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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086951/sodium-glucose-transporter-2-sglt2-inhibition-with-empagliflozin-improves-cardiac-diastolic-function-in-a-female-rodent-model-of-diabetes
#1
Javad Habibi, Annayya R Aroor, James R Sowers, Guanghong Jia, Melvin R Hayden, Mona Garro, Brady Barron, Eric Mayoux, R Scott Rector, Adam Whaley-Connell, Vincent G DeMarco
Obese and diabetic individuals are at increased risk for impairments in diastolic relaxation and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The impairments in diastolic relaxation are especially pronounced in obese and diabetic women and predict future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in this population. Recent clinical data suggest sodium glucose transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibition reduces CVD events in diabetic individuals, but the mechanisms of this CVD protection are unknown. To determine whether targeting SGLT2 improves diastolic relaxation, we utilized empagliflozin (EMPA) in female db/db mice...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086872/dapagliflozin-decreases-small-dense-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-increases-high-density-lipoprotein-2-cholesterol-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-comparison-with-sitagliptin
#2
Toshiyuki Hayashi, Tomoyasu Fukui, Noriko Nakanishi, Saki Yamamoto, Masako Tomoyasu, Anna Osamura, Makoto Ohara, Takeshi Yamamoto, Yasuki Ito, Tsutomu Hirano
BACKGROUND: The sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors have been reported to increase both low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (C). This study aimed to determine how SGLT-2 inhibitors affect LDL and HDL-C subspecies. METHODS: This single center, open-label, randomized, prospective study included 80 patients with type 2 diabetes taking prescribed oral hypoglycemic agents. Patients were allocated to receive dapagliflozin (n = 40) or sitagliptin (n = 40) as add-on treatment...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080219/adipose-tissue-insulin-resistance-in-gestational-diabetes
#3
Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Aaron T Poole, Gayle Olson, Michel Makhlouf, Hanaa S Sallam, Shwetha Thukuntla, Sucharitha Kankanala, Obos Ekhaese, Guillermo Gomez, Manisha Chandalia, Nicola Abate
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance (IR) and altered glucose-lipid metabolism. We propose that ectonucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1), a protein known to induce adipocyte IR, is a determinant of GDM. Our objective was to study ENPP1 expression in adipose tissue (AT) of obese pregnant women with or without GDM, as well as glucose tolerance in pregnant transgenic (Tg) mice with AT-specific overexpression of human ENPP1...
January 12, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077391/acclimation-to-hypoxia-increases-carbohydrate-use-during-exercise-in-high-altitude-deer-mice
#4
Daphne S Lau, Alex D Connaty, Sajeni Mahalingam, Nastashya Wall, Zachary A Cheviron, Jay F Storz, Graham R Scott, Grant B McClelland
The low oxygen experienced at high altitude is a significant challenge to effective aerobic locomotion, as it requires sustained tissue oxygen delivery in addition to the appropriate allocation of metabolic substrates. Here we test whether high- and low-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) have evolved different acclimation responses to hypoxia with respect to muscle metabolism and fuel use during submaximal exercise. Using F1-generation high- and low-altitude deer mice that were born and raised in common conditions, we assessed 1) fuel use during exercise, 2) metabolic enzyme activities, and 3) gene expression for key transporters and enzymes in the gastrocnemius...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076808/spatiotemporal-modeling-of-triggering-and-amplifying-pathways-in-glp-1-secreting-intestinal-l-cells
#5
Alessia Tagliavini, Morten Gram Pedersen
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted by intestinal L-cells, and augments glucose-induced insulin secretion, thus playing an important role in glucose control. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still incompletely understood and a topic of debate. It is known that GLP-1 secreting cells can sense glucose to promote electrical activity either by the electrogenic sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, or by closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels after glucose metabolism. Glucose also has an effect on GLP-1 secretion downstream of electrical activity...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073046/olanzapine-and-aripiprazole-differentially-affect-glucose-uptake-and-energy-metabolism-in-human-mononuclear-blood-cells
