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the rational clinical examination systematic review

Aris Angelis, Ansgar Lange, Panos Kanavos
BACKGROUND: Although health technology assessment (HTA) systems base their decision making process either on economic evaluations or comparative clinical benefit assessment, a central aim of recent approaches to value measurement, including value based assessment and pricing, points towards the incorporation of supplementary evidence and criteria that capture additional dimensions of value. OBJECTIVE: To study the practices, processes and policies of value-assessment for new medicines across eight European countries and the role of HTA beyond economic evaluation and clinical benefit assessment...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Rikke Thaarup Wesselhöft
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended...
October 2016: Danish Medical Journal
E Karyotaki, D Tordrup, C Buntrock, R Bertollini, P Cuijpers
AIMS: The aim of this systematic review of economic evaluations alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was to provide a comprehensive overview of the evidence concerning cost-effectiveness analyses of common treatment options for major depression. METHODS: An existing database was used to identify studies reporting cost-effectiveness results from RCTs. This database has been developed by a systematic literature search in the bibliographic databases of PubMed, PsychINFO, Embase and Cochrane library from database inception to December 2014...
June 22, 2016: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
Noha El Sakka, Ian M Gould
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common infection worldwide. The increase in multidrug resistance together with the paucity of new antibiotics highlights the need for alternative antimicrobials for management of UTI. Among which are older antimicrobials that had been used in the past and now were stopped. AREAS COVERED: In this article, we examine the evidence in literature for the value of use of various antimicrobial agents in UTI. We conducted systematic Pubmed search and journal literature review including early research work on older agents addressed in relation to recent clinical data...
August 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Mark H Ebell, Marlene Call, JoAnna Shinholser, Jack Gardner
IMPORTANCE: Early, accurate diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis can help clinicians target treatment, avoid antibiotics, and provide an accurate prognosis. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the value of the clinical examination and white blood cell count for the diagnosis of mononucleosis. DATA SOURCES: The databases of PubMed (from 1966-2016) and EMBASE (from 1947-2015) were searched and a total of 670 articles and abstracts were reviewed for eligibility...
April 12, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Joshua S Easter, Jason S Haukoos, William P Meehan, Victor Novack, Jonathan A Edlow
IMPORTANCE: Adults with apparently minor head trauma (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] scores ≥13 who appear well on examination) may have severe intracranial injuries requiring prompt intervention. Findings from clinical examination can aid in determining which adults with minor trauma have severe intracranial injuries visible on computed tomography (CT). OBJECTIVE: To assess systematically the accuracy of symptoms and signs in adults with minor head trauma in order to identify those with severe intracranial injuries...
December 22, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Dean Ho, Chung-Huei Katherine Wang, Edward Kai-Hua Chow
The implementation of nanomedicine in cellular, preclinical, and clinical studies has led to exciting advances ranging from fundamental to translational, particularly in the field of cancer. Many of the current barriers in cancer treatment are being successfully addressed using nanotechnology-modified compounds. These barriers include drug resistance leading to suboptimal intratumoral retention, poor circulation times resulting in decreased efficacy, and off-target toxicity, among others. The first clinical nanomedicine advances to overcome these issues were based on monotherapy, where small-molecule and nucleic acid delivery demonstrated substantial improvements over unmodified drug administration...
August 2015: Science Advances
Alexander C Fanaroff, Jennifer A Rymer, Sarah A Goldstein, David L Simel, L Kristin Newby
IMPORTANCE: About 10% of patients with acute chest pain are ultimately diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Early, accurate estimation of the probability of ACS in these patients using the clinical examination could prevent many hospital admissions among low-risk patients and ensure that high-risk patients are promptly treated. OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the accuracy of the initial history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and risk scores incorporating these elements with the first cardiac-specific troponin...
November 10, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Michele R Spoont, John W Williams, Shannon Kehle-Forbes, Jason A Nieuwsma, Monica C Mann-Wrobel, Raz Gross
IMPORTANCE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a relatively common mental health condition frequently seen, though often unrecognized, in primary care settings. Identifying and treating PTSD can greatly improve patient health and well-being. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the utility of self-report screening instruments for PTSD among primary care and high-risk populations. EVIDENCE REVIEW: We searched MEDLINE and the National Center for PTSD's Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress (PILOTS) databases for articles published on screening instruments for PTSD published from January 1981 through March 2015...
