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Kyoung-Whan Kim, Kyung-Jin Lee, Jairo Sinova, Hyun-Woo Lee, M D Stiles
We use a perturbative approach to study the effects of interfacial spin-orbit coupling in magnetic multilayers by treating the two-dimensional Rashba model in a fully three-dimensional description of electron transport near an interface. This formalism provides a compact analytic expression for current-induced spin-orbit torques in terms of unperturbed scattering coefficients, allowing computation of spin-orbit torques for various contexts, by simply substituting scattering coefficients into the formulas. It applies to calculations of spin-orbit torques for magnetic bilayers with bulk magnetism, those with interface magnetism, a normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator junction, and a topological insulator/ferromagnet junction...
September 2017: Physical Review. B
You-Shin No, Hong Kyw Choi, Jin-Soo Kim, Hakseong Kim, Young-Jun Yu, Choon-Gi Choi, Jin Sik Choi
Since the successful exfoliation of graphene, various methodologies have been developed to identify the number of layers of exfoliated graphene. The optical contrast, Raman G-peak intensity, and 2D-peak line-shape are currently widely used as the first level of inspection for graphene samples. Although the combination analysis of G- and 2D-peaks is powerful for exfoliated graphene samples, its use is limited in chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene because CVD-grown graphene consists of various domains with randomly rotated crystallographic axes between layers, which makes the G- and 2D-peaks analysis difficult for use in number identification...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Y-J Chen, Kh Zakeri, A Ernst, H J Qin, Y Meng, J Kirschner
Quantum confinement permits the existence of multiple terahertz magnon modes in atomically engineered ultrathin magnetic films and multilayers. By means of spin-polarized high-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we report on the direct experimental detection of all exchange-dominated terahertz confined magnon modes in a 3 ML Co film. We demonstrate that, by tuning the structural and magnetic properties of the Co film, through its epitaxial growth on different surfaces, e.g., Ir(001), Cu(001), and Pt(111), one can achieve entirely different in-plane magnon dispersions, characterized by positive and negative group velocities...
December 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Minghong Tang, Bingcheng Zhao, Weihua Zhu, Zhendong Zhu, Qingyuan Jin, Zongzhi Zhang
Dynamic magnetic properties in perpendicularly exchange-coupled [Co/Ni]5/Cu(tCu=0-2 nm)/TbCo structures show strong dependences on the interfacial AFM strength Jex controlled by the Cu interlayer thickness. The precession frequency f and effective damping constant αeff of [Co/Ni]5 multilayer differs distinctly for parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) magnetization orientation states. For samples with a thin tCu, f of AP state is apparently higher while αeff is lower than in P state, owing to the unidirectional exchange bias effect (HEB) from the TbCo layer...
January 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Zhang, Hao Ouyang, Xin Zheng, Jie You, Runze Chen, Tong Zhou, Yizhen Sui, Yu Liu, Xiang'ai Cheng, Tian Jiang
The newly raised two-dimensional material MoS2 is regarded as an ideal candidate for saturated absorbers. Here, the open-aperture Z-scan method is used to study the saturation absorption (SA) response of monolayer and multilayer MoS2, considering laser irradiation with different pulse widths. Specifically, in cases of 10 ns and 10 ps laser pulses, the accumulative nonlinearity [e.g., free carrier absorption (FCA)] coupled with SA is found in both monolayer and multilayer MoS2. However, under a 65 fs pulse laser, the instantaneous nonlinearity [e...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Xiujuan Zou, Gaige Zheng, Jiawei Cong, Linhua Xu, Yunyun Chen, Min Lai
A polarization-insensitive and angle-independent graphene absorber (GA) with periodically patterned grating is demonstrated. A periodic nanocavity composed of multilayer subwavelength grating and metal substrate supports a strongly localized mode inside the cavity, where the mode helps to absorb more electromagnetic waves. The proposed GA exhibits polarization-insensitive behavior and maintains the high absorption above 90% within a wide range of incident angle (more than 80°). We attribute the high absorption to the excitation of the cavity mode resonance and magnetic resonance for the transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations, respectively...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Maria Pawliszewska, Tadeusz Martynkien, Aleksandra Przewłoka, Jarosław Sotor
In this Letter, we demonstrate an all-fiber holmium-doped laser operating in the stretched-pulse regime. As a result of dispersion management, the laser is capable of generating 190 fs pulses with a bandwidth of 53.6 nm. The pulses centered at 2060 nm reach 2.55 nJ of energy. Mode-locking is achieved with a multilayer graphene saturable absorber (SA). The Letter also presents the measurement of group velocity dispersion of active (Nufern SM-HDF-10/130), passive (SMF28), and dispersion-compensating (Nufern UHNA4) fibers in a 1...
