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Cohort medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144057/prepregnancy-body-mass-index-gestational-weight-gain-and-odds-of-cesarean-delivery-in-hispanic-women
#1
Megan W Harvey, Barry Braun, Karen A Ertel, Penelope S Pekow, Glenn Markenson, Lisa Chasan-Taber
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain (GWG), and cesarean delivery in Hispanics. METHODS: We examined these associations among 1,215 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort of Hispanic women studied from 2006 to 2011. Prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and the mode of delivery were abstracted from medical records. RESULTS: A quarter of the participants entered pregnancy with obesity, 23% delivered via cesarean, and 52% exceeded the Institute of Medicine guidelines for GWG...
November 16, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143074/-additional-emergency-medical-measures-in-trauma-associated-cardiac-arrest
#2
B Ondruschka, C Baier, J Dreßler, A Höch, M Bernhard, C Kleber, C Buschmann
INTRODUCTION: More than half of all traumatic deaths happen in prehospital settings. Until now, there have been no long-term studies examining the actual additive treatment during trauma-associated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (tCPR), including pleural decompression, pericardiocentesis, tourniquets and external stabilization of the pelvis. The present cohort study evaluated forensic autopsy reports of trauma deaths occurring at the scene with respect to additive actions in preclinical tCPR as well as the potentially preventable nature of the individual death cases...
November 15, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142573/standing-out-with-professionalism-how-do-students-and-faculty-of-two-different-medical-schools-perceive-it
#3
Kamran Sattar, Sue Roff, Durdana Siddiqui, Sultan Ayoub Meo
Background and Objectives: Medical professionalism is an essential aspect of medical education and practice worldwide. Our objective was to explore and compare the perception as recommended sanctions about professionalism lapses, using the "Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory I: Academic Integrity", among the faculty and the students' of two different medical schools in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Respondents from the two medical schools in Saudi Arabia, recommended sanctions for the first time, absolute lapses in academic professionalism were determined by using the "Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory 1: Academic Integrity"...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140496/association-between-use-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-herbal-therapy-and-survival-outcomes-in-patients-with-stage-ii-and-iii-colorectal-cancer-a-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Yun Xu, Jun J Mao, Lingyun Sun, Lin Yang, Jie Li, Yingxu Hao, Huashan Li, Wei Hou, Yuping Chu, Yu Bai, Xiaoqiang Jia, Jinwan Wang, Lin Shen, Ying Zhang, Jianbin Wang, Jianping Liu, Yufei Yang
Background: Chinese cancer patients often use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal medicine during or after active cancer treatments. However, little is known about how TCM herbal medicine impacts cancer outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the association between TCM herbal therapy and survival outcomes in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer. Methods: We conducted an eight-center prospective cohort study in China among patients who had undergone radical resection for stage II and III colorectal cancer...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139248/-post-marketing-safety-surveillance-of-diemailing-kudiezi-injection-real-world-study-in-30-233-cases
#5
Xing Liao, Dan-Dan Yu, Yan-Ming Xie, Yun-Ling Zhang, Yan He, Yin Zhang, Yan Liu, Dan-Hui Yi, Yong-Yan Wang
This study was aimed to obtain the incidence of adverse drug reaction (ADR) of Diemailing Kudiezi injection, explore its characteristics, related risk factors and application in real world. A prospective single cohort study was conducted from 25 hospitals (including Chinese medicine hospitals and Western medicine hospitals) for 4 years. 30 233 consecutive inpatients using Diemailing Kudiezi injection were observed. Their general information was analyzed by using statistic frequency description. Association rules were used to analyze the correlation between comorbidities or drug combinations; the influential factors for ADRs were initially screened by using cross contingency method and Chi-square test, and then Group LASSAO method was used for further analysis...
