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glucose transporter

Jian Zha, Mattheos A G Koffas
Microbial production of plant-derived natural products by engineered microorganisms has achieved great success thanks to large extend to metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Anthocyanins, the water-soluble colored pigments found in terrestrial plants that are responsible for the red, blue and purple coloration of many flowers and fruits, are extensively used in food and cosmetics industry; however, their current supply heavily relies on complex extraction from plant-based materials. A promising alternative is their sustainable production in metabolically engineered microbes...
December 2017: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Joanne Thomson, Laura Hargrove, Lindsey Kennedy, Jennifer Demieville, Heather Francis
The functions of the liver are very diverse. From detoxifying blood to storing glucose in the form of glycogen and producing bile to facilitate fat digestion, the liver is a very active and important organ. The liver is comprised of many varied cell types whose functions are equally diverse. Cholangiocytes line the biliary tree and aid in transporting and adjusting the composition of bile as it travels to the gallbladder. Hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts are located in different areas within the liver architecture, but both contribute to the development of fibrosis upon activation after liver injury...
June 2017: Liver Research
Xi Song, Qiyang Shen, Liting Fan, Qiuxiao Yu, Xiao Jia, Yu Sun, Wenpei Bai, Jihong Kang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age and also an important metabolic disorder associated with insulin resistance (IR). Hyperandrogenism is a key feature of PCOS. However, whether hyperandrogenism can cause IR in PCOS remains largely unknown. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and its regulated autophagy are closely associated with IR. In the present study, we investigated the role of mTORC1-autophagy pathway in skeletal muscle IR in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS mouse model...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Ashish K Rehni, Vibha Shukla, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia is a serious possible manifestation of diabetic vascular disease. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) enhances ischemic brain injury in insulin-treated diabetic (ITD) rats. In the present study, we determined the role of ischemic acidosis in enhanced ischemic brain damage in RH-exposed ITD rats. METHODS: Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and mild/moderate RH was induced for 5 days. Three sets of experiments were performed. The first set evaluated the effects of RH exposure on global cerebral ischemia-induced acidosis in ITD rats...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Chenke Xu, Wei Wang, Jin Zhong, Fan Lei, Naihan Xu, Yaou Zhang, Weidong Xie
Canagliflozin (CAN) regulates intracellular glucose metabolism by targeting sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) and intracellular glucose metabolism affects inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that CAN might exert anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory effects and action mechanisms of CAN were assayed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 and THP-1 cells and NIH mice. Results showed that CAN significantly inhibited the production and release of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the LPS-induced RAW264...
March 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
M Clara F do Amaral, James Frisbie, David L Goldstein, Carissa M Krane
Cope's gray treefrog (Dryophytes chrysoscelis) is one of few freeze-tolerant frogs that mobilize glycerol as a cryoprotectant, yet cold and freezing-induced accumulation of this and other osmolytes has received little attention in this species. This study investigated the development of freeze tolerance in D. chrysoscelis, analyzing the response of the cryoprotectant system to cold acclimation, freezing, and thawing. Glycerol production was low and unresponsive to acclimation temperature, or duration of acclimation to 5 °C, except for one cold-acclimated frog that presented elevated glycerol in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Hayato Kaida, Koichi Azuma, Uhi Toh, Akihiko Kawahara, Eiji Sadashima, Satoshi Hattori, Jun Akiba, Nobuhiro Tahara, Axel Rominger, Kazunai Ishii, Takamichi Murakami, Masatoshi Ishibashi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the correlations between dual-phase fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) uptake and clinicopathological and immunohistochemical prognostic factors in patients with surgically resected breast cancer. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 105 patients. We calculated the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at 85min (SUV1), SUVmax at 125min (SUV2) and the retention index [RI]. Spearman's rank correlation test, the Kruskal-Wallis test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed to assess the association between18 F-FDG uptake and the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical factors: glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (Her2), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and P70S6kinase (P70S6)...
