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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29928197/inhibiting-basal-ganglia-regions-reduces-syllable-sequencing-errors-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-computer-simulation-study
#1
Valentin Senft, Terrence C Stewart, Trevor Bekolay, Chris Eliasmith, Bernd J Kröger
Background: Parkinson's disease affects many motor processes including speech. Besides drug treatment, deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) has developed as an effective therapy. Goal: We present a neural model that simulates a syllable repetition task and evaluate its performance when varying the level of dopamine in the striatum, and the level of activity reduction in the STN or GPi. Method: The Neural Engineering Framework (NEF) is used to build a model of syllable sequencing through a cortico-basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922968/clinical-pharmacist-interventions-in-managing-drug-related-problems-in-hospitalized-patients-with-neurological-diseases
#2
Mostafa A Sayed Ali, Eman Mohamed Hussein Khedr, Fatma Alzahraa Hassan Ahmed, Nada Nasr Eldin Mohamed
Background Drug-related problems (DRPs) are common in hospitalized patients with neurological diseases. Clinical pharmacy services could minimize drug-related harm and improve patient care. Objective To identify common DRPs in neurology and document clinical pharmacists' medication-related interventions. Setting The wards and intensive care unit of the Department of Neurology at Assiut University Hospital. Method Prospective study of clinical pharmacists' interventions during the routine care work of reviewing patients medical charts over a period of 6 months from January to June 2017...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922217/alcohol-use-and-alcohol-related-seizures-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#3
Michael Hamerle, Leyli Ghaeni, Alexander Kowski, Florian Weissinger, Martin Holtkamp
Purpose: This study aimed to assess alcohol consumption and the occurrence of alcohol-related seizures in patients with epilepsy within the last 12 months. Methods: In an epilepsy outpatient clinic, a standardized questionnaire was used to collect data retrospectively from consecutive adult epilepsy patients who had been suffering from the disease for at least 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent predictors. Results: A total of 310 patients with epilepsy were included...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920532/different-effects-of-propofol-and-dexmedetomidine-sedation-on-electroencephalogram-patterns-wakefulness-moderate-sedation-deep-sedation-and-recovery
#4
Chunhua Xi, Shiyue Sun, Chuxiong Pan, Fang Ji, Xu Cui, Tianzuo Li
Sedation induces changes in electroencephalography (EEG) dynamics. However, the distinct EEG dynamic characteristics at comparable sedation levels have not been well studied, resulting in potential interpretation errors in EEG monitoring during sedation. We aimed to analyze the EEG dynamics of dexmedetomidine and propofol at comparable sedation levels and to explore EEG changes with increased sedation levels for each agent. We measured the Bispectral Index (BIS) and 20-channel EEG under dexmedetomidine and propofol sedation from wakefulness, moderate sedation, and deep sedation to recovery in healthy volunteers (n = 10) in a randomized, 2-day, crossover study...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916770/investigation-of-subdural-electrode-displacement-in-invasive-epilepsy-surgery-workup-using-neuronavigation-and-intraoperative-mri
#5
Bjoern Sommer, Stefan Rampp, Arnd Doerfler, Hermann Stefan, Hajo M Hamer, Michael Buchfelder, Karl Roessler
OBJECTIVES: One of the main obstacles of electrode implantation in epilepsy surgery is the electrode shift between implantation and the day of explantation. We evaluated this possible electrode displacement using intraoperative MRI (iopMRI) data and CT/MRI reconstruction. METHODS: Thirteen patients (nine female, four male, median age 26 ± 9.4 years) suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy were examined. After implantation, the position of subdural electrodes was evaluated by 3...
