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CCN2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208216/msc-derived-ccn2-promotes-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#1
Yu-Ling Wu, Hong-Yu Li, Xiao-Peng Zhao, Jiu-Yang Jiao, Dong-Xiao Tang, Ling-Jian Yan, Quan Wan, Chao-Bin Pan
Recent studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit a tropism to tumors and form the tumor stroma. Additionally, we found that MSCs can secrete different types of factors. However, the involvement of MSC-derived factors in human tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) growth has not been clearly addressed. The CCN family includes multifunctional signaling molecules that affect the initiation and development events of various tumors. In our study, we report that CCN2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was the most highly induced among the CCN family members in MSCs that were co-cultured with TSCC cells...
February 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183733/neuronal-ctgf-ccn2-negatively-regulates-myelination-in-a-mouse-model-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#2
Ebru Ercan, Juliette M Han, Alessia Di Nardo, Kellen Winden, Min-Joon Han, Leonie Hoyo, Afshin Saffari, Andrew Leask, Daniel H Geschwind, Mustafa Sahin
Disruption of myelination during development has been implicated in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders including tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). TSC patients with autism display impairments in white matter integrity. Similarly, mice lacking neuronal Tsc1 have a hypomyelination phenotype. However, the mechanisms that underlie these phenotypes remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that neuronal TSC1/2 orchestrates a program of oligodendrocyte maturation through the regulated secretion of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108312/ctgf-promotes-osteosarcoma-angiogenesis-by-regulating-mir-543-angiopoietin-2-signaling
#3
Li-Hong Wang, Hsiao-Chi Tsai, Yu-Che Cheng, Chih-Yang Lin, Yuan-Li Huang, Chun-Hao Tsai, Guo-Hong Xu, Shih-Wei Wang, Yi-Chin Fong, Chih-Hsin Tang
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary solid tumor of bone. It has a high metastatic potential and occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults. Angiopoietin 2 (Angpt2) is a key regulator in tumor angiogenesis, facilitating tumor growth and metastasis. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, also known as CCN2), is a cysteine-rich protein that has been reported to promote metastasis of osteosarcoma. However, the effect of CTGF on Angpt2 regulation and angiogenesis in human osteosarcoma remains largely unknown...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039692/biological-characteristics-of-ccn-proteins-in-tumor-development
#4
Stephany C Barreto, Amitabha Ray, Elena G Geromichalou, Page Ag Edgar
The extracellular membrane (ECM) is no longer regarded as inert, rather it has multiple versatile physiologic functions. Its diverse composition is implicated in each step of cancer progression including inflammation, angiogenesis, tumor invasion and metastasis. In addition to structural proteins, the ECM also contains a family of non-structural proteins called matricellular proteins. The six secreted CCN proteins, which belong to the matricellular protein family, include the following: Cyr61 (CCN1), CTGF (CCN2), Nov (CCN3), WISP- 1 (CCN4), WISP-2 (CCN5) and WISP-3(CCN6)...
November 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916451/progressive-development-of-endometriosis-and-its-hindrance-by-anti-platelet-treatment-in-mice-with-induced-endometriosis
#5
Qi Zhang, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
We have recently shown that platelets drive smooth muscle metaplasia (SMM) and fibrogenesis in endometriosis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (FMT). To see whether this is true in vivo, this prospective, randomized, and serially evaluated mouse investigation was conducted. Endometriosis was induced in female Balb/C mice, which were then randomly divided into two groups: Tanshinone IIA (TAN) and control (CTL) groups. TAN mice were treated with TAN but CTL mice received none...