August 4, 2015: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Raveendhara R Bannuru, Christopher H Schmid, David M Kent, Elizaveta E Vaysbrot, John B Wong, Timothy E McAlindon
BACKGROUND: The relative efficacy of available treatments of knee osteoarthritis (OA) must be determined for rational treatment algorithms to be formulated. PURPOSE: To examine the efficacy of treatments of primary knee OA using a network meta-analysis design, which estimates relative effects of all treatments against each other. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception through 15 August 2014, and unpublished data...
January 6, 2015: Annals of Internal Medicine
Steven A Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2015: Journal of Urology
Susan W Salmond, Lisa M Paplanus, Amita Avadhani
Family-witnessed resuscitation (FWR) allows family members to be present while emergency cardiac life support measures are applied. This article describes the use of systematic reviews to inform best clinical policy on FWR. The authors searched Medline and CINAHL for relevant systematic reviews and retrieved four. The reviews were then tested for rigor and validity using the open source Critical Appraisal Skills Programme from the Institute of Health Science, University of Oxford. The reviews were assessed to be of acceptable quality and therefore good sources of evidence to guide practice and policy development...
December 2014: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Guido Wassink, Christopher A Lear, Katherine C Gunn, Justin M Dean, Laura Bennet, Alistair J Gunn
Multiple randomized controlled trials have shown that prolonged, moderate cerebral hypothermia initiated within a few hours after severe hypoxia-ischemia and continued until resolution of the acute phase of delayed cell death reduces mortality and improves neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants. The challenge is now to find ways to further improve outcomes. In the present review, we critically examine the evidence that conventional analgesic, sedative, or anticonvulsant agents might improve outcomes, in relation to the known window of opportunity for effective protection with hypothermia...
April 2015: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Maria M Wertli, Alphons G H Kessels, Roberto S G M Perez, Lucas M Bachmann, Florian Brunner
OBJECTIVE: Guidelines for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) 1 advocate several substance classes to reduce pain and support physical rehabilitation, but guidance about which agent should be prioritized when designing a therapeutic regimen is not provided. Using a network meta-analytic approach, we examined the efficacy of all agent classes investigated in randomized clinical trials of CRPS 1 and provide a rank order of various substances stratified by length of illness duration. DESIGN: In this study a network meta-analysis was conducted...
September 2014: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Hiroyuki Kinoshita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Céline Habre, Martin R Tramèr, Daniel M Pöpping, Nadia Elia
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether, according to the conclusions of a 2000 systematic review with meta-analysis on interventions to prevent pain from propofol injection that provided a research agenda to guide further research on the topic, subsequently published trials were more often optimally blinded, reported on children, and used the most efficacious intervention as comparator; and to check whether the number of new trials published each year had decreased and whether the designs of trials that cited the review differed from those that did not...
August 26, 2014: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Karen A D'Silva, Philipp Dahm, Camilla L Wong
IMPORTANCE: Early, accurate diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms may reduce the need for invasive testing (ie, catheter placement, urodynamics), and prompt early treatment to provide symptomatic relief and avoid complications. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on (1) the diagnostic accuracy of office-based tests for bladder outlet obstruction in men with lower urinary tract symptoms; and (2) the accuracy of the bladder scan as a measure of urine volume because management decisions rely on measuring postvoid bladder residual volumes...
August 6, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Nathaniel R Herr, John W Williams, Sophiya Benjamin, Jennifer McDuffie
IMPORTANCE: In primary care settings, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder are common but underrecognized illnesses. Identifying accurate and feasible screening instruments for GAD and panic disorder has the potential to improve detection and facilitate treatment. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the accuracy of self-report screening instruments in diagnosing GAD and panic disorder in adults. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library for relevant articles published from 1980 through April 2014...
July 2, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Greg Rowell, Julio S G Montaner, Peter Phillips, P Todd Korthuis, David L Simel
IMPORTANCE: Timely identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults can contribute to reduced mortality and likelihood of further HIV transmission. During the first 6 months after infection, known as early HIV infection, patients often report a well-described constellation of symptoms and signs. However, the literature examining utility of the clinical examination in identifying early infection has not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of symptoms and signs in identifying early HIV infection among adults...
July 16, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
M Elizabeth Wilcox, Christopher A K Y Chong, Matthew B Stanbrook, Andrea C Tricco, Camilla Wong, Sharon E Straus
IMPORTANCE: Thoracentesis is performed to identify the cause of a pleural effusion. Although generally safe, thoracentesis may be complicated by transient hypoxemia, bleeding, patient discomfort, reexpansion pulmonary edema, and pneumothorax. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best means for differentiating between transudative and exudative effusions and also to identify thoracentesis techniques for minimizing the risk of complications by performing a systematic review the evidence...
June 18, 2014: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
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