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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336292/structural-elucidation-and-physiologic-functions-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-and-their-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Nan Chiang, Charles N Serhan
The acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders. Many of today's pharmacopeia that block pro-inflammatory chemical mediators can cause serious unwanted side effects such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered a pathophysiologic basis associated with, many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity and asthma, as well as the classic inflammatory diseases, e.g. arthritis, periodontal diseases...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273909/protectin-dx-increases-survival-in-a-mouse-model-of-sepsis-by-ameliorating-inflammation-and-modulating-macrophage-phenotype
#2
Haifa Xia, Lin Chen, Hong Liu, Zhipeng Sun, Wen Yang, Yiyi Yang, Shunan Cui, Shengnan Li, Yaxin Wang, Limin Song, Amro Fayez Abdelgawad, You Shang, Shanglong Yao
Recently, a serial of studies have demonstrated that lipid mediators derived from Omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid have pro-resolving or anti-inflammatory effects in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we sought to evaluate whether Protectin DX (PDX, an isomer of Protecin D1), a newly identified lipid mediator, could protect mice against sepsis and explore the underling mechanism. Animal model of sepsis was established by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP). We found that PDX increased overall survival rate within eight days and attenuated multiple organ injury in septic mice...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263773/discovery-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-marks-the-dawn-of-resolution-physiology-and-pharmacology
#3
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
It is with great pleasure that I write this foreword and introduction to this Special Issue dedicated to the protective actions of the pro-resolving mediators and edited by my colleague Dr. Jesmond Dalli. Many of my collaborators and colleagues that helped to uncover the actions and clinical potential of the resolvins and other specialized proresolving mediators (SPM), namely, the superfamily of pro-resolving mediators that includes the resolvin (E-series, D-series and DPA-derived), protectin and maresin families, as well as the arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, join me in this special issue...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257820/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Gabrielle Fredman, Matthew Spite
The resolution of inflammation is a highly regulated process enacted by endogenous mediators including specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs): the lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins. SPMs activate specific cellular receptors to temper the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, diminish the recruitment of neutrophils, and promote the clearance of dead cells by macrophages. These mediators also enhance host-defense and couple resolution of inflammation to subsequent phases of tissue repair...
February 28, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241993/arachidonic-acid-and-lipoxina4-attenuate-streptozotocin-induced-cytotoxicity-to-rin5-f%C3%A2-cells-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in%C3%A2-vivo
#5
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action. METHODS: RIN5 F cells were used for the in vitro study, whereas the in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. STZ was used to induce apoptosis of RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo...
March 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241480/pro-resolving-molecules-new-approaches-to-treat-sepsis
#6
REVIEW
Christa Buechler, Rebekka Pohl, Charalampos Aslanidis
Inflammation is a complex response of the body to exogenous and endogenous insults. Chronic and systemic diseases are attributed to uncontrolled inflammation. Molecules involved in the initiation of inflammation are very well studied while pathways regulating its resolution are insufficiently investigated. Approaches to down-modulate mediators relevant for the onset and duration of inflammation are successful in some chronic diseases, while all of them have failed in sepsis patients. Inflammation and immune suppression characterize sepsis, indicating that anti-inflammatory strategies alone are inappropriate for its therapy...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237084/identification-and-profiling-of-specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-in-human-tears-by-lipid-mediator-metabolomics
#7
Justin T English, Paul C Norris, Robin R Hodges, Darlene A Dartt, Charles N Serhan
Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPM), e.g. Resolvin D1, Protectin D1, Lipoxin A₄, and Resolvin E1 have each shown to be active in ocular models reducing inflammation. In general, SPMs have specific agonist functions that stimulate resolution of infection and inflammation in animal disease models. The presence and quantity of SPM in human emotional tears is of interest. Here, utilizing a targeted LC-MS-MS metabololipidomics based approach we document the identification of pro-inflammatory (Prostaglandins and Leukotriene B₄) and pro-resolving lipid mediators (D-series Resolvins, Protectin D1, and Lipoxin A₄) in human emotional tears from 12 healthy individuals...
