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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936138/diffusion-based-design-of-multi-layered-ophthalmic-lenses-for-controlled-drug-release
#1
Andreia F R Pimenta, Ana Paula Serro, Patrizia Paradiso, Benilde Saramago, Rogério Colaço
The study of ocular drug delivery systems has been one of the most covered topics in drug delivery research. One potential drug carrier solution is the use of materials that are already commercially available in ophthalmic lenses for the correction of refractive errors. In this study, we present a diffusion-based mathematical model in which the parameters can be adjusted based on experimental results obtained under controlled conditions. The model allows for the design of multi-layered therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for controlled drug delivery...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933555/pharmacist-s-comprehensive-geriatric-assessment-introduction-and-evaluation-at-elderly-patient-admission
#2
Faiza Rhalimi, Mounir Rhalimi, Alain Rauss
BACKGROUND: The role of the clinical pharmacist within the healthcare system remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to describe a pharmacist's comprehensive geriatric assessment (pCGA) at admission of elderly patients and to assess its relevance in terms of medication compliance and pharmacist interventions (PIs). METHODS: We conducted a prospective interventional study over 29 months in a 34-bed medical/rehabilitation geriatric ward in a French geriatric hospital...
December 8, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933156/improving-the-accuracy-of-electronic-prescribing-in-west-bay-health-center-in-qatar
#3
Wafaa Yousuf, Sheren Elkomy, Mona Soliman, Noof Al-Mansouri, Mohamed Salem, Amal Al-Ali, Mohamed H Mahmoud, Hisham Elmahdi
Primary healthcare in Qatar uses electronic prescribing to reduce the risk of medication errors. Electronic prescribing is supported by computerized Physician Order Entry systems through Cerner (electronic medical record system). There are still prescription errors, despite electronic prescribing being in place for one year at West Bay Health Center. West Bay Health Center is a famous primary healthcare center in Qatar. It is a training center for the family medicine residency program, which is accredited by the accreditation council of general medical education international (ACGME-I)...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931034/historical-perspective-on-clinical-trials-of-carnitine-in-children-and-adults
#4
Neil R M Buist
The metabolic roles of carnitine have been greatly clarified over the past 50 years, and it is now well established that carnitine is a key player in mitochondrial generation of energy and metabolism of acetyl coenzyme A. A therapeutic role for carnitine in treatment of nutritional deficiencies in infants and children was first demonstrated in 1958, and since that time it has been used to treat a number of inborn errors of metabolism. Carnitine was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1985 for treatment of 'primary carnitine deficiency', and later in 1992 for treatment of 'secondary carnitine deficiency', a definition that included the majority of relevant metabolic disorders associated with low or abnormal plasma carnitine levels...
December 9, 2016: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926382/prediction-of-anti-cancer-drug-response-by-kernelized-multi-task-learning
#5
Mehmet Tan
MOTIVATION: Chemotherapy or targeted therapy are two of the main treatment options for many types of cancer. Due to the heterogeneous nature of cancer, the success of the therapeutic agents differs among patients. In this sense, determination of chemotherapeutic response of the malign cells is essential for establishing a personalized treatment protocol and designing new drugs. With the recent technological advances in producing large amounts of pharmacogenomic data, in silico methods have become important tools to achieve this aim...
October 2016: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925849/development-and-prospective-federal-state-wide-evaluation-of-a-device-for-height-based-dose-recommendations-in-prehospital-pediatric-emergencies-a-simple-tool-to-prevent-most-severe-drug-errors
#6
Jost Kaufmann, Bernhard Roth, Thomas Engelhardt, Alex Lechleuthner, Michael Laschat, Christoph Hadamitzky, Frank Wappler, Martin Hellmich
OBJECTIVE: Drug dosing errors pose a particular threat to children in prehospital emergency care. With the Pediatric emergency ruler (PaedER), we developed a simple height-based dose recommendation system and evaluated its effectiveness in a pre-post interventional trial as the Ethics Committee disapproved randomization due to the expected positive effect of the PaedER on outcome. METHODS: Pre-interventional data were retrospectively retrieved from the electronic records and medical protocols of the Cologne Emergency Medical Service over a two-year period prior to the introduction of the PaedER...
