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Aged glia culture

Patrick Schäfer, Mike O Karl
Reactive gliosis is an umbrella term for various glia functions in neurodegenerative diseases and upon injury. Specifically, Müller glia (MG) in some species readily regenerate retinal neurons to restore vision loss after insult, whereas mammalian MG respond by reactive gliosis-a heterogeneous response which frequently includes cell hypertrophy and proliferation. Limited regeneration has been stimulated in mammals, with a higher propensity in young MG, and in vitro compared to in vivo, but the underlying processes are unknown...
February 21, 2017: Glia
Bevan S Main, Moses Zhang, Kate M Brody, Francis J Kirby, Peter J Crack, Juliet M Taylor
Evidence from post-mortem human brains, animal studies and cell culture models has implicated neuroinflammation in the aetiology of chronic neuropathologies including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Although the neuroinflammatory response is considered detrimental in contributing to these pathologies, the underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. The type-I interferons (IFNs) have been well characterised in the periphery and are known to initiate/modulate the immune response. Recently, they have been implicated in aging and we have also demonstrated increased type-I IFN expression in post-mortem human Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease brains...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Zhengyu Cao, Jian Xu, Susan Hulsizer, Yanjun Cui, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah
The spatial and temporal patterns of spontaneous synchronous Ca(2+) oscillations (SCOs) regulate physiological pathways that influence neuronal development, excitability, and health. Hippocampal neuronal cultures (HN) and neuron/glia co-cultures (HNG) produced from neonatal mice were loaded with Fluo-4/AM and SCOs recorded in real-time using a Fluorescence Imaging Plate Reader at different developmental stages in vitro. HNG showed an earlier onset of SCOs, with low amplitude and low frequency SCOs at 4days in vitro (DIV), whereas HN were quiescent at this point...
January 2017: Neurotoxicology
Beniamino Palmieri, Dimitri Poddighe, Maria Vadalà, Carmen Laurino, Carla Carnovale, Emilio Clementi
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause for cervical cancer among women worldwide. Two HPV vaccines are currently available: Gardasil(®) and Cervarix(®). Both vaccines enclose viral antigenic proteins, but differ as to the biological systems of culture and the adjuvant components. Recently, a collection of symptoms, indicating nervous system dysfunction, has been described after HPV vaccination. We retrospectively described a case series including 18 girls (aged 12-24 years) referred to our "Second Opinion Medical Network" for the evaluation of "neuropathy with autonomic dysfunction" after HPV vaccination...
August 9, 2016: Immunologic Research
Aiko Yamazaki, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Masateru Yashiro, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Katsumasa Kawahara, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously discovered nestin-expressing hair-follicle-associated pluripotent (HAP) stem cells and have shown that they can differentiate to neurons, glia, and many other cell types. HAP stem cells can be used for nerve and spinal cord repair. We have recently shown the HAP stem cells can differentiate to beating heart-muscle cells and tissue sheets of beating heart-muscle cells. In the present study, we determined the efficiency of HAP stem cells from mouse vibrissa hair follicles of various ages to differentiate to beating heart-muscle cells...
October 2016: Cell Cycle
Simona Daniele, Eleonora Da Pozzo, Caterina Iofrida, Claudia Martini
Neural stem cells (NSCs) represent a subpopulation of cells, located in specific regions of the adult mammalian brain, with the ability of self-renewing and generating neurons and glia. In aged NSCs, modifications in the amount and composition of membrane proteins/lipids, which lead to a reduction in membrane fluidity and cholinergic activities, have been reported. In this respect, molecules that are effective at normalizing the membrane composition and cholinergic signaling could counteract stem cell aging...
July 20, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Annette Masuch, Rianne van der Pijl, Lisa Füner, Yochai Wolf, Bart Eggen, Erik Boddeke, Knut Biber
Recent data suggest that ramified microglia fulfil various tasks in the brain. However, to investigate this unique cell type cultured primary microglia are only a poor model. We here describe a method to deplete and repopulate organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSC) with ramified microglia isolated from adult mouse brain creating microglia-replenished OHSC (Mrep-OHSC). Replenished microglia integrate into the tissue and ramify to a degree indistinguishable from their counterparts in the mouse brain. Moreover, wild-type slices replenished with microglia from TNFα-deficient animals provide similar results as OHSC prepared from microglia-specific TNFα-knockout mice (CX3CR1(cre) /TNFα(fl/fl) )...