January 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Viktória Csajbók, Zsolt Bedőházi, Benedek J Nagy, Péter Dombi
Laser-induced damage threshold is a fundamental figure of merit of femtosecond optical components used in large-scale laser systems. We tested a series of ultrafast mirrors featuring high band-gap dielectric materials as well as improved design and coating techniques. In a broad range of the damage test pulse train involving between 10 and 100,000 pulses (40 fs, 800 nm), pure dielectric high reflectors exhibit around 1.5  J/cm2 and hybrid Ag-multilayer mirrors can exhibit well above 1.2  J/cm2 damage threshold...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Kun Zhou, Qiang Cheng, Jinlin Song, Lu Lu, Zhihao Jia, Junwei Li
We numerically investigate the broadband perfect infrared absorption by tuning epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and epsilon-near-pole (ENP) resonances of multilayer indium tin oxide nanowires (ITO NWs). The monolayer ITO NWs array shows intensive absorption at ENZ and ENP wavelengths for p polarization, while only at the ENP wavelength for s polarization. Moreover, the ENP resonances are almost omnidirectional and the ENZ resonances are angularly dependent. Therefore, the absorption bandwidth is broader for p polarization than that for s polarization when polarized waves are incident obliquely...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Seong Soo Yoo, Gwan H Choi, Wooseop Lee, Juhyun Park, Gi-Ra Yi, Du Yeol Ryu, Pil J Yoo
Wrinkling is a well-known example of instability-driven surface deformation that occurs when the accumulated compressive stress exceeds the critical value in multilayered systems. A number of studies have investigated the instability conditions and the corresponding mechanisms of wrinkling deformation. Force balance analysis of bilayer systems, in which the thickness of the capping layer is importantly considered, has offered a useful approach for the quantitative understanding of wrinkling. However, it is inappropriate for multilayer wrinkling (layer number > 3) consisting of heterogeneous materials (e...
January 12, 2018: Soft Matter
Wenbo Xin, Igor M De Rosa, Peiyi Ye, Joseph Severino, Chao Li, Xunqian Yin, Mark S Goorsky, Larry Carlson, Jenn-Ming Yang
Assembling Au nanocrystals with tunable dimensions and shapes on graphene templates has attracted increasing attention recently. However, directly growing anisotropic Au nanobelts on a graphene support has been rarely reported. Here, a facile, one-pot, and surfactant-free route is demonstrated to synthesize well-defined Au nanobelts with the induction of a multilayer graphene (mlG) template. The obtained Au nanobelts are single-crystalline with a preferable (111) orientation. More importantly, their structural evolution starting from Au clusters is systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
January 11, 2018: Nanoscale
Bo Wu, Guangming Liu, Guangzhao Zhang, Vincent S J Craig
Colloidal interactions have been characterised using both osmotic stress and surface forces. Here these methods are employed concurrently to measure the interaction forces of polyelectrolyte multilayers that when cross-linked form a dextran impermeable membrane. The force data, corrected for the thickness of the polyelectrolyte multilayer film, has been expressed as pressure versus separation enabling the interaction from osmotic stress measurements to be compared to the measured interaction from the colloid probe technique...
January 11, 2018: Soft Matter
Sérgio Timóteo, Marta Correia, Susana Rodríguez-Echeverría, Helena Freitas, Ruben Heleno
Species interaction networks are traditionally explored as discrete entities with well-defined spatial borders, an oversimplification likely impairing their applicability. Using a multilayer network approach, explicitly accounting for inter-habitat connectivity, we investigate the spatial structure of seed-dispersal networks across the Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique. We show that the overall seed-dispersal network is composed by spatially explicit communities of dispersers spanning across habitats, functionally linking the landscape mosaic...