December 7, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924615/a-model-for-predicting-the-interindividual-variability-of-drug-drug-interactions
#7
M Tod, L Bourguignon, N Bleyzac, S Goutelle
Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions are frequently characterized and quantified by an AUC ratio (Rauc). The typical value of the AUC ratio in case of cytochrome-mediated interactions may be predicted by several approaches, based on in vitro or in vivo data. Prediction of the interindividual variability of Rauc would help to anticipate more completely the consequences of a drug-drug interaction. We propose and evaluate a simple approach for predicting the standard deviation (sd) of Ln(Rauc), a metric close to the interindividual coefficient of variation of Rauc...
December 6, 2016: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923583/drug-shortages-patients-and-health-care-providers-are-all-drawing-the-short-straw
#8
François Rinaldi, Simon de Denus, Angela Nguyen, Stanley Nattel, Jean-François Bussières
Drug shortages have been reported for > 35 years. Attention to this problem increased recently after the Sandoz crisis, in which a warning letter by the Food and Drug Administration caused supply changes that suspended the availability of numerous medications. The frequency of drug shortages has increased recently. In 2011-2012 alone, Canadian supply shortages occurred for > 1000 drugs (including 150 for cardiovascular diseases). These shortages lasted for an average of 4-5 months, increasing the workload for health care providers, producing impaired health, stress, and anxiety for patients, and increasing the risk of errors...
August 17, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920036/clinical-relevance-of-pharmacist-intervention-in-an-emergency-department
#9
Maria Antonia Pérez-Moreno, Juan Manuel Rodríguez-Camacho, Beatriz Calderón-Hernanz, Bernardino Comas-Díaz, Jordi Tarradas-Torras
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention on patient care in emergencies, to determine the severity of detected errors. Second, to analyse the most frequent types of interventions and type of drugs involved and to evaluate the clinical pharmacist's activity. METHODS: A 6-month observational prospective study of pharmacist intervention in the Emergency Department (ED) at a 400-bed hospital in Spain was performed to record interventions carried out by the clinical pharmacists...
December 5, 2016: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919699/identification-of-different-shapes-colors-and-sizes-of-standard-oral-dosage-forms-in-diabetes-type-2-patients-a-pilot-study
#10
Sven Stegemann, Regina Riedl, Harald Sourij
The clear identification of drug products by the patients is essential for a safe and effective medication management. In order to understand the impact of shape, size and color on medication identification a study was performed in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Ten model drugs differentiated by shape, size and color were evaluated using a mixed method of medication schedule preparation by the participants followed by a semi-structured interview. Detection times were fastest for the large round tablet shape and the bi-chromatic forms...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919281/incidence-causes-and-consequences-of-preventable-adverse-drug-events-protocol-for-an-overview-of-reviews
#11
Brian Hutton, Salmaan Kanji, Erika McDonald, Fatemeh Yazdi, Dianna Wolfe, Kednapa Thavorn, Sally Pepper, Laurie Chapman, Becky Skidmore, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Medication errors represent a noteworthy source of harm to patients. In recent years, several systematic reviews have assessed the frequency and causes of these events, as well as other factors such as commonly associated drugs, their incidence in different specialties, and their consequences to patients. Despite this past literature, there remains a need to study discrepancies between these reviews and establish the current state of the evidence. The planned review will bring together, compare, and contract existing evidence related to the occurrence of medication errors in acute and continuing/long-term care settings...
December 5, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918623/the-effect-of-prescriber-education-on-medication-related-patient-harm-in-the-hospital-a-systematic-review
#12
J M Bos, P M L A van den Bemt, P A G M De Smet, C Kramers
INTRODUCTION: Educating prescribers is a strategy to reduce prescription errors in hospitals. This systematic review gives an overview of original research papers on education of prescribers, reporting outcomes on (potential) patient harm. METHODS: A search of the databases Embase and Medline using the Ovid interface was performed. Research on the effect of education of physicians in order to prevent medication related problems of inpatients, reporting original data and outcomes on prescribing errors and/or (potential) patient harm, was included...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917684/the-long-term-effect-of-oral-isotretinoin-therapy-on-macula-ganglion-cell-complex-thickness
#13
Gülizar Demirok, Yasemin Topalak, Özge Gündüz, Dilsun Yıldırım, Mehmet Fatih Kocamaz, Ahmet Sengun
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long term effect of oral isotretinoin therapy on macula ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Newly diagnosed cystic acne patients who received low dose for a long time systemic isotretinoin therapy were included to study. Thorough ophthalmic evaluation and GCC thickness analysis by using SD-OCT were performed at baseline, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of treatment...