June 19, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915870/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-pharmacist-interventions-in-paediatric-hospital-patients
#6
REVIEW
Aaron Drovandi, Kelvin Robertson, Matthew Tucker, Niechole Robinson, Stephen Perks, Therése Kairuz
Clinical pharmacists provide beneficial services to adult patients, though their benefits for paediatric hospital patients are less defined. Five databases were searched using the MeSH terms 'clinical pharmacist', 'paediatric/paediatric', 'hospital', and 'intervention' for studies with paediatric patients conducted in hospital settings, and described pharmacist-initiated interventions, published between January 2000 and October 2017. The search strategy after full-text review identified 12 articles matching the eligibility criteria...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915131/medication-safety-principles-and-practice-in-ckd
#7
Chanel F Whittaker, Margaret A Miklich, Roshni S Patel, Jeffrey C Fink
Ensuring patient safety is a priority of medical care because iatrogenic injury has been a primary concern. Medications are an important source of medical errors, and kidney disease is a thoroughfare of factors threatening safe administration of medicines. Principal among these is reduced kidney function because almost half of all medications used are eliminated via the kidney. Additionally, kidney patients often suffer from multimorbidity, including diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure, with a range of prescribers who often do not coordinate treatments...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913140/enhanced-precision-of-circular-dichroism-spectral-measurements-permits-detection-of-subtle-higher-order-structural-changes-in-therapeutic-proteins
#8
Gregory V Barnett, Gurusamy Balakrishnan, Naresh Chennamsetty, Brent Meengs, Jeffery Meyer, Jacob Bongers, Richard Ludwig, Li Tao, Tapan K Das, Anthony Leone, Sambit R Kar
Protein higher order structure (HOS) is an essential quality attribute to ensure protein stability and its proper biological function. Protein HOS characterization is performed during comparability assessments for product consistency as well as during forced degradation studies for structural alteration upon stress. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy is a widely used technique for measuring protein HOS, but it remains difficult to assess HOS with a high degree of accuracy and precision. Moreover, once spectral changes are detected, interpreting the differences in terms of specific structural attributes is challenging...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912272/evaluating-statistical-approaches-to-leverage-large-clinical-datasets-for-uncovering-therapeutic-and-adverse-medication-effects
#9
Leena Choi, Robert J Carroll, Cole Beck, Jonathan D Mosley, Dan M Roden, Joshua C Denny, Sara L Van Driest
Motivation: Phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS) have been used to discover many genotype-phenotype relationships and have the potential to identify therapeutic and adverse drug outcomes using longitudinal data within electronic health records (EHRs). However, the statistical methods for PheWAS applied to longitudinal EHR medication data have not been established. Results: In this study, we developed methods to address two challenges faced with reuse of EHR for this purpose: confounding by indication, and low exposure and event rates...
April 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910545/medication-errors-in-the-emergency-department-knowledge-attitude-behavior-and-training-needs-of-nurses
#10
Emanuele Di Simone, Noemi Giannetta, Flavia Auddino, Antonio Cicotto, Deborah Grilli, Marco Di Muzio
Aim: The aim was to describe which elements of nurses' knowledge, training needs, behavior, and attitude can prevent Medication errors (Acronym MEs) in the emergency department during all steps of the administration of intravenous (IV) medications. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire made up of 43 items has been drafted and delivered to a sample of 103 nurses of a university hospital in Rome. The study has been supported by specific literature review. Results: Majority of the sample (94%) answered that topics related to the preparation and administration of IV medications were covered during the basic course while 63...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909305/the-association-of-duration-and-severity-of-disease-with-executive-function-differences-between-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-bipolar-and-unipolar-depression
#11
Tao Yang, Guoqing Zhao, Ruizhi Mao, Jia Huang, Xianrong Xu, Yousong Su, Na Zhu, Rubai Zhou, Xiao Lin, Weiping Xia, Fan Wang, Rui Liu, Xing Wang, Zhijia Huang, Yong Wang, Yingyan Hu, Lan Cao, Chengmei Yuan, Zuowei Wang, Raymond W Lam, Jun Chen, Yiru Fang
BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in executive function and the relationship with clinical factors between drug-naïve patients with bipolar depression (BDD) and unipolar depression (UPD). METHODS: Drug-naïve patients with BDD, UPD and healthy controls (HC) were recruited (30 cases in each group). All patients were assessed with Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HAM-D), and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS)...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906414/guide-rna-selection-for-crispr-cas9-transfections-in-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Jose M Ribeiro, Meera Garriga, Nicole Potchen, Anna K Crater, Ankit Gupta, Daisuke Ito, Sanjay A Desai
CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing is addressing key limitations in the transfection of malaria parasites. While this method has already simplified the needed molecular cloning and reduced the time required to generate mutants in the human pathogen Plasmodium falciparum, optimal selection of required guide RNAs and guidelines for successful transfections have not been well characterized, leading workers to use time-consuming trial and error approaches. We used a genome-wide computational approach to create a comprehensive and publicly accessible database of possible guide RNA sequences in the P...
June 12, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906305/pilot-evaluation-of-home-delivery-programme-in-haemophilia
#13
J E Megías-Vericat, E Monte-Boquet, M Martín-Cerezuela, M J Cuéllar-Monreal, M V Tarazona-Casany, P Pérez-Huertas, S Bonanad, J L Poveda-Andrés
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVES: Most of the clotting factor (CF) dispensations to haemophiliac patients are centralized in a few haemophilia treatment centres, necessitating frequent visits and long travel distances. The aim was to evaluate the home delivery programme developed by the Outpatient Pharmaceutical Care Unit (OPCU) through the association of patients (ASHECOVA). METHODS: A specific software programme was designed to communicate the individual CF requirements...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906283/classification-of-red-blood-cell-shapes-in-flow-using-outlier-tolerant-machine-learning
#14
Alexander Kihm, Lars Kaestner, Christian Wagner, Stephan Quint
The manual evaluation, classification and counting of biological objects demands for an enormous expenditure of time and subjective human input may be a source of error. Investigating the shape of red blood cells (RBCs) in microcapillary Poiseuille flow, we overcome this drawback by introducing a convolutional neural regression network for an automatic, outlier tolerant shape classification. From our experiments we expect two stable geometries: the so-called 'slipper' and 'croissant' shapes depending on the prevailing flow conditions and the cell-intrinsic parameters...
