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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218420/plasma-lipoxin-a4-and-resolvin-d1-are-not-associated-with-reduced-adenoma-risk-in-a-randomized-trial-of-aspirin-to-prevent-colon-adenomas
#1
Veronika Fedirko, Gail McKeown-Eyssen, Charles N Serhan, Elizabeth L Barry, Robert S Sandler, Jane C Figueiredo, Dennis J Ahnen, Robert S Bresalier, Douglas J Robertson, Carlton W Anderson, John A Baron
Inflammation plays a major role in colon carcinogenesis. Endogenously produced specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) play a central role in inflammation and tissue homeostasis, and have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We studied the associations of plasma levels of two SPMs [lipoxin A4 (LXA4 ) and resolvin D1(RvD1)] with risk for recurrent adenoma. In this pilot study, we used data and biosamples from an adenoma chemoprevention study investigating the effects of aspirin and/or folic acid on the occurrence of colorectal adenomas...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213094/aspirin-triggered-resolvin-d1-modified-materials-promote-the-accumulation-of-pro-regenerative-immune-cell-subsets-and-enhance-vascular-remodeling
#2
Mary Caitlin P Sok, Maxianne C Tria, Claire E Olingy, Cheryl L San Emeterio, Edward A Botchwey
: Many goals in tissue engineering rely on modulating cellular localization and polarization of cell signaling, including the inhibition of inflammatory infiltrate, facilitation of inflammatory cell egress, and clearance of apoptotic cells. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived resolvins are gaining increasing recognition for their essential roles in inhibition of neutrophil invasion into inflamed tissue and promotion of macrophage phagocytosis of cellular debris as well as their egress to the lymphatics...
February 14, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210259/resolution-of-cancer-promoting-inflammation-a-new-approach-for-anticancer-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Qi Zhang, Bo Zhu, Yongsheng Li
Inflammation is a protective response that eliminates harmful stimuli and restores tissue homeostasis, whereas the failure to resolve inflammation leads to the development of malignancies. Immune cells in the tumor inflammatory microenvironment endow cancer cells with their specific hallmarks, including mutations, metabolic reprograming, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Targeting the inflammatory microenvironment with anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) or by enhancing antitumor immunity (e.g., chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) has been extensively investigated and has achieved promising results in many cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195518/low-salivary-resolvin-d1-to-leukotriene-b4-ratio-predicts-carotid-intima-media-thickness-a-novel-biomarker-of-non-resolving-vascular-inflammation
#4
Silke Thul, Carlos Labat, Mohamed Temmar, Athanase Benetos, Magnus Bäck
Background Different lipid mediators may have opposing effects on vascular inflammation. For example, whereas leukotriene B4 (LTB4) transduces inflammation, resolvin D1 (RvD1), which is synthesized from the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid, facilitates the resolution of inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the association of the RvD1/LTB4 ratio with subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Saliva samples and ultrasound measurements of the intima media thickness of the carotid artery was obtained for 254 participants...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188173/maresin-1-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-attenuates-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-ob-ob-and-diet-induced-obese-mice
#5
Leyre Martínez-Fernández, Pedro González-Muniesa, Laura M Laiglesia, Neira Sáinz, Pedro L Prieto-Hontoria, Xavier Escoté, Leticia Odriozola, Fernando J Corrales, Jose M Arbones-Mainar, José A Martínez, María J Moreno-Aliaga
The beneficial actions of n-3 fatty acids on obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation have been related to the synthesis of specialized proresolving lipid mediators (SPMs) like resolvins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of one of these SPMs, maresin 1 (MaR1), to reverse adipose tissue inflammation and/or insulin resistance in two models of obesity: diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and genetic (ob/ob) obese mice. In DIO mice, MaR1 (2 μg/kg; 10 d) reduced F4/80-positive cells and expression of the proinflammatory M1 macrophage phenotype marker Cd11c in white adipose tissue (WAT)...
February 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181190/distribution-of-alox15-in-the-rat-brain-and-its-role-in-prefrontal-cortical-resolvin-d1-formation-and-spatial-working-memory
#6
Suku-Maran Shalini, Christabel Fung-Yih Ho, Yee-Kong Ng, Jie-Xin Tong, Eng-Shi Ong, Deron R Herr, Gavin S Dawe, Wei-Yi Ong
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is enriched in membrane phospholipids of the central nervous system (CNS) and has a role in aging and neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA is metabolized by the enzyme Alox15 to 17S-hydroxy-DHA, which is then converted to 7S-hydroperoxy,17S-hydroxy-DHA by a 5-lipoxygenase, and thence via epoxy intermediates to the anti-inflammatory molecule, resolvin D1 (RvD1 or 7S,8R,17S-trihydroxy-docosa-Z,9E,11E,13Z,15E,19Z-hexaenoic acid). In this study, we investigated the distribution and function of Alox15 in the CNS...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165385/quantitative-profiling-of-hydroxy-lipid-metabolites-in-mouse-organs-reveals-distinct-lipidomic-profiles-and-modifications-due-to-elevated-n-3-fatty-acid-levels
#7
Cheng-Ying Chiu, Christopher Smyl, Inci Dogan, Michael Rothe, Karsten-H Weylandt
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of bioactive metabolites and mediators. In this study, the profile of hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (HETE), hydroxyeicosapentaenoic (HEPE) and hydroxydocosahexaenoic (HDHA) acids derived from arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in colon, liver, lung, spleen, muscle, heart and kidney tissue of healthy wildtype mice were characterized, and compared to profiles in organs from transgenic fat-1 mice engineered to express the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 gene encoding an n-3 desaturase and thereby with endogenously elevated n-3 PUFA levels...
