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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927896/niacin-and-heart-disease-prevention-engraving-its-tombstone-is-a-mistake
#1
REVIEW
Harold Robert Superko, Xue-Qiao Zhao, Howard N Hodis, John R Guyton
Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904727/post-ivermectin-encephalopathy-in-senegal-a-case-report
#2
Daniel Gams Massi, Mohamed Lelouma Mansare, Mariétou Traoré, Moustapha Ndiaye, Amadou Gallo Diop, Mouhamadou Mansour Ndiaye
Ivermectin is an ant parasitic drug used for combating onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. It works by inhibiting the function of neurons and muscles, thus causing paralysis of microfilariae. Side effects of this drug have been reported including post-ivermectin encephalopathy requiring emergency care in hospital. We report the case of a 35 years old patient living in rural areas of Senegal who presented two days after a mistake in administration of a second dose of ivermectin, headaches, altered consciousness and bilateral blindness...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900073/-molecular-mechanisms-of-hiv-1-genetic-diversity
#3
D V Sosin, N A Tchurikov
High genetic diversity of HIV-1 is the main factor behind the fact that HIV infection is widespread and difficult to treat. Although a limited number (or only one) of virus particles enters the blood upon infection, the particles are replicated in infected cells and rapidly produce new genetic variants that are resistant to the host immune system and antiretroviral drugs. This circumstance hampers the development of anti-HIV-1 vaccines and requires new antiretroviral drugs to be designed. The cause of the high variation of HIV-1 is related to the properties of its reverse transcriptase, which is error prone and often makes mistakes when transcribing virus RNA...
July 2017: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893010/evaluation-of-the-potency-of-kinetin-on-radiation-induced-behavioural-changes-in-swiss-albino-mice
#4
Vishakh Radhakrishna, Suchetha Kumari Nanilu, Ganesh Sanjeev, Jayarama Shetty, Yogish Tenkanidiyoor Somyaji, Shailaja Shivarama Moodithaya
INTRODUCTION: According to the various independent studies conducted, it is well evident fact that radiation induces oxidative stress in the living system. It is also proved that this oxidative stress will lead to the various behavioural changes such as anxiety and memory impairment. Kinetin is one of the important plant cytokine with anti-aging properties. However, very few studies were conducted to check its potential in ameliorating the behavioural changes induced by the ionizing radiation...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878928/evaluation-of-a-guided-continuous-quality-improvement-program-in-community-pharmacies
#5
Chanadda Chinthammit, Michael T Rupp, Edward P Armstrong, Tara Modisett, Rebecca P Snead, Terri L Warholak
BACKGROUND: The importance of creating and sustaining a strong culture of patient safety has been recognized as a critical component of safe medication use. This study aims to assess changes in attitudes toward patient safety culture and frequency of quality-related event (QRE) reporting after guided implementation of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) program in a panel of community pharmacies in the United States (U.S.). METHODS: Twenty-one community pharmacies volunteered to participate in the project and were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870178/using-total-quality-management-approach-to-improve-patient-safety-by-preventing-medication-error-incidences
#6
Nadin Yousef, Farah Yousef
BACKGROUND: Whereas one of the predominant causes of medication errors is a drug administration error, a previous study related to our investigations and reviews estimated that the incidences of medication errors constituted 6.7 out of 100 administrated medication doses. Therefore, we aimed by using six sigma approach to propose a way that reduces these errors to become less than 1 out of 100 administrated medication doses by improving healthcare professional education and clearer handwritten prescriptions...
September 4, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858089/adherence-tolerability-and-outcome-after-36-months-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-in-2-rural-clinics-of-swaziland-a-prospective-observational-feasibility-study
#7
MULTICENTER STUDY
Yolanda Mueller, Qhubekani Mpala, Bernhard Kerschberger, Barbara Rusch, Gugu Mchunu, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Maryline Bonnet
Although efficacy of 36 months isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) among HIV-positive individuals has been proven in trial settings, outcome, tolerance, and adherence have rarely been evaluated in real-life settings.This is a prospective observational cohort study conducted in 2 primary care rural clinics in Swaziland.After negative tuberculosis symptom screening, patients either with the positive tuberculin skin test (TST) or after tuberculosis treatment were initiated on IPT for 144 weeks. In addition to routine clinic visits, adherence was assessed every semester...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836267/when-and-how-can-real-world-data-analyses-substitute-for-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
Jessica M Franklin, Sebastian Schneeweiss
Regulators consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs) as the gold standard for evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medications, but their costs, duration, and limited generalizability have caused some to look for alternatives. Real world evidence based on data collected outside of RCTs, such as registries and longitudinal healthcare databases, can sometimes substitute for RCTs, but concerns about validity have limited their impact. Greater reliance on such real world data (RWD) in regulatory decision-making requires understanding why some studies fail while others succeed in producing results similar to RCTs...
