact-on-mortality-of-coronary-and-non-coronary-cardiovascular-findings-in-non-gated-thoracic-ct-by-malignancy-status
#13
Gastón A Rodriguez-Granillo, Exequiel Reynoso, Carlos Capunay, Héctor M Garcia-Garcia, Patricia Carrascosa
PURPOSE: The prognostic value of coronary artery calcification (CAC) assessed on non-gated thoracic CT scans has only been explored in population-based studies. We explored the impact of the presence and extension of CAC, as well as of non-coronary atherosclerosis cardiovascular findings (NCACVF) in survival of patients with and without malignancies undergoing clinically indicated non-gated thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August and December 2012, a total of 1...
August 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662835/ct-angiography-to-evaluate-coronary-artery-disease-and-revascularization-requirement-before-trans-catheter-aortic-valve-replacement
#14
Alexia Rossi, Carlo N De Cecco, Simon R O Kennon, Lu Zou, Felix G Meinel, William Toscano, Sabrina Segreto, Stephan Achenbach, Jörg Hausleiter, U Joseph Schoepf, Francesca Pugliese
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) and aortic stenosis share pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors. We evaluated the clinical utility of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) to identify CAD and revascularization requirement in patients with severe aortic stenosis considered for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: Consecutive patients without known CAD underwent calcium scoring, CTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA)...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658601/early-arterial-calcification-does-not-correlate-with-bone-loss-in-pseudoxanthoma-elasticum
#15
Ludovic Martin, Emmanuel Hoppé, Gilles Kauffenstein, Loukman Omarjee, Nastassia Navasiolava, Samir Henni, Serge Willoteaux, Georges Leftheriotis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE; OMIM 264800, prevalence 1/25,000 to 1/50,000) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disease due to deficiency in ABCC6, an ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C transporter. The PXE phenotype is mainly characterized by progressive ectopic calcification of connective tissues (namely skin, retinal Bruch's membrane and peripheral arteries) but the impact of PXE on bone structure is currently unknown. The present study sought to investigate bone mineralization and its potential link with vascular calcification in a large cohort of PXE patients with inherited mutations of the ABCC6 gene...
June 27, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658167/loss-of-nighttime-blood-pressure-dipping-as-a-risk-factor-for-coronary-artery-calcification-in-nondialysis-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Hoon Young Choi, Chan Joo Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Hyun Su Yang, Ha Yan Kim, Hyeong Cheon Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Sung-Ha Park, Beom Seok Kim
Diurnal variations in blood pressure (BP) loss are closely associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular events. The quantity of coronary artery calcification (CAC) correlates with the atherosclerotic plaque burden, and an increased quantity indicates a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular events. This study investigated the nighttime diurnal variation in BP loss associated with CAC in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).Of the 1958 participants, we enrolled 722 participants with CKD without a history of acute coronary syndrome or symptomatic coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657113/high-burden-of-coronary-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-cirrhosis
#17
Konstantin Kazankov, Kim Munk, Kristian Altern Øvrehus, Jesper Møller Jensen, Cecilie Brøckner Siggaard, Henning Grønbaek, Bjarne Linde Nørgaard, Hendrik Vilstrup
BACKGROUND: Population studies report increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Coronary artery disease may be a trait of end-stage liver disease, but whether it is frequent or extensive in cirrhosis in general is unknown. Thus, we aimed to assess the prevalence and extent of coronary artery disease in unselected cirrhosis patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using coronary computed tomography angiography, we investigated 52 patients from all Child-Pugh classes and etiologies of cirrhosis without known cardiac disease for presence and severity of coronary artery disease in a cross-sectional design...
June 28, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656738/mid-term-outcomes-of-consecutive-998-cases-of-coronary-atherectomy-in-contemporary-clinical-practice
#18
Nishtha Sareen, Usman Baber, Melissa Aquino, Sonny Sayseng, Joseph Sweeny, Nitin Barman, Vishal Kapur, Annapoorna Kini, Samin K Sharma
OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical and safety endpoints with use of rotational (RA) and orbital (OA) atherectomy in a large patient population with moderate to severely calcified lesions undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). BACKGROUND: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been recognized as a risk factor for adverse outcomes with coronary artery disease (CAD). Though atheroablative techniques, RA and OA have been used extensively, comparison of their clinical and safety endpoints is lacking...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652190/relationship-between-simple-markers-of-insulin-resistance-and-coronary-artery-calcification
#19
Gerald M Reaven, Joshua W Knowles, David Leonard, Carolyn E Barlow, Benjamin L Willis, William L Haskell, David J Maron
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance in apparently healthy persons is associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that promote coronary atherosclerosis. Identifying these individuals before manifest disease would provide useful clinical information. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that combining 2 simple markers of insulin resistance, prediabetes (PreDM) and triglyceride (TG) concentration ≥150 mg/dL, would identify apparently healthy persons with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles and increased coronary artery calcium (CAC) compared with those with neither or only 1 abnormality...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651187/association-of-ectopic-fat-with-abdominal-aorto-illiac-and-coronary-artery-calcification-in-african-ancestry-men
#20
Allison L Kuipers, Joseph M Zmuda, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Ryan Cvejkus, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Christina L Wassel, Iva Miljkovic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men. METHODS: Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort...
June 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
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