June 15, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906261/a-complete-high-quality-minion-nanopore-assembly-of-an-extensively-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-beijing-lineage-strain-identifies-novel-variation-in-repetitive-pe-ppe-gene-regions
#15
Arnold Bainomugisa, Tania Duarte, Evelyn Lavu, Sushil Pandey, Chris Coulter, Ben J Marais, Lachlan M Coin
A better understanding of the genomic changes that facilitate the emergence and spread of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains is currently required. Here, we report the use of the MinION nanopore sequencer (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) to sequence and assemble an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) isolate, which is part of a modern Beijing sub-lineage strain, prevalent in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Using 238-fold coverage obtained from a single flow-cell, de novo assembly of nanopore reads resulted into one contiguous assembly with 99...
June 15, 2018: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905525/ultrasound-guided-spinal-stereotactic-system-for-intraspinal-implants
#16
Amirali Toossi, Dirk G Everaert, Peter Seres, Jacob L Jaremko, Kevin Robinson, C Chris Kao, Peter E Konrad, Vivian K Mushahwar
OBJECTIVE The overall goal of this study was to develop an image-guided spinal stereotactic setup for intraoperative intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS). System requirements were as follows: 1) ability to place implants in various segments of the spinal cord, targeting the gray matter with a < 0.5-mm error; 2) modularity; and 3) compatibility with standard surgical tools. METHODS A spine-mounted stereotactic system was developed, optimized, and tested in pigs. The system consists of a platform supporting a micromanipulator with 6 degrees of freedom...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904017/a-parallel-software-pipeline-for-dmet-microarray-genotyping-data-analysis
#17
Giuseppe Agapito, Pietro Hiram Guzzi, Mario Cannataro
Personalized medicine is an aspect of the P4 medicine (predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory) based precisely on the customization of all medical characters of each subject. In personalized medicine, the development of medical treatments and drugs is tailored to the individual characteristics and needs of each subject, according to the study of diseases at different scales from genotype to phenotype scale. To make concrete the goal of personalized medicine, it is necessary to employ high-throughput methodologies such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), Mass Spectrometry or Microarrays, that are able to investigate a single disease from a broader perspective...
June 14, 2018: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898901/investigation-of-the-accuracy-of-18-marketed-blood-glucose-monitors
#18
David C Klonoff, Joan Lee Parkes, Boris P Kovatchev, David Kerr, Wendy C Bevier, Ronald L Brazg, Mark Christiansen, Timothy S Bailey, James H Nichols, Michael A Kohn
OBJECTIVE: Cleared blood glucose monitor systems (BGMs) for personal use may not always deliver levels of accuracy currently specified by international and U.S. regulatory bodies. This study's objective was to assess the accuracy of 18 such systems cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration representing approximately 90% of commercially available systems used from 2013 to 2015. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 1,035 subjects were recruited to have a capillary blood glucose (BG) level measured on six different systems and a reference capillary sample prepared for plasma testing at a reference laboratory...
June 13, 2018: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897629/phenobarbital-population-pharmacokinetics-across-the-pediatric-age-spectrum
#19
Brady S Moffett, Mindl M Weingarten, Marianne Galati, Jennifer L Placencia, Emily A Rodman, James J Riviello, Simon Y Kayyal
OBJECTIVE: Phenobarbital is frequently used in pediatric patients for treatment and prophylaxis of seizures. Pharmacokinetic data for this patient population is lacking and would assist in dosing decisions. METHODS: A retrospective population pharmacokinetic analysis was designed for all pediatric patients <19 years of age initiated on phenobarbital at our institution from January 2011 to June 2017. Patients were included if they were initiated on intravenous or enteral phenobarbital for treatment or prophylaxis of seizures and had a serum phenobarbital concentration monitored while an inpatient...
June 13, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897275/editor-s-choice-diuretic-resistance-in-acute-heart-failure
#20
Frederik H Verbrugge
Diuretic resistance is a powerful predictor of adverse outcome in acute heart failure (AHF), irrespectively of underlying glomerular filtration rate. Metrics of diuretic efficacy such as natriuresis, urine output, weight loss, net fluid balance, or fractional sodium excretion, differ in their risk for measurement error, convenience, and biological plausibility, which should be taken into account when interpreting their results. Loop diuretic resistance in AHF has multiple causes including altered drug pharmacokinetics, impaired renal perfusion and effective circulatory volume, neurohumoral activation, post-diuretic sodium retention, the braking phenomenon and functional as well as structural adaptations in the nephron...
June 2018: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
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