August 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774365/-neurocognitive-function-of-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-and-long-term-disease-free-survival-and-related-influencing-factors
#9
Xiao-Yan Fu, Xiao-Tian Xie, Yan Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neurocognitive function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and long-term disease-free survival and related influencing factors. METHODS: A total of 40 ALL children with long-term disease-free survival were enrolled as study group, and 40 healthy children were enrolled as control group. The Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC), continuous performance test (CPT), and Stroop test software were used for the evaluation of all children...
August 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762658/do-antiemetic-drugs-benefit-adult-emergency-department-patients-with-nausea-the-literature-says-no-but-is-it-right
#10
Robert Meek, Andis Graudins
Nausea is a common problem in ED patients. Antiemetic drugs have been used in the ED for decades, but a recent Cochrane review found no convincing evidence for the benefit of antiemetic drugs over placebo. This was largely based on three placebo-controlled trials, which found mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) changes for various drugs and placebo, to be similar. However, reliance on mean VAS change as the primary outcome measure has probably been a mistake. It does not give information on the number of improved patients, so these cannot be compared between groups...
August 1, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739577/common-pitfalls-and-mistakes-in-the-set-up-analysis-and-interpretation-of-results-in-network-meta-analysis-what-clinicians-should-look-for-in-a-published-article
#11
Anna Chaimani, Georgia Salanti, Stefan Leucht, John R Geddes, Andrea Cipriani
OBJECTIVE: Several tools have been developed to evaluate the extent to which the findings from a network meta-analysis would be valid; however, applying these tools is a time-consuming task and often requires specific expertise. Clinicians have little time for critical appraisal, and they need to understand the key elements that help them select network meta-analyses that deserve further attention, optimising time and resources. This paper is aimed at providing a practical framework to assess the methodological robustness and reliability of results from network meta-analysis...
July 24, 2017: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732821/optimizing-inhalation-technique-using-web-based-videos-in-obstructive-lung-diseases
#12
Tobias Müller, Annegret Müller, Christian Hübel, Verena Knipel, Wolfram Windisch, Christian Gabriel Cornelissen, Michael Dreher
BACKGROUND: Inhaled agents are widely used in the treatment of chronic airway diseases. Correct technique is required to ensure appropriate drug deposition, but poor technique is common. This study investigated whether inhalation technique could be improved by patient training using short videos from the German Airway League. METHODS: Outpatients from a university hospital respiratory clinic who had incorrect inhalation technique were asked to demonstrate this again immediately after viewing the training videos, and after 4-8 weeks' follow-up...
August 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721759/menopause-symptoms-can-fool-women-into-quitting-cancer-drugs
#13
(no author information available yet)
Women are mistaking menopause symptoms for side effects of potentially lifesaving breast cancer drugs, causing them to stop treatment.
July 19, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718394/multiple-possible-inaccuracies-cast-doubt-on-a-recent-report-suggesting-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-to-be-toxic-and-ineffective
#14
Fredrik Hieronymus, Alexander Lisinski, Jakob Näslund, Elias Eriksson
According to a systematic review on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult depression that was recently published in BMC Psychiatry, the results of which have been widely disseminated in lay media, these drugs increase the risk for serious adverse events (SAEs) while exerting poor antidepressant efficacy. A cursory analysis, however, suggests the analysis of SAEs conducted by the authors to be marred by both methodological inaccuracies and blatant errors. After having corrected for these apparent mistakes, we conducted a sensitivity analysis in which we also accounted for a possible moderating effect of age; while this suggests SSRIs to be safe drugs in the non-elderly, they do confirm what is already known, that is, that they may enhance the risk for SAEs in the old...