August 2016: Glia
Bruna Bellaver, Débora Guerini Souza, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are dynamic cells that maintain brain homeostasis, regulate neurotransmitter systems, and process synaptic information, energy metabolism, antioxidant defenses, and inflammatory response. Aging is a biological process that is closely associated with hippocampal astrocyte dysfunction. In this sense, we demonstrated that hippocampal astrocytes from adult and aged Wistar rats reproduce the glial functionality alterations observed in aging by evaluating several senescence, glutamatergic, oxidative and inflammatory parameters commonly associated with the aging process...
March 30, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Awanish Kumar, Birendra Nath Mallick
BACKGROUND: Studying neuronal growth, development and synaptogenesis are among the hot research topics. However, it is faced with various challenges and technical limitations that include but not limited to donor's species and health, threat to life, age of embryo, glial contamination, real-time tracking, and follow-up. NEW METHOD: We have successfully standardized a method for long-term primary culture of neurons collected from post-fertilized 9 day incubated chicken embryo brain overcoming the limitations mentioned above...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Zepeng Qu, Yuan Guan, Lu Cui, Jian Song, Junjie Gu, Hanzhi Zhao, Lei Xu, Lixia Lu, Ying Jin, Guo-Tong Xu
INTRODUCTION: Degenerative retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are the leading cause of blindness. Cell transplantation showed promising therapeutic effect for such diseases, and embryonic stem cell (ESC) is one of the sources of such donor cells. Here, we aimed to generate retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) from rat ESCs (rESCs) and to test their therapeutic effects in rat model. METHODS: The rESCs (DA8-16) were cultured in N2B27 medium with 2i, and differentiated to two types of RPCs following the SFEBq method with modifications...
2015: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch
In a perimenopausal model of middle-aged rats, the astrocyte estrogen receptor-alpha (ERa): ER-beta (ERb) ratio increased with the onset of acyclicity (constant estrus, CE) in association with impaired neurotrophic responses to estradiol (E2). We report additional data on irregular cycling (IR) from this study of 9 month old perimenopausal subgroups. In particular, irregular cyclers (IR) also show increased ERa:ERb ratio in cerebral cortex astrocytes comparable to acyclic individuals in CE. In mixed glial cultures from these same cycling subgroups, the E2-dependent neurotrophic activity and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) repression by E2 were impaired in IR to the same degree as in CE-derived glia...
2015: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Cheng-Yi Chang, Jian-Ri Li, Yen-Chuan Ou, Wen-Ying Chen, Su-Lan Liao, Shue-Ling Raung, An-Lu Hsiao, Chun-Jung Chen
Fatal enterovirus type-71 (EV71) cases are associated with central nervous system infection characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, cytokine overproduction, and neuronal cell death. Although EV71 antigen has been detected in neurons and glia, the molecular mechanisms underlying EV71-associated neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death are not fully understood. Using cultured rodent neural cell models, we found that EV71 infection preferentially caused cell death in neurons but not brain-resident immune cells astrocytes and microglia...
October 2015: IUBMB Life
Bing Ye, Hui Shen, Jing Zhang, Yuan-Gui Zhu, Bruce R Ransom, Xiao-Chun Chen, Zu-Cheng Ye
Oxidative stress plays an important role in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative conditions. Glutathione (GSH), the major antioxidant in the central nervous system, is primarily synthesized and released by astrocytes. We determined if β-amyloid (Aβ42), crucially involved in Alzheimer's disease, affected GSH release. Monomeric Aβ (mAβ) stimulated GSH release from cultured cortical astrocytes more effectively than oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) or fibrillary Aβ (fAβ). Monomeric Aβ increased the expression of the transporter ABCC1 (also referred to as MRP1) that is the main pathway for GSH release...
December 2015: Glia
Kati Löffler, Patrick Schäfer, Manuela Völkner, Tina Holdt, Mike O Karl
The mechanisms limiting neuronal regeneration in mammals and their relationship with reactive gliosis are unknown. Müller glia (MG), common to all vertebrate retinas, readily regenerate neuron loss in some species, but normally not in mammals. However, experimental stimulation of limited mammalian retina regeneration has been reported. Here, we use a mouse retina organ culture approach to investigate the MG responses at different mouse ages. We found that MG undergo defined spatio-temporal changes upon stimulation...