January 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Teneema Kuriakose, Min Zheng, Geoffrey Neale, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Innate immune sensing of influenza A virus (IAV) induces activation of various immune effector mechanisms, including the nucleotide and oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing protein family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and programmed cell death pathways. Although type I IFNs are identified as key mediators of inflammatory and cell death responses during IAV infection, the involvement of various IFN-regulated effectors in facilitating these responses are less studied. In this study, we demonstrate the role of IFN regulatory factor (IRF)1 in promoting NLRP3 inflammasome activation and cell death during IAV infection...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Douguo Zhang, Yifeng Xiang, Junxue Chen, Junjie Cheng, Liangfu Zhu, Ruxue Wang, Gang Zou, Pei Wang, Hai Ming, Mary Rosenfeld, Ramachandram Badugu, Joseph R Lakowicz
Chemical-synthesized silver nanowires have been proven as an efficient architecture for plasmonic waveguides, but the high propagation loss prevents their widely applications. Here, we demonstrate that the propagation distance of the plasmons along a silver nanowire can be extended if this nanowire was placed on a dielectric multilayer substrate containing a photonic band gap but not placed on a commonly used glass substrate. The propagation distance at 630 nm wavelength can reach 16 μm, even when the silver nanowire is as thin as 90 nm in diameter...
January 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Pegah Kharazmi, Jiannan Zheng, Harvey Lui, Z Jane Wang, Tim K Lee
Vascular structures of skin are important biomarkers in diagnosis and assessment of cutaneous conditions. Presence and distribution of lesional vessels are associated with specific abnormalities. Therefore, detection and localization of cutaneous vessels provide critical information towards diagnosis and stage status of diseases. However, cutaneous vessels are highly variable in shape, size, color and architecture, which complicate the detection task. Considering the large variability of these structures, conventional vessel detection techniques lack the generalizability to detect different vessel types and require separate algorithms to be designed for each type...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Zhi Chang, Bing Ding, Hui Dou, Jie Wang, Guiyin Xu, Xiaogang Zhang
As one of the most promising energy storage devices, the practical application of lithium-sulfur batteries is limited by the low electrical conductivity of sulfur and the notable "shuttle effects" of sulfur-based electrodes. In this work, we describe a hierarchically porous N-doped ZIF-8-derived carbon nanosphere (N-ZDC) with an outer shell and an inner honeycomb-like interconnected nanosheets network as sulfur host material for high-performance and long-term lithium-sulfur batteries. The N-ZDC serves as multilayered barriers against the dissolution of lithium polysulfides...
January 9, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Wanting Xie, Sirimuvva Tadepalli, Sang Hyun Park, Amir Kazemi-Moridani, Qisheng Jiang, Srikanth Singamaneni, Jae-Hwang Lee
Biological materials have the ability to withstand mechanical forces due to their unique multilevel hierarchical structure. Here, we fabricated a nacre-mimetic nanocomposite comprised of silk fibroin and graphene oxide that exhibits hybridized dynamic responses arising from alternating high-contrast mechanical properties of the components at the nanoscale. Dynamic mechanical behavior of these nanocomposites is assessed through a micro-scale ballistic characterization using a 7.6 µm diameter silica sphere moving at a speed of approximately 400 m/s...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
Takanori Sobue, Martinna Bertolini, Angela Thompson, Douglas E Peterson, Patricia I Diaz, Anna Dongari-Bagtzoglou
Oral mucositis is a common side effect of cancer chemotherapy, with significant adverse impact on the delivery of anti-neoplastic treatment. There is lack of consensus regarding the role of oral commensal microorganisms in the initiation or progression of mucositis since relevant experimental models are non-existent. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro mucosal injury model that mimics chemotherapy-induced mucositis, where the effect of oral commensals can be studied. A novel organotypic model of chemotherapy-induced mucositis was developed based on a human oral epithelial cell line and a fibroblast-embedded collagen matrix...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Oral Microbiology
Sophie de Vries, Jan de Vries, Hendrik Teschke, Janina K von Dahlen, Laura E Rose, Sven B Gould
Plants sense and respond to microbes utilizing a multilayered signalling cascade. In seed plants, the phytohormones jasmonic and salicylic acid (JA and SA) are key denominators of how plants respond to certain microbes. Their interplay is especially well-known for tipping the scales in plants' strategies of dealing with phytopathogens. In non-seed plant lineages, the interplay is less well understood, but current data indicates that it is intertwined to a lesser extent and the canonical JA/SA antagonism appears to be absent...
January 3, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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