#6
Britta Stapel, Alexandra Kotsiari, Michaela Scherr, Denise Hilfiker-Kleiner, Stefan Bleich, Helge Frieling, Kai G Kahl
The use of antipsychotics carries the risk of metabolic side effects, such as weight gain and new onset type-2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanisms of the observed metabolic alterations are not fully understood. We compared the effects of two atypical antipsychotics, one known to favor weight gain (olanzapine), the other not (aripiprazole), on glucose metabolism. Primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated and stimulated with olanzapine or aripiprazole for 72 h. Cellular glucose uptake was analyzed in vitro by 18F-FDG uptake...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072820/p-cymene-promotes-its-catabolism-through-the-p-cymene-and-the-p-cumate-pathways-activates-a-stress-response-and-reduces-the-biofilm-formation-in-burkholderia-xenovorans-lb400
#7
Loreine Agulló, María José Romero-Silva, Mirian Domenech, Michael Seeger
p-Cymene is an aromatic terpene that is present in diverse plant species. The aims of this study were to study the p-cymene metabolism in the model aromatic-degrading bacterium Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, and its response to p-cymene. The catabolic p-cymene (cym) and p-cumate (cmt) genes are clustered on the LB400 major chromosome. B. xenovorans LB400 was able to grow on p-cymene as well as on p-cumate as a sole carbon and energy sources. LB400 growth attained higher cell concentration at stationary phase on p-cumate than on p-cymene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070879/a-review-of-pharmacogenetics-of-antimalarials-and-associated-clinical-implications
#8
REVIEW
Hazem Elewa, Kyle John Wilby
Genetic variability in drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters is known to influence the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Antimalarial drugs are a class of agents known to utilize metabolic and elimination pathways prone to genetic variation. This paper aims to review the genetic variants affecting antimalarial medications and discuss their clinical implications. Data were identified for the genes coding for the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2B6, and the P-glycoprotein drug transporter...
January 9, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070695/barth-syndrome-connecting-cardiolipin-to-cardiomyopathy
#9
REVIEW
Nikita Ikon, Robert O Ryan
The Barth syndrome (BTHS) is caused by an inborn error of metabolism that manifests characteristic phenotypic features including altered mitochondrial membrane phospholipids, lactic acidosis, organic acid-uria, skeletal muscle weakness and cardiomyopathy. The underlying cause of BTHS has been definitively traced to mutations in the tafazzin (TAZ) gene locus on chromosome X. TAZ encodes a phospholipid transacylase that promotes cardiolipin acyl chain remodeling. Absence of tafazzin activity results in cardiolipin molecular species heterogeneity, increased levels of monolysocardiolipin and lower cardiolipin abundance...
January 9, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069827/melatonin-mediated-upregulation-of-glut1-blocks-exit-from-pluripotency-by-increasing-the-uptake-of-oxidized-vitamin-c-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#10
Haibo Wu, Chao Song, Jingcheng Zhang, Jiamin Zhao, Beibei Fu, Tingchao Mao, Yong Zhang
Melatonin and vitamin C are powerful antioxidants that improve the reprogramming efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, the effects of the combined treatment of vitamin C and melatonin on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have not yet been examined. In this study, we showed that melatonin synergizes with vitamin C to derail exit from pluripotency of mouse ESCs. This effect is related to the increased uptake of dehydroascorbate, the oxidized form of vitamin C, through glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) transporter, which in turn, is upregulated by melatonin treatment...
