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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209007/cognitive-ability-as-a-determinant-of-socioeconomic-and-oral-health-status-among-adolescent-college-students-of-bengaluru-india
#1
Rekha Rao Karnam, Naganandini Samapth Kumar, Shruthi Eshwar, Shravani Deolia
INTRODUCTION: Levels of oral health and economic status are unequally distributed throughout the population. Inequality has multiple causes and that the effect of Socio Economic Status (SES) and demographic factors, on oral health is mediated through several factors. Association between cognitive ability and oral health had been demonstrated in older age groups but adolescents and younger adults have received relatively little attention in this field. AIM: To establish the role of cognitive ability as a determinant of SES and oral health status among adolescent college students of Benagluru, Karnataka, India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187740/multi-year-school-based-implementation-and-student-outcomes-of-an-evidence-based-risk-reduction-intervention
#2
Bo Wang, Bonita Stanton, Lynette Deveaux, Sonja Lunn, Glenda Rolle, Richard Adderley, Maxwell Poitier, Veronica Koci, Sharon Marshall, Perry Gomez
BACKGROUND: Intervention effects observed in efficacy trials are rarely replicated when the interventions are broadly disseminated, underscoring the need for more information about factors influencing real-life implementation and program impact. Using data from the ongoing national implementation of an evidence-based HIV prevention program [Focus on Youth in The Caribbean (FOYC)] in The Bahamas, this study examines factors influencing teachers' patterns of implementation, the impact of teachers' initial implementation of FOYC, and subsequent delivery of the booster sessions on students' outcomes...
February 10, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178727/applying-ethical-and-legal-principles-to-new-technology-the-university-of-auckland-faculty-of-medical-and-health-sciences-policy-taking-and-sharing-images-of-patients
#3
Monique Jonas, Phillipa Malpas, Kate Kersey, Alan Merry, Warwick Bagg
AIMS: To develop a policy governing the taking and sharing of photographic and radiological images by medical students. METHODS: The Rules of the Health Information Privacy Code 1994 and the Code of Health and Disability Services Consumers' Rights were applied to the taking, storing and sharing of photographic and radiological images by medical students. Stakeholders, including clinicians, medical students, lawyers at district health boards in the Auckland region, the Office of the Privacy Commissioner and the Health and Disability Commissioner were consulted and their recommendations incorporated...
January 27, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171783/attitudes-regarding-the-national-forensic-dna-database-survey-data-from-the-general-public-prison-inmates-and-prosecutors-offices-in-the-republic-of-serbia
#4
Smilja Teodorović, Dragan Mijović, Una Radovanović Nenadić, Marina Savić
Worldwide, the establishment of national forensic DNA databases has transformed personal identification in the criminal justice system over the past two decades. It has also stimulated much debate centering on ethical issues, human rights, individual privacy, lack of safeguards and other standards. Therefore, a balance between effectiveness and intrusiveness of a national DNA repository is an imperative and needs to be achieved through a suitable legal framework. On its path to the European Union (EU), the Republic of Serbia is required to harmonize its national policies and legislation with the EU...
January 21, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164937/classroom-listening-conditions-in-indian-primary-schools-a-survey-of-four-schools
#5
Gayathri Sundaravadhanan, Heramba G Selvarajan, Bradley McPherson
INTRODUCTION: Background noise affects the listening environment inside classrooms, especially for younger children. High background noise level adversely affects not only student speech perception but also teacher vocal hygiene. The current study aimed to give an overview of the classroom listening conditions in selected government primary schools in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Noise measurements were taken in 23 classrooms of four government primary schools in southern India, using a type 2 sound level meter...
January 2017: Noise & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154790/sharing-local-public-health-services-across-jurisdictions-comparing-practice-in-2012-and-2014
#6
Kusuma Madamala, Susan Zahner, Roger Brown
OBJECTIVE: Describe cross-jurisdiction service sharing (CJS) by local and tribal health departments (LHD) in Wisconsin in 2014 compared to 2012. DESIGN: An online survey of 91 LHD directors in Wisconsin was conducted. Results were compared to the results of a 2012 survey. Characteristics of CJS arrangements and differences in results by population size, geographic region, and governance type were described. Standardized proportion differences (h) were estimated using the arcsin transformation...