December 4, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916437/animal-testing-is-still-the-best-way-to-find-new-treatments-for-patients
#14
Silvio Garattini, Giuliano Grignaschi
Experimental research proceeds by hypotheses formulated on the basis of previous or new knowledge and then tested. If they are accepted, they serve as the basis for further hypotheses, and if they are rejected new hypotheses can be developed. In other words, when we are at the frontiers of knowledge the path is forged by "trial and error". When a trial shows a hypothesis is wrong, this is a step toward making fewer errors. This process also applies to drug development. There is no magic formula at present to predict - at the pre-clinical level - the therapeutic value of a drug for people with a disease...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913837/hospitalizations-due-to-preventable-adverse-reactions-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Nidhi S Patel, Tejas K Patel, Parvati B Patel, Viren N Naik, C B Tripathi
PURPOSE: The study aimed to measure the percentage of preventable adverse drug reactions that lead to the hospitalization (PADRAd) and to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics. METHODS: Two investigators independently searched in electronic databases and related bibliography for prospective studies involving PADRAd. We excluded studies investigating medication errors and spontaneous and retrospective reporting...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912878/selecting-optimum-protein-nano-carriers-for-natural-polyphenols-using-chemoinformatics-tools
#16
AbdelKader A Metwally, Sherweit H El-Ahmady, Rania M Hathout
BACKGROUND: The normal fate of any natural product with a therapeutic potential is to be formulated into an effective medicine. However, the conventional methods of selecting the suitable formulations or carriers based on the formulator experiences, trials and errors as well as materials availability do not usually yield the optimal results. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize the possibility of the virtual optimum selection of a protein carrier for two polyphenolic compounds widely investigated for their chemopreventive effects; resveratrol and curcumin using a combination of some chemoinformatics tools...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910765/gene-therapy-for-rheumatoid-arthritis
#17
Shuang Liu, Kazutaka Maeyama
With the aim of controlling disease relapse and bone deformation of individual joints, the application of gene therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has slowly progressed on a trial-and-error basis. Several new therapeutic targets have been identified in preclinical studies in animal models, although a limited number of gene-based clinical trials have been conducted. In this article, we summarize the status of gene therapy for RA by addressing issues related to innovating drug development. More disease- and target-specific preclinical tests are required to overcome the insufficient information regarding pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetics, which are related to safety issues in the field of RA gene therapy...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909995/solithromycin-a-novel-fluoroketolide-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#18
REVIEW
George G Zhanel, Erika Hartel, Heather Adam, Sheryl Zelenitsky, Michael A Zhanel, Alyssa Golden, Frank Schweizer, Bala Gorityala, Philippe R S Lagacé-Wiens, Andrew J Walkty, Alfred S Gin, Daryl J Hoban, Joseph P Lynch, James A Karlowsky
Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation...
December 1, 2016: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909073/accuracy-of-outpatient-service-data-for-activity-based-funding-in-new-south-wales-australia
#19
Esther N Munyisia, David Reid, Ping Yu
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing research on activity-based funding (ABF), there is no empirical evidence on the accuracy of outpatient service data for payment. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify data entry errors affecting ABF in two drug and alcohol outpatient clinic services in Australia. METHODS: An audit was carried out on healthcare workers' (doctors, nurses, psychologists, social workers, counsellors, and aboriginal health education officers) data entry errors in an outpatient electronic documentation system...
December 1, 2016: HIM Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906608/bioequivalence-evaluation-of-sparse-sampling-pharmacokinetics-data-using-bootstrap-resampling-method
#20
Meiyu Shen, Stella G Machado
Bioequivalence studies are an essential part of the evaluation of generic drugs. The most common in-vivo bioequivalence study design is the two-period two-treatment crossover design. The observed drug concentration-time profile for each subject from each treatment under each sequence can be obtained. AUC (the area under the concentration-time curve) and Cmax (the maximum concentration) are obtained from the observed drug concentration-time profiles for each subject from each treatment under each sequence. However, such a drug concentration-time profile for each subject from each treatment under each sequence cannot possibly be available during development of generic ophthalmic products since there is only one-time point measured drug concentration of aqueous humor for each eye...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
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