August 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138206/monitor-ic-study-a-mixed-methods-prospective-multicentre-controlled-cohort-study-assessing-5-year-outcomes-of-icu-survivors-and-related-healthcare-costs-a-study-protocol
#6
Wytske Geense, Marieke Zegers, Hester Vermeulen, Mark van den Boogaard, Johannes van der Hoeven
INTRODUCTION: Due to advances in critical care medicine, more patients survive their critical illness. However, intensive care unit (ICU) survivors often experience long-term physical, cognitive and mental problems, summarised as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), impacting their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In what frequency PICS occurs, and to what extent this influences ICU survivors' HRQoL, is mostly unknown. The aims of this study are therefore to study the: (1) 5-year patient outcomes, (2) predictors for PICS, (3) ratio between HRQoL of ICU survivors and healthcare-related costs, and (4) care and support needs...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138197/incidence-of-shoulder-dislocations-in-the-uk-1995-2015-a-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Anjali Shah, Andrew Judge, Antonella Delmestri, Katherine Edwards, Nigel K Arden, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Tim A Holt, Rafael A Pinedo-Villanueva, Sally Hopewell, Sarah E Lamb, Amar Rangan, Andrew J Carr, Gary S Collins, Jonathan L Rees
OBJECTIVE: This cohort study evaluates the unknown age-specific and gender-specific incidence of primary shoulder dislocations in the UK. SETTING: UK primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) were used to identify patients aged 16-70 years with a shoulder dislocation during 1995-2015. Coding of primary shoulder dislocations was validated using the CPRD general practitioner questionnaire service. PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 16 763 patients with shoulder dislocation aged 16-70 years during 1995-2015 were identified...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138035/defining-failed-induction-of-labor
#8
William A Grobman, Jennifer Bailit, Yinglei Lai, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, Michael W Varner, John M Thorp, Kenneth J Leveno, Steve N Caritis, Mona Prasad, Alan T N Tita, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin, Dwight J Rouse, Sean C Blackwell, Jorge E Tolosa
BACKGROUND: While there are well-accepted standards for the diagnosis of arrested active-phase labor, the definition of a "failed" induction of labor remains less certain. One approach to diagnosing a failed induction is based on the duration of the latent phase. However, a standard for the minimum duration that the latent phase of a labor induction should continue, absent acute maternal or fetal indications for cesarean delivery, remains lacking. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes as a function of the duration of the latent phase among nulliparous women undergoing labor induction...
November 11, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137835/venous-thromboembolism-risk-and-prophylaxis-in-the-portuguese-hospital-care-setting-the-arte-study
#9
Daniel Ferreira, Joaquim Abreu de Sousa, Paulo Felicíssimo, Ana França
INTRODUCTION: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a relatively common complication during hospital stay and determination of VTE risk is critical to choosing the best prophylactic strategy for each patient. OBJECTIVES: In the present study we studied the risk profile for VTE in hospitalized patients in a group of hospitals in Portugal. METHODS: Based on an open cohort of 4248 patients hospitalized in surgical, internal medicine, orthopedic or oncology departments, we determined thromboembolic risk at admission by applying a new score, modified from the Caprini and Khorana scores...
November 11, 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136713/-the-associations-between-adenosine-triphosphate-binding-cassette-subfamily-g-member-2-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-and-hyperuricemia-in-a-chinese-tertiary-hospital-faculty-cohort
#10
B Q Zhang, W G Fang, Y Zhang, S F Liu, X J Zeng
Objective: To investigate gender specific association between single nucleotide polymorphism rs2231142 and hyperuricemia. Method: A matched case-control study was conducted in a faculty cohort of a tertiary hospital in Beijing. The enrollment criteria were faculty member of the hospital with signed consent. The exclusion criteria were tumor, previous renal diseases, renal function damage, pregnancy, currently taking medicines that could increase or decrease serum uric acid level, and those who had gout. Males with serum uric acid>416...
November 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135851/the-impact-of-an-electronic-medication-administration-record-emar-and-computerized-physician-order-entry-cpoe-on-nurse-extender-and-unit-clerk-staffing
#11
Edmondo J Robinson, Meredith R Bergey, Elizabeth Brady, Alexandra M Mapp, Jennifer C Goldsack
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the impact of the introduction of health information technology (HIT) on the utilization and payroll costs of nurse extenders and unit clerks in medicine and surgery units in a large regional health system. BACKGROUND: Long-term policy goals of HIT implementation are reported to include system-level reductions in labor costs, achieved through improved efficiency. METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort model, we analyzed how hours worked per patient day and staffing costs per patient day varied with the implementation of HIT over time at 2 different hospitals within a health system...
December 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133491/exploring-attributes-of-high-value-primary-care
#12
Melora Simon, Niteesh K Choudhry, Jim Frankfort, David Margolius, Julia Murphy, Luis Paita, Thomas Wang, Arnold Milstein
PURPOSE: Medicare's merit-based incentive payment system and narrowing of physician networks by health insurers will stoke clinicians' and policy makers' interest in care delivery attributes associated with value as defined by payers. METHODS: To help define these attributes, we analyzed 2009 to 2011 commercial health insurance claims data for more than 40 million preferred provider organization patients attributed to over 53,000 primary care practice sites. We identified sites ranking favorably on both quality and low total annual per capita health care spending ("high-value") and sites ranking near the median ("average-value")...
November 2017: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133322/factors-contributing-to-medicine-related-problems-in-adult-patients-with-diabetes-and-or-cardiovascular-diseases-in-saudi-arabia-a-qualitative-study
#13
Abdullah Mahdi Al Hamid, Maisoon Ghaleb, Hisham Aljadhey, Zoe Aslanpour
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the factors contributing to medicine-related problems (MRPs) among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and/or diabetes in Saudi Arabia. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted. Interviews were audio recorded then transcribed into Microsoft Word. The transcribed interviews were then imported into the qualitative analysis software NVivo where thematic analysis was applied. Thematic synthesis was achieved by coding and developing subthemes/themes from the findings of the interviews...