March 20, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Xiying Wu, Daiwen Chen, Bing Yu, Yuheng Luo, Ping Zheng, Xiangbing Mao, Jie Yu, Jun He
OBJECTIVES: This study explored the effects of different fiber fractions on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal development in a porcine model. METHODS: Blood and tissue samples were collected from thirty-two weaned pigs fed with control diet (CON) or diet containing 5 % cellulose (CEL), xylan (XYL) or β-glucan (GLU). RESULTS: This reserch showed that GLU supplementation decreased the growth performance of pigs (P <0...
February 6, 2018: Nutrition
Inês Amaral, Cláudia Silva, Ana Correia-Branco, Fátima Martel
This work aimed to investigate the effect of metformin on cellular glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells, as a mechanism contributing to its anticancer properties. Estrogen and progesterone receptor-positive (MCF-7) and triple-negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines were used as in vitro models of breast cancer. Short-term (26 min) exposure of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells to metformin inhibited uptake of3 H-deoxy-D-glucose (3 H-DG). In contrast, long-term (24 h) exposure to metformin (5 μM-1 mM) concentration-dependently increased3 H-DG uptake in both cell lines...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Bianca Cotto, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Alyssa A Lombardi, Prasun K Datta, Muniswamy Madesh, John W Elrod, Kamel Khalili, Dianne Langford
Calcium (Ca2+ ) dynamics and oxidative signaling control mitochondrial bioenergetics in the central nervous system, where astrocytes are a major energy source for neurons. Cocaine use exacerbates HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, but little is known about disruptions in astrocyte metabolism in this context. Our data show that the HIV protein Tat and cocaine induce a metabolic switch from glucose to fatty acid oxidation in astrocytes, thereby limiting lactate transport to neurons. Mechanistic analyses revealed increased Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU)-mediated Ca2+ uptake in astrocytes exposed to Tat and cocaine due to oxidation of MCU...
March 16, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Helen J Dranse, T M Zaved Waise, Sophie C Hamr, Paige V Bauer, Mona A Abraham, Brittany A Rasmussen, Tony K T Lam
High protein feeding improves glucose homeostasis in rodents and humans with diabetes, but the mechanisms that underlie this improvement remain elusive. Here we show that acute administration of casein hydrolysate directly into the upper small intestine increases glucose tolerance and inhibits glucose production in rats, independently of changes in plasma amino acids, insulin levels, and food intake. Inhibition of upper small intestinal peptide transporter 1 (PepT1), the primary oligopeptide transporter in the small intestine, reverses the preabsorptive ability of upper small intestinal casein infusion to increase glucose tolerance and suppress glucose production...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Martin O Weickert, John G Hattersley, Ioannis Kyrou, Ayman M Arafat, Natalia Rudovich, Michael Roden, Peter Nowotny, Christian von Loeffelholz, Silke Matysik, Gerd Schmitz, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
Bile acids (BA) are potent metabolic regulators influenced by diet. We studied effects of isoenergetic increases in the dietary protein and cereal-fiber contents on circulating BA and insulin resistance (IR) in overweight and obese adults. Randomized controlled nutritional intervention (18 weeks) in 72 non-diabetic participants (overweight/obese: 29/43) with at least one further metabolic risk factor. Participants were group-matched and allocated to four isoenergetic supplemented diets: control; high cereal fiber (HCF); high-protein (HP); or moderately increased cereal fiber and protein (MIX)...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Julia S Gauer, Sarka Tumova, Jonathan D Lippiat, Asimina Kerimi, Gary Williamson
Only limited data are available on the inhibition of the sugar transporter GLUT5 by flavonoids or other classes of bioactives. Intestinal GLUT7 is poorly characterised and no information exists concerning its inhibition. We aimed to study the expression of GLUT7 in Caco-2/TC7 intestinal cells, and evaluate inhibition of glucose transport by GLUT2 and GLUT7, and of fructose transport by GLUT2, GLUT5 and GLUT7, by flavonoids. Differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers were used to investigate GLUT7 expression, as well as biotinylation and immunofluorescence to assess GLUT7 location...