January 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069587/trehalose-6-phosphate-signal-is-closely-related-to-sorbitol-in-apple-fruit-malus-domestica-borkh-cv-gala
#11
Wen Zhang, John E Lunn, Regina Feil, Yufei Wang, Jingjing Zhao, Hongxia Tao, Yanping Guo, Zhengyang Zhao
Trehalose-6-phosphate (Tre6P) is a precursor of trehalose, which is widespread in nature and greatly influences plant growth and development. Tre6P acts as a signal of carbon availability in many plants, but little is known about the function of Tre6P in rosaceous plants, which have specific sorbitol biosynthesis and transportation pathways. In the present study, Tre6P levels and Sorbitol:Tre6P ratios were analyzed in apple fruit (Malus domestica, Borkh. cv. Gala). Tre6P levels were positively correlated with sorbitol content but negatively correlated with sucrose, glucose, and fructose content in developing fruit...
January 9, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069424/different-regulation-of-insulin-on-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-2-strains-of-gibel-carp
#12
Junyan Jin, Xiaoming Zhu, Dong Han, Yunxia Yang, Haokun Liu, Shouqi Xie
To test the hypothesis that response to insulin by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in gibel carp A strain may be different from that in DT strain, bovine insulin was injected into both strains of gibel carp after previous fasting for 48 h. The results showed that insulin induced hypoglycemia at 3 h in 2 strains, and that this was coupled with increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUT2 in the liver and GLUT1, GLUT4 in the muscle) and glycolytic enzyme (HK2 in the muscle) in both strains. Insulin induced increased glycolysis (GK) and fatty acid oxidation (ACO3 in the liver and CPT1a, ACO3 in the muscle) in the DT strain...
January 6, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068944/the-acceleration-of-glucose-accumulation-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-assessed-by-fdg-pet-ct-demonstrated-acquisition-of-resistance-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-therapy
#13
Noboru Nakaigawa, Keiichi Kondo, Daiki Ueno, Kazuhiro Namura, Kazuhide Makiyama, Kazuki Kobayashi, Koichi Shioi, Ichiro Ikeda, Takeshi Kishida, Tomohiro Kaneta, Ryogo Minamimoto, Ukihide Tateishi, Tomio Inoue, Masahiro Yao
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (TKI) targeting angiogenesis improves the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but its effect is temporary. In order to understand the mechanism by which RCC acquires resistance to TKI, we investigated the change of glucose accumulation in RCC by FDG PET/CT when they demonstrated progression disease (PD) against TKI. METHODS: We monitored the FDG accumulation in RCC of 38 patients treated with TKI by 162 PET/CT sequentially until they were judged to demonstrate PD...
January 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068585/effects-of-phosphate-binders-on-the-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-arsenate-and-of-an-sglt2-inhibitor-drug-on-the-urinary-excretion-of-arsenite-in-mice
#14
Miklós Poór, Balázs Németi, Zoltán Gregus
Arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) are typical sources of acute and chronic arsenic poisoning. Therefore, reducing inner exposure to these arsenicals is a rational objective. Because As(V) mimics phosphate, phosphate binder drugs may decrease the intestinal As(V) absorption. Indeed, lanthanum and aluminium salts and sevelamer removed As(V) from solution in vitro, especially at acidic pH. In mice gavaged with As(V), lanthanum chloride, lanthanum carbonate and aluminium hydroxide given orally also lowered the urinary excretion and tissue levels of As(V) and its metabolites, indicating that they decreased the gastrointestinal As(V) absorption...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068403/normalisation-against-circadian-and-age-related-disturbances-enables-robust-detection-of-gene-expression-changes-in-liver-of-aged-mice
#15
Sara S Fonseca Costa, Daniel Wegmann, Jürgen A Ripperger
The expression of some genes is affected by age. To detect such age-related changes, their expression levels are related to constant marker genes. However, transcriptional noise increasing with advancing age renders difficult the identification of real age-related changes because it may affect the marker genes as well. Here, we report a selection procedure for genes appropriate to normalise the mouse liver transcriptome under various conditions including age. These genes were chosen from an initial set of 16 candidate genes defined based on a RNA-sequencing experiment and published literature...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068143/adaptations-to-excess-choline-in-insulin-resistant-and-pcyt2-deficient-skeletal-muscle
#16
Adrian Taylor, Laila Cigana Schenkel, Maiya Yokich, Marica Bakovic
It was hypothesized that choline supplementation in insulin resistant (IR) CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase deficient (Pcyt2(+/-)) mice would ameliorate muscle function by remodeling glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Pcyt2(+/-) mice either received no treatment or were allowed access to 2 mg/mL choline in drinking water for 4 weeks. Skeletal muscle was harvested from choline treated and untreated mice. Lipid analysis and metabolic gene expression and signaling pathways were compared between untreated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, treated Pcyt2(+/-) mice, and Pcyt2(+/+) mice...