October 2015: Glia
Shih-Hsiung Lin, Wei Song, Marisa Cressatti, Hillel Zukor, Eugenia Wang, Hyman M Schipper
BACKGROUND: Over-expression of the heme-degrading enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) promotes iron deposition, mitochondrial damage, and autophagy in astrocytes and enhances the vulnerability of nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative injury. These neuropathological features and aberrant brain microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns have been implicated in the etiopathogeneses of various neurodevelopmental and aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. OBJECTIVE: To correlate glial HO-1 overexpression with altered miRNA patterns, which have been linked to the aforementioned "core" neuropathological features...
July 2015: Glia
Xuejun Tian, Upasana Gala, Yongping Zhang, Weina Shang, Sonal Nagarkar Jaiswal, Alberto di Ronza, Manish Jaiswal, Shinya Yamamoto, Hector Sandoval, Lita Duraine, Marco Sardiello, Roy V Sillitoe, Kartik Venkatachalam, Hengyu Fan, Hugo J Bellen, Chao Tong
Autophagy helps deliver sequestered intracellular cargo to lysosomes for proteolytic degradation and thereby maintains cellular homeostasis by preventing accumulation of toxic substances in cells. In a forward mosaic screen in Drosophila designed to identify genes required for neuronal function and maintenance, we identified multiple cacophony (cac) mutant alleles. They exhibit an age-dependent accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in photoreceptor terminals and eventually a degeneration of the terminals and surrounding glia...
March 2015: PLoS Biology
Virginia B Mattis, Colton Tom, Sergey Akimov, Jasmine Saeedian, Michael E Østergaard, Amber L Southwell, Crystal N Doty, Loren Ornelas, Anais Sahabian, Lindsay Lenaeus, Berhan Mandefro, Dhruv Sareen, Jamshid Arjomand, Michael R Hayden, Christopher A Ross, Clive N Svendsen
Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, caused by expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the Huntingtin gene, with longer expansions leading to earlier ages of onset. The HD iPSC Consortium has recently reported a new in vitro model of HD based on the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from HD patients and controls. The current study has furthered the disease in a dish model of HD by generating new non-integrating HD and control iPSC lines. Both HD and control iPSC lines can be efficiently differentiated into neurons/glia; however, the HD-derived cells maintained a significantly greater number of nestin-expressing neural progenitor cells compared with control cells...
June 1, 2015: Human Molecular Genetics
Andre Kleinridders, Weikang Cai, Laura Cappellucci, Armen Ghazarian, William R Collins, Sara G Vienberg, Emmanuel N Pothos, C Ronald Kahn
Diabetes and insulin resistance are associated with altered brain imaging, depression, and increased rates of age-related cognitive impairment. Here we demonstrate that mice with a brain-specific knockout of the insulin receptor (NIRKO mice) exhibit brain mitochondrial dysfunction with reduced mitochondrial oxidative activity, increased levels of reactive oxygen species, and increased levels of lipid and protein oxidation in the striatum and nucleus accumbens. NIRKO mice also exhibit increased levels of monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO A and B) leading to increased dopamine turnover in these areas...
March 17, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Serena Y Kuang, Zhonghai Wang, Ting Huang, Lina Wei, Tingfei Xi, Mark Kindy, Bruce Z Gao
Various types of animal neurons were cultured on a microelectrode array (MEA) platform to form biosensors to detect potential environmental neurotoxins. For a large-scale screening tool, rodent MEA-based cortical-neuron biosensors would be very costly but chick forebrain neurons (FBNs) are abundant, cost-effective, and easy to dissect. However, chick FBNs have a lifespan of ~14 days in vitro and their spontaneous spike activity (SSA) has been difficult to develop and detect. We used a high-density neuron-glia co-culture on an MEA to prolong chick FBN lifetime to 3 months with lifetime-long SSA...
March 2015: Biotechnology Letters
Olesya Okuneva, Inken Körber, Zhilin Li, Li Tian, Tarja Joensuu, Outi Kopra, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) is an autosomal-recessively inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severely incapacitating myoclonus, seizures, and ataxia, and caused by loss-of-function mutations in the cystatin B gene (CSTB). A central neuropathological finding in the Cstb(-/-) mouse, an animal model for EPM1, is early microglial activation, which precedes astroglial activation, neuronal loss, and onset of myoclonus, thus implying a critical role for microglia in EPM1 pathogenesis...
March 2015: Glia
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