February 2017: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863006/role-of-ccn5-wnt1-inducible-signaling-pathway-protein-2-in-pancreatic-islets
#6
REVIEW
Jun-Li Liu, Nancy Kaddour, Subrata Chowdhury, Qing Li, Zu-Hua Gao
In search of direct targets of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 action, we discovered CCN5 (WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2 [WISP2]) as a novel protein expressed in pancreatic β-cells. As a member of the "CCN" ( C ysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 [Cyr61], C onnective tissue growth factor [CTGF in humans], and N ephroblastoma overexpressed [Nov; in chickens]) family, the expression of CCN5/WISP2 is stimulated by IGF-1 together with Wnt signaling. When overexpressed in insulinoma cells, CCN5 promotes cell proliferation and cell survival against streptozotocin-induced cell death...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853940/novel-role-of-ccn3-that-maintains-the-differentiated-phenotype-of-articular-cartilage
#7
Danilo Janune, Tarek Abd El Kader, Eriko Aoyama, Takashi Nishida, Yasuhiko Tabata, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Knowledge of the microenvironment of articular cartilage in health and disease is the key to accomplishing fundamental disease-modifying treatments for osteoarthritis. The proteins comprising the CCN Family are matricellular proteins with a remarkable relevance within the context of cartilage metabolism. CCN2 displays a great capability for regenerating articular cartilage, and CCN3 has been shown to activate the expression of genes related to articular chondrocytes and to repress genes related to endochondral ossification in epiphyseal chondrocytes...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829832/members-of-the-cyr61-ctgf-nov-protein-family-emerging-players-in-hepatic-progenitor-cell-activation-and-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#8
Qunfeng Wu, Marda Jorgensen, Joanna Song, Junmei Zhou, Chen Liu, Liya Pi
Hepatic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) reside quiescently in normal biliary trees and are activated in the form of ductular reactions during severe liver damage when the replicative ability of hepatocytes is inhibited. HPC niches are full of profibrotic stimuli favoring scarring and hepatocarcinogenesis. The Cyr61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) protein family consists of six members, CCN1/CYR61, CCN2/CTGF, CCN3/NOV, CCN4/WISP1, CCN5/WISP2, and CCN6/WISP3, which function as extracellular signaling modulators to mediate cell-matrix interaction during angiogenesis, wound healing, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769912/expression-of-fibrosis-related-molecules-in-the-oral-mucosa-of-six-animal-species-a-reference-for-selecting-animal-models
#9
Guoliang Sa, Xuepeng Xiong, Jiangang Ren, Yifang Zhao, Sangang He
Several animal models have been used in studies associated with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF); however, an appropriate model based on the histopathological characteristics of OSF is still needed. This study aimed to provide histological references for selecting a potential model. The expression intensities of collagen type I (Col I), type III (Col III), type IV (Col IV), fibronectin (FN), transforming growth factors β (TGF-β), and connective tissue growth factor (CCN2) in the oral mucosa of the human and six non-human animal species were measured by immunohistochemistry...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766493/ccn2-reduction-mediates-protective-effects-of-bmp7-treatment-in-obstructive-nephropathy
#10
Lucas L Falke, Jan Willem Leeuwis, Karen M Lyons, Christine L Mummery, Tri Q Nguyen, Roel Goldschmeding
Treatment with rhBMP7 exerts profound protective effects in a wide variety of experimental models of renal disease. However, little is known about how these protective effects are mediated, and which cells in the kidney are targeted by exogenous rhBMP7 treatment. To determine if rhBMP7 increases glomerular and tubulointerstitial canonical BMP signaling, we performed Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction (UUO, a widely used obstructive nephropathy model) in mice reporting transcriptional activity downstream of canonical BMP signaling by the expression of GFP under the BMP Responsive Element of the Id1 promoter (BRE:gfp mice)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761803/the-pivotal-role-of-ccn2-in-mammalian-palatogenesis
#11
Joseph T Tarr, Timothy G Visser, Joanne E Moon, Honey Hendesi, Mary F Barbe, James P Bradley, Steven N Popoff
Mammalian palatogenesis is a complex process involving a temporally and spatially regulated myriad of factors. Together these factors control the 3 vital processes of proliferation, elevation and fusion of the developing palate. In this study, we show for the first time the unequivocally vital role of CCN2 in development of the mammalian palate. We utilized CCN2 knockout (KO) mice and cranial neural crest derived mesenchymal cells from these CCN2 KO mice to investigate the 3 processes crucial to normal palatogenesis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752926/ccn2-induces-cellular-senescence-in-fibroblasts
#12
Joon-Ii Jun, Lester F Lau
The expression of Ccn2 (CTGF) has been linked to fibrosis in many tissues and pathologies, although its activities in fibroblastic cells and precise mechanism of action in fibrogenesis are still controversial. Here, we showed that CCN2 can induce cellular senescence in fibroblasts both in vitro and in vivo, whereupon senescent cells express an anti-fibrotic "senescence-associated secretory phenotype" (SASP) that includes upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases and downregulation of collagen. Mechanistically, CCN2 induces fibroblast senescence through integrin α6β1-mediated accumulation of reactive oxygen species, leading to activation of p53 and induction of p16(INK4a)...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734404/an-analysis-of-pathological-activities-of-ccn-proteins-in-joint-disorders-mechanical-stretch-mediated-ccn2-expression-in-cultured-meniscus-cells