April 2016: Frontiers in Public Health Services & Systems Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152066/knowledge-attitude-practices-and-their-associated-factors-towards-diabetes-mellitus-among-non-diabetes-community-members-of-bale-zone-administrative-towns-south-east-ethiopia-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Chanyalew Worku Kassahun, Alemayehu Gonie Mekonen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes kills more than 4.9 million adults per year. It becomes rapidly increasing, non-communicable disease-a major threat to global public health particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Though previous studies among diabetic patients were focused in health institution, limited knowledge, attitude and practice were seen. There is no study conducted about diabetes related to knowledge, attitudes, practice and associated factors in the community level. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: The study assessed knowledge, attitude, practices, and its associated factors towards diabetes mellitus among non diabetic community members of Bale Zone, Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151937/conspiracy-beliefs-and-knowledge-about-hiv-origins-among-adolescents-in-soweto-south-africa
#8
Robert Hogg, Busisiwe Nkala, Janan Dietrich, Alexandra Collins, Kalysha Closson, Zishan Cui, Steve Kanters, Jason Chia, Bernard Barhafuma, Alexis Palmer, Angela Kaida, Glenda Gray, Cari Miller
PURPOSE: We examined adolescents' knowledge regarding the origin of HIV/AIDS and correlates of beliefs surrounding conspiracy theories in Soweto, South Africa. Now, a decade post-AIDS denialism, South Africa has the largest antiretroviral therapy roll-out worldwide. However, conspiracy theories stemming from past AIDS denialism may impact HIV prevention and treatment efforts. METHODS: Study participants were recruited through the Kganya Motsha Adolescent Health Centre and the Perinatal HIV Research Unit's Botsha Bophelo Adolescent Health Study (BBAHS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151398/role-of-non-government-organizations-in-engaging-medical-students-in-research
#9
Branavan Manoranjan, Ayan K Dey, Xin Wang, Alexandra Kuzyk, Karen Petticrew, Chris Carruthers, Ian Arnold
The continued decline in medical trainees entering the workforce as clinician-scientists has elevated the need to engage medical students in research. While past studies have shown early exposure to generate interest among medical students for research and academic careers, financial constraints have limited the number of such formal research training programs. In light of recent government budget cuts to support research training for medical students, non-government organizations (NGOs) may play a progressively larger role in supporting the development of clinician-scientists...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150954/measuring-the-slot-machine-zone-with-attentional-dual-tasks-and-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia
#10
W Spencer Murch, Stephanie W M Chu, Luke Clark
Recent accounts of problematic electronic gaming machine (EGM) gambling have suggested attentional pathology among at-risk players. A putative slot machine zone is characterized by an intense immersion during game play, causing a neglect of outside events and competing goals. Prior studies of EGM immersion have relied heavily upon retrospective self-report scales. Here, the authors attempt to identify behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of the immersion experience. In samples of undergraduate students and experienced EGM users from the community, they tested 2 potential behavioral measures of immersion during EGM use: peripheral target detection and probe-caught mind wandering...
February 2, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148992/the-fiscal-cost-of-weak-governance-evidence-from-teacher-absence%C3%A2-in%C3%A2-india
#11
Karthik Muralidharan, Jishnu Das, Alaka Holla, Aakash Mohpal
The relative return to strategies that augment inputs versus those that reduce inefficiencies remains a key open question for education policy in low-income countries. Using a new nationally-representative panel dataset of schools across 1297 villages in India, we show that the large public investments in education over the past decade have led to substantial improvements in input-based measures of school quality, but only a modest reduction in inefficiency as measured by teacher absence. In our data, 23.6% of teachers were absent during unannounced school visits, and we estimate that the salary cost of unauthorized teacher absence is $1...
January 2017: Journal of Public Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145767/examining-guidelines-for-school-based-breakfast-programs-in-canada-a-systematic-review-of-the-grey-literature
#12
Katelyn M Godin, Sharon I Kirkpatrick, Rhona M Hanning, Jackie Stapleton, Scott T Leatherdale
School breakfast programs are widespread and serve varying objectives regarding youth health promotion. Evidence-based guidelines for breakfast programs may be important in maximizing their effectiveness related to student outcomes, yet it is unclear what is available in Canada. A systematic review was conducted to identify and compare Canadian guidelines related to breakfast programs. Data sources included grey literature databases, customized search engines, targeted websites, and content expert consultations...