November 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132478/treatment-for-symptomatic-bacterial-vaginosis-arandomized-controlled-trial
#14
Nabia Tariq, Ayesha Basharat, Danish Hassan Khan, Ammad Fahim, Mohammad Hisham Khan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of multiple doses of vaginal clindamycin with a single oral dose of secnidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Shifa Foundation Community Health Center, from March 2012 till February 2015. METHODOLOGY: After obtaining written informed consent, a pelvic examination was performed for the confirmation of symptoms of milky white vaginal discharge on speculum examination, positive Amine test and presence of clue cells on microscopy...
November 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132427/risk-of-falling-among-hospitalized-patients-with-high-modified-morse-scores-could-be-further-stratified
#15
Irina Gringauz, Yael Shemesh, Amir Dagan, Irina Israelov, Dana Feldman, Naama Pelz-Sinvani, Dan Justo, Gad Segal
BACKGROUND: Falls during hospitalization harbor both clinical and financial outcomes. The modified Morse fall scale [MMFS] is widely used for an in-hospital risk-of-fall assessment. Nevertheless, the majority of patients at risk of falling, i.e. with high MMFS, do not fall. The aim of this study was to ascertain our study hypothesis that certain patients' characteristics (e.g. serum electrolytes, usage of a walking device etc.) could further stratify the risk of falls among hospitalized patients with MMFS...
November 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132369/impact-of-pharmacist-led-medication-management-in-care-transitions
#16
Seungwon Yang
BACKGROUND: When patients are discharged from hospital to home, it is a highlighted vulnerable period for which medication - related problems are prevalent. Researchers have proposed a telephone follow-up intervention as a means to reduce hospital readmissions. However, the outcome of the intervention with the engagement of pharmacists in managing patients' medicines after discharge has not been well explored. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine whether a pharmacist telephone follow-up intervention focusing on patients' medicines management support is associated with a reduction in 30-day readmission rates and (2) to describe the number and types of pharmacist interventions in care transitions...
November 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129583/identification-of-atopic-dermatitis-subgroups-in-children-from-two-longitudinal-birth-cohorts
#17
Lavinia Paternoster, Olga E M Savenije, Jon Heron, David M Evans, Judith M Vonk, Bert Brunekreef, Alet H Wijga, A John Henderson, Gerard H Koppelman, Sara J Brown
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with variable natural history. Longitudinal birth cohort studies provide an opportunity to define subgroups based on disease trajectories, which may represent different genetic and environmental pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the existence of distinct longitudinal phenotypes of AD and test whether these findings are reproducible in two independent cohorts. METHODS: The presence of AD was examined in two birth cohort studies including 9,894 children from the UK (ALSPAC) and 3,652 from the Netherlands (PIAMA)...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129541/weight-gain-in-early-pregnancy-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-among-latinas
#18
T A Moore Simas, M E Waring, K Callaghan, K Leung, M Ward Harvey, A Buabbud, L Chasan-Taber
AIM: To evaluate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG) in early pregnancy and incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among Latinas. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 2039 Latinas using pooled data from two medical centres in Massachusetts. Gestational weights were abstracted from medical records and GWG was categorized as low, appropriate and excessive according to 2009 Institute of Medicine Guidelines...
November 9, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128525/respiratory-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-narrative-review-of-rehabilitation-techniques
#19
REVIEW
J Levy, H Prigent, D Bensmail
BACKGROUND: Respiratory disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) are an important issue. They can occur early during the course of the disease, are associated with the neurological impairment, and can lead to pneumonia and respiratory failure, which are the main causes of death in advanced MS. Prevailing impaired expiratory muscles and cough abilities has been demonstrated in this population and might constitute a specific target for rehabilitation interventions. However, international guidelines lack recommendations regarding respiratory rehabilitation in MS...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125004/impact-of-the-automated-dose-dispensing-with-medication-review-on-geriatric-primary-care-patients-drug-use-in-finland-a-nationwide-cohort-study-with-matched-controls
#20
Juha Sinnemäki, Marja Airaksinen, Maria Valaste, Leena K Saastamoinen
OBJECTIVE: In an automated dose dispensing (ADD) service, medicines are dispensed in unit-dose bags according to administration times. When the service is initiated, the patient's medication list is reconciled and a prescription review is conducted. The service is expected to reduce drug use. The aim of this national controlled study was to investigate whether the ADD service with medication review reduces drug use among geriatric primary care patients. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: This is a nationwide cohort study with matched controls...
November 10, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
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