July 18, 2017: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544857/new-treatment-directions-for-ipf-current-status-of-ongoing-and-upcoming-clinical-trials
#15
Francesco Macagno, Francesco Varone, Paolo Maria Leone, Pier-Valerio Mari, Loredana Panico, Ludovica Berardini, Luca Richeldi
The main objective of this review is to explore the wide and expanding field of new clinical trials in IPF. Recent trials have confirmed the efficacy of the approved drugs pirfenidone and nintedanib; nonetheless, the discovery of new biological pathways has opened new horizons in this field. Areas covered: New strategies against matrix deposition are under study and so is for the role of immunity and autoimmunity. Recent advances in the use of stem cells are opening new possibilities for the recovery of damaged lung tissues...
July 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523298/role-of-genetic-polymorphism-in-nutritional-supplementation-therapy-in-personalized-medicine
#16
Nicolae Ovidiu Peneş, Bernard Weber, Silviu Dumitru Păun
Genetic-guided nutritional supplementation therapy in personalized medicine is the type of treatment that prevents and acts against errors during the copying process of a cell's deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), mistakes that lead to diversification in the DNA sequence at certain locations, called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Positive results are quickly achieved using one of the four types of therapy. These types are: personalized, when individual human genetic variations drive individual treatment, preventive, with a tailored healthcare strategy and therapeutic preventive drugs and vaccines, participatory, when empowered patients make informed choices and take responsibility of their own health and predictive, using a proactive approach to health and medicine...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504508/-mistakes-in-drug-prescription-during-simulated-pediatric-resuscitations-and-other-urgency-procedures
#17
Diego Enriquez, Raúl Gómez Traverso, Silvina Brizuela, Edgardo Szyld
INTRODUCTION: The probability of making mistakes in the prescription of medicines is high in pediatrics, and substantially increases in emergency situations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This prospective observational study analyzed the prescriptions issued by physicians during 23 cardiopulmonary resuscitation pediatric emergency training sessions. RESULTS: During 94 simulated cases, 96 physicians participated. Forty-four prescriptions on paper were analyzed (48%) including 120 doses...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393967/-errors-in-prescriptions-and-their-preparation-at-the-outpatient-pharmacy-of-a-regional-hospital
#18
Carolina Alvarado A, Ximena Ossa G, Luis Bustos M
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of medications are an important cause of morbidity and hospital admissions. Errors in prescription or preparation of medications by pharmacy personnel are a factor that may influence these occurrence of the adverse effects Aim: To assess the frequency and type of errors in prescriptions and in their preparation at the pharmacy unit of a regional public hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prescriptions received by ambulatory patients and those being discharged from the hospital, were reviewed using a 12-item checklist...
January 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357835/identification-of-world-health-organisation-ship-s-medicine-chest-contents-by-anatomical-therapeutic-chemical-atc-classification-codes
#19
Seyed Khorsow Tayebati, Giulio Nittari, Syed Sarosh Mahdi, Nicholas Ioannidis, Fabio Sibilio, Francesco Amenta
BACKGROUND: Ships should carry mandatory given amounts of medicinal products and basic first aid items, collectively known as the ship's medicine chest. Type and quantities of these products/items are suggested by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and regulated by individual flag states. In countries that lack national legislation, it is assumed that ships should follow WHO indications. An objective difficulty mainly involving vessels of international long-haul routes could be to recognise medicinal compounds obtained in other countries for replacing products used or expired...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352924/-abomasal-ulcers-in-cattle
#20
Alexandra Hund, Thomas Wittek
Abomasal ulcers lead to several problems. They cause pain resulting in a decrease in productivity and even the possible loss of the animal. Because they are frequently difficult to diagnose, information on their prevalence is variable. Additionally, therapeutic options are limited. Abomasal ulcers are graded as type 1 through 4, type 1 being a superficial defect and type 2 an ulcer where a large blood vessel has been eroded, leading to substantial blood loss. Types 3 and 4 are perforated abomasal ulcers leading to local and diffuse peritonitis, respectively...
April 19, 2017: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
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