September 6, 2016: Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Biochimie et Biologie Cellulaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065232/establishment-of-an-alloxan-induced-diabetes-model-in-daphnia-pulex
#17
An-Min Hu, Tao Zhu, Ye Jiang, Li Dong, Hong Gao, Gui-Zhi DU
Objective To establish a Daphnia model of alloxan-induced diabetes. Methods Daphnia were exposed to three different concentrations of alloxan (3, 5, and 10 mmol/L) for 30 minutes. Blood glucose and survival rate were recorded for 72 hours after alloxan insult. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic inference for glucose transporters (GLUT) were clustered with the maximum-likelihood method. Using reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques, we investigated the transcriptional changes of GLUT at 12 hours after alloxan (5 mmol/L) exposure...
December 20, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064038/characterization-of-hexose-transporters-in-yarrowia-lipolytica-reveals-new-groups-of-sugar-porters-involved-in-yeast-growth
#18
Zbigniew Lazar, Cécile Neuvéglise, Tristan Rossignol, Hugo Devillers, Nicolas Morin, Małgorzata Robak, Jean-Marc Nicaud, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le Coq
Sugar assimilation has been intensively studied in the model yeast S. cerevisiae, and for two decades, it has been clear that the homologous HXT genes, which encode a set of hexose transporters, play a central role in this process. However, in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, which is well-known for its biotechnological applications, sugar assimilation is only poorly understood, even though this yeast exhibits peculiar intra-strain differences in fructose uptake: some strains (e.g., W29) are known to be slow-growing in fructose while others (e...
January 4, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063233/establishment-of-a-new-conditionally-immortalized-human-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-endothelial-cell-line
#19
Hironori Sano, Yasuteru Sano, Eri Ishiguchi, Fumitaka Shimizu, Masatoshi Omoto, Toshihiko Maeda, Hideaki Nishihara, Yukio Takeshita, Shiori Takahashi, Mariko Oishi, Takashi Kanda
In skeletal muscle, the capillaries have tight junctions (TJs) that are structurally similar to those in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-nerve barrier (BNB). Although many findings have been clarified in the territory of BBB and BNB, few have so far examined the TJs of capillaries in the skeletal muscle. In addition, no in vitro human skeletal muscle microvasculature models have been reported thus far. We newly established a new human skeletal muscle microvascular endothelial cell (HSMMEC) line. HSMMECs were isolated from human skeletal muscle and were infected with retroviruses harboring temperature-sensitive SV40 T antigen and telomerase genes...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062355/cerebrosides-extracellular-glycolipids-secreted-by-the-selective-lignin-degrading-fungus-ceriporiopsis-subvermispora
#20
Hiroshi Nishimura, Daisuke Yamaguchi, Takashi Watanabe
Ceriporiopsis subvermispora is a selective white-rot fungus that degrades lignin at a site far from the hyphae and extracellular enzymes, without intensive damage to the cellulose. In selective ligninolysis, low molecular mass metabolites play a principal role and amphipathic substances are involved to control the degradation and transport of hydrophobic aromatic molecules, including lignin and lipids; however, secretion of the amphipathic substances by this fungus has not been well understood, except for alk(en)yl itaconates called ceriporic acids, which have a weak amphiphilicity...
January 3, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
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