#13
Takayuki Furumatsu, Toshifumi Ozaki
The multifunctional growth factor CYR61/CTGF/NOV (CCN) 2, also known as connective tissue growth factor, regulates cellular proliferation, differentiation, and tissue regeneration. Recent literatures have described important roles of CCN2 in the meniscus metabolism. However, the mechanical stress-mediated transcriptional regulation of CCN2 in the meniscus remains unclear. The meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous tissue that controls complex biomechanics of the knee joint. Therefore, the injured unstable meniscus has a poor healing potential especially in the avascular inner region...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734403/method-for-analysis-of-matrix-degradation-by-ccn2-through-the-mmp-timp-system
#14
Susan V McLennan, Danqing Min, Xiaoyu Wang, Stephen M Twigg
Many studies have shown effects of members of the CCN family on matrix synthesis and accumulation but few have examined degradative pathways. This scarcity of information is in part due to the lack of suitable model systems. Here we describe methods for making rhCCN2 and also for the preparation of a biosynthetically labeled matrix substrate that can be used to measure the effect of CCN on cellular or secreted degradative pathways.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734402/analysis-of-pathological-activities-of-ccn2-ctgf-in-muscle-dystrophy
#15
María José Acuña, Enrique Brandan
CCN2 or connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a matricellular protein that regulates several cellular processes. In skeletal muscle, CTGF is a key modulator of fibrogenesis, is increased in pathological conditions such as muscular dystrophies, and plays a major role in the pathology outcome. Overexpression of CTGF in skeletal muscle of wild-type mice results in muscle damage, fibrosis, and reduction of strength. In contrast, a decrease in CTGF in dystrophic mice increases strength and reduces damage and fibrosis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734398/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-ccn2-stimulated-sirius-red-assay-for-collagen-accumulation-in-cultured-cells
#16
Philip C Trackman, Debashree Saxena, Manish V Bais
A simple method for the determination of relative levels of insoluble collagen accumulation in fibroblast cultures is presented. Confluent cell cultures are provided with sodium ascorbate which is then permissive for collagen deposition. At intervals, cultures are fixed and stained successively with sirius red and then crystal Violet to, respectively, assess for relative changes in collagen accumulation in response to factors such as TGF-β1 or matricellular CCN2 and changes in DNA content as an index of changes in cell density...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734395/analysis-of-pathological-activities-of-ccn-proteins-in-fibrotic-diseases-kidney-fibrosis
#17
Hideki Yokoi, Masashi Mukoyama
Renal fibrosis is characterized by glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is postulated to play a central role in the development of both fibrotic processes. Extracellular matrix proteins, particularly type I collagen and fibronectin, accumulate in the tissue during renal fibrogenesis. CCN2, also known as connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), is increased in the setting of fibrosis and modulates a number of downstream signaling pathways involved in the fibrogenic properties of TGF-β...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734394/studying-the-ccn-proteins-in-fibrosis
#18
James Hutchenreuther, Andrew Leask, Katherine Thompson
CCN2 is a profibrotic matricellular protein. CCN2 directly promotes cell adhesion and indirectly promotes fibrosis by activating adhesive signaling in response to growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix. The following protocols will allow the direct assessment of other CCN family members in these processes.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734393/ccn2-in-skin-fibrosis
#19
Andrew Leask
CCN2, formerly known as connective tissue growth factor, was discovered in 1991. Soon after its discovery, CCN2 was shown to be upregulated in response to the profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) β and to be constitutively overexpressed in fibrotic conditions. These early observations led to the hypothesis that CCN2 was a key regulator of fibrosis. However, only recently have data been generated that directly demonstrate this hypothesis. This review summarizes these observations and suggests a mechanism of action for CCN2...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734392/analysis-of-transcytosis-of-ccn2-by-chondrocytes
#20
Kazumi Kawata, Satoshi Kubota, Masaharu Takigawa
Transcytosis is a mechanism for the transcellular transport of biomolecules. Analysis of transcytosis is frequently performed in cells with distinct polarity, such as brain endothelial cells. However, in cells without evident polarity, analysis of transcytosis has not been performed. Here, we describe a method for analyzing transcytosis of a CCN family protein through chondrocytic cells having no apparent polarity.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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