February 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137323/challenging-assumptions-what-do-we-need-to-address-in-our-disaster-risk-reduction-efforts
#13
Tudor A Codreanu, Hanh Ngo, Andrew Robertson, Antonio Celenza
: Introduction Specific knowledge and skills are required, especially in the first 72 hours post-disaster, to bridge the time gap until essential services are restored and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) can focus on individuals' needs. This study explores disaster knowledge and preparedness in the first 72 hours as a function of the individual's engagement in discussions about disasters, and several other factors (both at personal and community/country level), as well as the entities/organizations perceived by the individual as being responsible for disaster risk reduction (DRR) education...
January 31, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130540/my-week-sara-robson
#14
Sara Robson
Having an interest in government veterinary work, Cambridge fifth-year vet student Sara Robson jumped at the chance of spending a week with Defra to learn what it does and the job opportunities it offers.
January 28, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127257/factors-associated-with-the-choice-of-public-health-service-among-nursing-students-in-thailand
#15
Krisada Sawaengdee, Nareerut Pudpong, Thunthita Wisaijohn, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Weerasak Putthasri, Mylene Lagarde, Duane Blaauw
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that public and private nursing schools have contributed significantly to the Thai health system, it is not clear whether and to what extent there was difference in job preferences between types of training institutions. This study aimed to examine attitudes towards rural practice, intention to work in public service after graduation, and factors affecting workplace selection among nursing students in both public and private institutions. METHODS: A descriptive comparative cross-sectional survey was conducted among 3349 students from 36 nursing schools (26 public and 10 private) during February-March 2012, using a questionnaire to assess the association between training institution characteristics and students' attitudes, job choices, and intention to work in the public sector upon graduation...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121655/engaging-learners-in-health-system-quality-improvement-efforts
#16
Karnjit Johl, R Kevin Grigsby
In 1999, an Institute of Medicine report spurred health care organizations to implement systems-based quality improvement efforts and tackle patient safety. Simultaneously, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education asked residency programs to address Practice-Based Learning and Systems-Based Practice competencies. Medical educators now advocate incorporation of these competencies in undergraduate medical education.The authors examine the success of these efforts both from the health care delivery and systems perspective as well as from the perspective of educators as they aspire to engage medical students and residents in these domains...
January 24, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121649/borrow-or-serve-an-economic-analysis-of-options-for-financing-a-medical-school-education
#17
Mircea I Marcu, Arthur L Kellermann, Christine Hunter, Jerri Curtis, Charles Rice, Gail R Wilensky
PURPOSE: To understand the long-term economic implications of key pathways for financing a medical school education. METHOD: The authors calculated the net present value (NPV) of cash flow over a 30-year career for a 2013 matriculant associated with (1) self-financing, (2) federally guaranteed loans, (3) the Public Service Loan Forgiveness program, (4) the National Health Service Corps, (5) the Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship Program, and (6) matriculation at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...
January 24, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112096/supernumerary-registrar-experience-at-the-university-of-cape-town-south-africa
#18
S Peer, S A Burrows, N Mankahla, J J Fagan
BACKGROUND: Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs) being hosted in South African (SA) training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of SA registrars (SARs). METHODS: SNRs and SARs completed an online survey in 2012. RESULTS: Seventy-three registrars responded; 42 were SARs and 31 were SNRs...
December 21, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111404/comparative-analysis-of-knowledge-on-schistosomiasis-japonica-in-the-local-people-in-the-former-endemic-area-in-yamanashi-prefecture-japan-comparisons-among-the-background-of-age-and-occupation
#19
Nobuhide Hata, Akio Yasukawa, Eiichi Sei, Koh Kawasumi, Naoto Miya, Hironobu Yamaguchi, Masaru Minai, Rieko Shimogawara, Nobuo Ohta
Eradication of schistosomiasis japonica in Yamanashi Prefecture was officially declared in 1996, and all surveillance and health campaign were finished by the end of 2001. Schistosomiasis control had been carried out by strong collaboration among local Government, local people and academia, thought which knowledge and experiences of the disease control were accumulated among the local people. It is 20th anniversary of the disease eradication in Yamanashi. We planned to analyze the current situation whether the local people still keep the knowledge of schistosomiasis or not...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105552/differentiating-non-suicidal-self-injury-and-risky-drinking-a-role-for-outcome-expectancies-and-self-efficacy-beliefs
#20
Penelope Hasking
Social cognitive theory articulates a role for two key thought processes in governing volitional behaviour: outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies. These cognitions are behaviour-specific, and should thus differentiate people who engage in one behaviour over another. This paper presents the results of a study applying social cognitive theory to explore how outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies differentially relate to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and risky alcohol use amongst a sample of young adults...
January 20, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
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