February 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210259/resolution-of-cancer-promoting-inflammation-a-new-approach-for-anticancer-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Qi Zhang, Bo Zhu, Yongsheng Li
Inflammation is a protective response that eliminates harmful stimuli and restores tissue homeostasis, whereas the failure to resolve inflammation leads to the development of malignancies. Immune cells in the tumor inflammatory microenvironment endow cancer cells with their specific hallmarks, including mutations, metabolic reprograming, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Targeting the inflammatory microenvironment with anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., aspirin) or by enhancing antitumor immunity (e.g., chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy) has been extensively investigated and has achieved promising results in many cancers...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158236/pro-resolving-lipid-mediator-resolvin-d1-serves-as-a-marker-of-lung-disease-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Olaf Eickmeier, Daniela Fussbroich, Klaus Mueller, Friederike Serve, Christina Smaczny, Stefan Zielen, Ralf Schubert
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that affects multiple organs, including the lungs, pancreas, liver and intestine. Mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) locus lead to defective proteins and reduced Cl- secretion and Na+ hyperabsorption in the affected organs. In addition, patients suffering from CF display chronic inflammation that contributes to the pathogenesis of CF. Recent work suggests that CF patients have a reduced capacity to biosynthesize specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), which contributes to the development and duration of the unwanted inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141590/detection-of-virulence-genes-phylogenetic-group-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-in-mongolia
#10
Yandag Munkhdelger, Nyamaa Gunregjav, Altantsetseg Dorjpurev, Nishi Juniichiro, Jav Sarantuya
INTRODUCTION: The severity of urinary tract infection (UTI) produced by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is due to the expression of a wide spectrum of virulence genes. E. coli strains were divided into four phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D) based on their virulence genes. The present study aimed to assess the relationship between virulence genes, phylogenetic groups, and antibiotic resistance of UPEC. METHODOLOGY: A total of 148 E. coli were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 10 drugs using the disk diffusion method...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087575/treating-inflammation-and-infection-in-the-21st-century-new-hints-from-decoding-resolution-mediators-and-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Charles N Serhan
Practitioners of ancient societies from the time of Hippocrates and earlier recognized and treated the signs of inflammation, heat, redness, swelling, and pain with agents that block or inhibit proinflammatory chemical mediators. More selective drugs are available today, but this therapeutic concept has not changed. Because the acute inflammatory response is host protective to contain foreign invaders, much of today's pharmacopeia can cause serious unwanted side effects, such as immune suppression. Uncontrolled inflammation is now considered pathophysiologic and is associated with many widely occurring diseases such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma, as well as classic inflammatory diseases (e...
January 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087294/bioactive-metabolites-of-docosahexaenoic-acid
#12
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an essential fatty acid that is recognized as a beneficial dietary constituent and as a source of the anti-inflammatory specialized proresolving mediators (SPM): resolvins, protectins and maresins. Apart from SPMs, other metabolites of DHA also exert potent biological effects. This article summarizes current knowledge on the metabolic pathways involved in generation of DHA metabolites. Over 70 biologically active metabolites have been described, but are often discussed separately within specific research areas...
January 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002074/resolving-inflammation-by-using-nutrition-therapy-roles-for-specialized-proresolving-mediators
#13
Lucy V Norling, Lucy Ly, Jesmond Dalli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation is a unifying component of many of the diseases that afflict Western civilizations. Nutrition therapy and, in particular, essential fatty acid supplementation is one of the approaches that is currently in use for the treatment and management of many inflammatory conditions. The purpose of the present review is to discuss the recent literature in light of the discovery that essential fatty acids are converted by the body to a novel genus of lipid mediators, termed specialized proresolving mediators (SPMs)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993701/comprehensive-expression-analysis-of-pathogenicity-genes-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-strains
#14
Gloria Luz Paniagua-Contreras, Tania Hernández-Jaimes, Eric Monroy-Pérez, Felipe Vaca-Paniagua, Clara Díaz-Velásquez, Alina Uribe-García, Sergio Vaca
In this study, we investigated distinct expression patterns of genes encoding iron-acquisition systems, adhesins, protectins, and toxins in human uroepithelial cells infected with 194 uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains in vitro. We assessed the association of these genes with antibiotic resistance genes in this group of UPEC strains, previously characterised by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Strains were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) from Unidad Médica Familiar de Salud Pública, located in Estado de México, México...
February 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988338/dha-derived-oxylipins-neuroprostanes-and-protectins-differentially-and-dose-dependently-modulate-the-inflammatory-response-in-human-macrophages-putative-mechanisms-through-ppar-activation
#15
Rémy Bosviel, Laurie Joumard-Cubizolles, Giulia Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Dominique Bayle, Corinne Copin, Nathalie Hennuyer, Isabelle Duplan, Bart Staels, Giuseppe Zanoni, Alessio Porta, Laurence Balas, Jean-Marie Galano, Camille Oger, Andrzej Mazur, Thierry Durand, Cécile Gladine
Whereas the anti-inflammatory properties and mechanisms of action of long chain ω3 PUFAs have been abundantly investigated, research gaps remain regarding the respective contribution and mechanisms of action of their oxygenated metabolites collectively known as oxylipins. We conducted a dose-dependent and comparative study in human primary macrophages aiming to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of two types of DHA-derived oxylipins including the well-described protectins (NPD1 and PDX), formed through lipoxygenase pathway and the neuroprostanes (14-A4t- and 4-F4t-NeuroP) formed through free-radical mediated oxygenation and expected to be new anti-inflammatory mediators...