February 4, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159237/altered-plasma-lipidome-profile-of-dairy-cows-with-fatty-liver-disease
#8
C Gerspach, S Imhasly, M Gubler, H Naegeli, M Ruetten, E Laczko
Fatty liver disease is a common health problem of dairy cows occurring during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. It is a direct response to fat mobilization due to negative energy balance. Accumulation of lipids in the liver occurs if the uptake of non-esterified fatty acids by the liver exceeds the capacity of lipid oxidation or secretion by the liver. Currently, the diagnosis of fatty liver disease requires confirmation through biopsies to determine the hepatic lipid content. In view of this lack of a practical diagnostic tool, we compared the plasma lipidome of diseased dairy cows using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
February 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158236/pro-resolving-lipid-mediator-resolvin-d1-serves-as-a-marker-of-lung-disease-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Olaf Eickmeier, Daniela Fussbroich, Klaus Mueller, Friederike Serve, Christina Smaczny, Stefan Zielen, Ralf Schubert
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects multiple organs, including the lungs, pancreas, liver and intestine. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) locus lead to defective proteins and reduced Cl- secretion and Na+ hyperabsorption in the affected organs. In addition, patients suffering from CF display chronic inflammation that contributes to the pathogenesis of CF. Recent work suggests that CF patients have a reduced capacity to biosynthesize specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), which contributes to the development and duration of the unwanted inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139142/relation-between-ocular-comfort-arachidonic-acid-mediators-and-histamine
#10
Simin Masoudi, Zhenjun Zhao, Mark Willcox
PURPOSE: Contact lenses are associated with discomfort during wear. This may be the result of stimulation of the ocular surface and production of pro-inflammatory mediators which are then released into the tears. This study examined changes in the concentration in tears of arachidonic acid metabolites (AAM) prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, and resolvin-D1, as well as histamine in a general contact lens population in the morning and evening. METHOD: Tears were collected twice a day (morning and evening) for up to 10 days on two different occasions (with and without contact lens wear) from 30 experienced contact lens wearers for analysis of AAM and a separate group (N = 33) for analysis of histamine...
January 31, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109294/probing-the-intermolecular-interactions-of-ppar%C3%AE-lbd-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-anti-inflammatory-metabolites-to-infer-most-potential-binding-moieties
#11
Shalini Muralikumar, Umashankar Vetrivel, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: PPARγ is an isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to a super family of nuclear receptors. PPARγ receptor is found to play a crucial role in the modulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Its commotion has been reported to play a significant role in a broad spectrum of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and in some cancers. Hence, PPARγ is an important therapeutic target. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites (henceforth referred to as bioactive lipids) are known to function as agonists of PPARγ...
January 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106291/ocular-effects-of-sulfur-mustard-and-therapeutic-approaches-a-review
#12
Yunes Panahi, Seyyed Mahdi Rajaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong blistering, highly reactive, lipophilic chemical war agent that causes injury in different organs including the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The Eyes are especially susceptible to the consequences of SM poisoning because of the aqueous and mucosal nature of conjunctiva and cornea. DNA alkylation and depletion of glutathione, are the most important mechanisms of SM action in the eye injuries. Acute clinical symptoms are including decrease in visual acuity, dryness, photophobia, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis and complaints of foreign body sensation and soreness that gradually progress to severe ocular pain...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098462/total-synthesis-of-resolvin-d5
#13
Narihito Ogawa, Takuo Sugiyama, Masao Morita, Yuta Suganuma, Yuichi Kobayashi
Resolvin D5 (RvD5) is a metabolite of docosahexanoic acid with anti-inflammatory activity that has not yet been thoroughly investigated because of its low biological availability. A synthetic route to optically active RvD5 was developed by assembling the C1-C10 aldehyde, C11-C13 phosphonium salt, and C14-C22 aldehyde building blocks. The aldehyde fragments were prepared by Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation of corresponding racemic (E)-1-TMS-1-alken-3-ols followed by reaction of the TBS ethers of the resulting epoxy alcohols with Et2AlCN and DIBAL reduction of the (E)-1-cyano-1-alken-3-ol derivatives...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089732/alox15-as-a-suppressor-of-inflammation-and-cancer-lost-in-the-link
#14
REVIEW
Rui Tian, Xiangsheng Zuo, Jonathan Jaoude, Fei Mao, Jennifer Colby, Imad Shureiqi
Mounting evidence supports a mechanistic link between inflammation and cancer, especially colon cancer. ALOX15 (15-lipoxygenase-1) plays an important role in the formation of key lipid mediators (e.g., lipoxins and resolvins) to terminate inflammation. ALOX15 expression is downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). Intestinally-targeted transgenic expression of ALOX15 in mice inhibited dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis from promoting azoxymethane- induced colorectal tumorigenesis, demonstrating that ALOX15 can suppress inflammation-driven promotion of carcinogen-induced colorectal tumorigenesis and therefore ALOX15 downregulation during tumorigenesis is likely to enhance the link between colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis...