March 13, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Daohua Shi, Tiancheng Xie, Jie Deng, Peiguang Niu, Weizhen Wu
PURPOSE: We intend to investigate the association between tacrolimus-induced new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) and polymorphisms of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ATP-binding cassette transporter sub-family C member 8 (ABCC8), and glucokinase (GCK) in renal transplant recipients. METHODS: Polymorphisms of CYP3A4 *18B, CYP3A5 *3, ABCC8 T-3C, and GCK G-30A were genotyped in 169 renal transplant recipients. Trough concentrations of tacrolimus were detected by an ELISA kit...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Patrícia Branco, Helena Albergaria, Nils Arneborg, Catarina Prista
Saccharomyces cerevisiae secretes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) derived from glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), which induce death of several non-Saccharomyces yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated that the naturally-secreted GAPDH-derived AMPs (i.e. saccharomycin) caused a loss of culturability and decreased the intracellular pH (pHi) of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii cells. In this study, we show that chemically-synthesized analogues of saccharomycin also induce a pHi drop and loss of culturability in H...
March 13, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Antonio Gil-Gomez, Ana Isabel Gómez-Sotelo, Isidora Ranchal, Ángela Rojas, Marta García-Valdecasas, Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío Gallego-Durán, Javier Ampuero, Manuel Romero Gómez
AIM: to analyze the effect of metformin on ammonia production derived from glutamine metabolism in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: twenty male Wistar rats were studied for 28 days after a porto-caval anastomosis (n = 16) or a sham operation (n = 4). Porto-caval shunted animals were randomized into two groups (n = 8) and either received 30 mg/kg/day of metformin for two weeks or were control animals. Plasma ammonia concentration, Gls gene expression and K-type glutaminase activity were measured in the small intestine, muscle and kidney...
March 15, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Ursula J Lemberger, Claudia D Fuchs, Christian Schöfer, Andrea Bileck, Christopher Gerner, Tatjana Stojakovic, Makoto M Taketo, Michael Trauner, Gerda Egger, Christoph H Österreicher
Background: Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a crucial role in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, metabolism and malignant transformation of different organs including the liver. Continuous β-catenin signaling due to somatic mutations in exon 3 of the Ctnnb1 gene is associated with different liver diseases including cancer and cholestasis. Results: Expression of a degradation resistant form of β-catenin in hepatocytes resulted in 100% mortality within 31 days after birth...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Hong Li, Xiaonan Li, Yuanhu Xuan, Jing Jiang, Yangdou Wei, Zhongyun Piao
Plasmodiophora brassicae is a soil borne pathogen and the causal agent of clubroot, a devastating disease of Brassica crops. The pathogen lives inside roots, and hijacks nutrients from the host plants. It is suggested that clubroot galls created an additional nutrient sink in infected roots. However, the molecular mechanism underlying P. brassicae infection and sugar transport is unclear. Here, we analyzed sugar contents in leaves and roots before and after P. brassicae infection using a pair of Chinese cabbage near-isogenic lines (NILs), carrying either a clubroot resistant (CR) or susceptible (CS) allele at the CRb locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Syed Saad Hussain, Megan T Harris, Alex J B Kreutzberger, Candice M Inouye, Catherine A Doyle, Anna M Castle, Peter Arvan, J David Castle
In pancreatic β cells, insulin granule membranes are enriched in cholesterol and are both recycled and newly generated. Cholesterol's role in supporting granule membrane formation and function is poorly understood.<u>A</u>TP<u>b</u>inding<u>c</u>assette transporters ABCG1 and ABCA1 regulate intracellular cholesterol and are important for insulin secretion. RNAi-induced depletion in cultured pancreatic β cells shows that ABCG1 is needed to stabilize newly made insulin granules against lysosomal degradation; ABCA1 is also involved but to a lesser extent...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Waruni C Dissanayake, Brie Sorrenson, Emmanuelle Cognard, William E Hughes, Peter R Shepherd
GLUT4 is unique among specialized glucose transporters in being exclusively expressed in muscle and adipocytes. In the absence of insulin the distribution of GLUT4 is preferentially intracellular and insulin stimulation results in the movement of GLUT4 containing vesicles to the plasma membrane. This process is responsible for the insulin stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle and fat. While signaling pathways triggering the translocation of GLUT4 are well understood, the mechanisms regulating the intracellular retention of GLUT4 are less well understood...
March 11, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
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