December 14, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862450/arachidonic-acid-and-lipoxin-a4-attenuate-alloxan-induced-cytotoxicity-to-rin5f-cells-in-vitro-and-type-1-diabetes-mellitus-in-vivo
#16
Naveen K V Gundala, Vegi G M Naidu, Undurti N Das
OBJECTIVE: We studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5F) cells against alloxan-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM) in vivo and if so, mechanism of this beneficial action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In vitro study was conducted using RIN5F cells while in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. The effect of PUFAs, cyclo-oxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors, various eicosanoids and PUFAs metabolites: lipoxin A4 (LXA4), resolvin D2 and protectin against alloxan-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells and type 1 DM was studied...
November 15, 2016: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800648/treatment-with-a-novel-agent-combining-docosahexaenoate-and-metformin-increases-protectin-dx-and-il-6-production-in-skeletal-muscle-and-reduces-insulin-resistance-in-obese-diabetic-db-db-mice
#17
Patricia L Mitchell, Renato Nachbar, Dominic Lachance, Philippe St-Pierre, Jocelyn Trottier, Olivier Barbier, André Marette
AIMS: To compare the therapeutic potential of TP-113, a unique molecular entity linking DHA with metformin, for alleviating insulin resistance in obese diabetic mice through the PDX/IL-6 pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We utilized the generically obese diabetic db/db mouse model for all experiments. Initial studies investigated both a dose and time course response. These results were then utilized to design a long-term (5 week) treatment protocol. Mice were gavaged twice daily with 1 of 3 treatments: 200 mg/kg BW TP113, an equivalent dose of metformin alone (70 mg/kg BW) or water...
March 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777380/aging-dysregulates-d-and-e-series-resolvins-to-modulate-cardiosplenic-and-cardiorenal-network-following-myocardial-infarction
#18
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain, Laurence M Black, Sumanth D Prabhu, Kevin A Ingle
Post-myocardial infarction (MI), overactive inflammation is the hallmark of aging, however, the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that excess influx of omega 6 fatty acids may impair resolution, thus impacting the cardiosplenic and cardiorenal network post-MI. Young and aging mice were fed on standard lab chow (LC) and excess fatty acid (safflower oil; SO)-enriched diet for 2 months and were then subjected to MI surgery. Despite similar infarct areas and left ventricle (LV) dysfunction post-MI, splenic mass spectrometry data revealed higher levels of arachidonic acid (AA) derived pro-inflammatory metabolites in young-SO, but minimal formation of docosanoids, D- and E- series resolvins in SO-fed aged mice...
October 18, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647830/signaling-and-immunoresolving-actions-of-resolvin-d1-in-inflamed-human-visceral-adipose-tissue
#19
Esther Titos, Bibiana Rius, Cristina López-Vicario, José Alcaraz-Quiles, Verónica García-Alonso, Aritz Lopategi, Jesmond Dalli, Juan José Lozano, Vicente Arroyo, Salvadora Delgado, Charles N Serhan, Joan Clària
Persistent activation of the innate immune system greatly influences the risk for developing metabolic complications associated with obesity. In this study, we explored the therapeutic potential of the specialized proresolving mediator (SPM) resolvin D1 (RvD1) to actively promote the resolution of inflammation in human visceral adipose tissue from obese (Ob) patients. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabololipidomic analysis, we identified unbalanced production of SPMs (i.e., D- and E-series resolvins, protectin D1, maresin 1, and lipoxins) with respect to inflammatory lipid mediators (i...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632672/human-sepsis-eicosanoid-and-proresolving-lipid-mediator-temporal-profiles-correlations-with-survival-and-clinical-outcomes
#20
Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Carolina Quintana, Diana Barragan-Bradford, Shelley Hurwitz, Bruce D Levy, Augustine M Choi, Charles N Serhan, Rebecca M Baron
OBJECTIVE: To identify and measure recently described chemical mediators, termed specialized pro-resolving mediators that actively regulate the resolution of acute-inflammation, and correlate measurements with clinical outcomes. DESIGN: Herein, deidentified plasma was collected from sepsis patients (n = 22 subjects) within 48 hours of admission to the ICU and on days 3 and 7 thereafter and subjected to lipid mediator profiling. SETTING: Brigham and Women's Hospital Medical Intensive Care Unit...
January 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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