January 12, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#15
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087294/bioactive-metabolites-of-docosahexaenoic-acid
#16
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid that is recognized as a beneficial dietary constituent and as a source of the anti-inflammatory specialized proresolving mediators (SPM): resolvins, protectins and maresins. Apart from SPMs, other metabolites of DHA also exert potent biological effects. This article summarizes current knowledge on the metabolic pathways involved in generation of DHA metabolites. Over 70 biologically active metabolites have been described, but are often discussed separately within specific research areas...
January 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086928/resolvin-rvd2-reduces-hypothalamic-inflammation-and-rescues-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity
#17
Livia B Pascoal, Bruna Bombassaro, Albina F Ramalho, Andressa Coope, Rodrigo F Moura, Felipe Correa-da-Silva, Leticia Ignacio-Souza, Daniela Razolli, Diogo de Oliveira, Rodrigo Catharino, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation is an important mechanism leading to dysfunction of neurons involved in controlling body mass. Studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats can reduce hypothalamic inflammation. Here, we evaluated the presence and function of RvD2, a resolvin produced from docosahexaenoic acid, in the hypothalamus of mice. METHODS: Male Swiss mice were fed either chow or a high-fat diet. RvD2 receptor and synthetic enzymes were evaluated by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079976/maresin-1-induces-a-novel-pro-resolving-phenotype-in-human-platelets
#18
Katie L Lannan, Sherry L Spinelli, Neil Blumberg, Richard P Phipps
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy is a cornerstone of modern medical practice and is routinely employed to reduce the likelihood of myocardial infarction, thrombosis, and stroke. However, current antiplatelet therapies, such as aspirin, often have adverse side effects, including increased risk of bleeding, and some patients are relatively "aspirin-resistant". Platelets are intimately involved in hemostasis and inflammation, and clinical consequences are associated with excessive or insufficient platelet activation...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063958/prevention-of-chronic-post-thoracotomy-pain-in-rats-by-intrathecal-resolvin-d1-and-d2-effectiveness-of-perioperative-and-delayed-drug-delivery
#19
Jeffery Chi-Fei Wang, Gary R Strichartz
: Thoracotomy results in a high frequency of chronic post-operative pain. Resolvins are endogenous molecules, synthesized and released by activated immune cells, effective against inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Different resolvins have differential actions on selective neuronal and glial receptors and enzymes. This paper examines the ability of intrathecal Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and Resolvin D2 (RvD2) to reduce chronic post-thoracotomy pain in rats. Thoracotomy, involving intercostal incision and rib retraction, resulted in a decrease in the mechanical force threshold to induce nocifensive behavior, an enlargement of the pain-sensitive area, and an increase in the fraction of rats showing nocifensive behavior, all for at least 5 weeks...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004822/mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-biomarker-lipids-for-phagocytosis-and-signalling-during-focal-cerebral-ischaemia
#20
Mette M B Nielsen, Kate L Lambertsen, Bettina H Clausen, Morten Meyer, Dhaka R Bhandari, Søren T Larsen, Steen S Poulsen, Bernhard Spengler, Christian Janfelt, Harald S Hansen
Focal cerebral ischaemia has an initial phase of inflammation and tissue injury followed by a later phase of resolution and repair. Mass spectrometry imaging (desorption electrospray ionization and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) was applied on brain sections from mice 2 h, 24 h, 5d, 7d, and 20d after permanent focal cerebral ischaemia. Within 24 h, N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamines, lysophosphatidylcholine, and ceramide accumulated, while sphingomyelin disappeared. At the later resolution stages, bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP(22:6/22:6)), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol, ceramide-phosphate, sphingosine-1-phosphate, lysophosphatidylserine, and cholesteryl ester appeared...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
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