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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905343/unilateral-hemorrhagic-maculopathy-an-uncommon-manifestation-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#1
Manish Tandon, Abhishek Gupta, Priyanka Singh, Gnanavelu N Subathra
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFD) is a common systemic infection occurring in childhood or immunocompromised adults caused by enteroviruses, the most common being coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71. It is characterized by maculopapular eruptions over the hands and feet and ulcerative stomatitis. Ocular involvement is a rare complication and commonly manifests as inflammatory macular pathology. We report a case of HFD in an immunocompetent adult male with unilateral ocular involvement presenting as hemorrhagic maculopathy and its management with complete anatomical and functional recovery...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894305/identification-of-molecular-determinants-of-cell-culture-growth-characteristics-of-enterovirus-71
#2
Pinn Tsin Isabel Yee, Kuan Onn Tan, Iekhsan Othman, Chit Laa Poh
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease is caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and Coxsackieviruses. EV-A71 infection is associated with high fever, rashes and ulcers but more severe symptoms such as cardiopulmonary failure and death have been reported. The lack of vaccines highlighted the urgency of developing preventive agents against EV-A71. The molecular determinants of virulent phenotypes of EV-A71 is unclear. It remains to be investigated if specific molecular determinants would affect the cell culture growth characteristics of the EV-A71 fatal strain in Rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells...
November 28, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893696/molecular-epidemiological-study-of-enteroviruses-associated-with-encephalitis-in-children-from-hangzhou-china
#3
Wei Li, Zhang Qiong, Shen Xiao-Ting, Liu Yu-Jie, Mao Jian-Hua, Shu Qiang, Shang Shi-Qiang
Enterovirus (EV) has over 100 serotypes of species A-D, which can cause various symptoms in infants. Enterovirus encephalitis (EVE) is serve disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. To well define the epidemiology of EVE, we wanted to know more about EV and EV molecular typing by conducting this study in Hangzhou.Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from children with diagnosis of encephalitis. Meanwhile, one-step real-time RT-PCR was used for the detection of EV, and we also identified the serotypes of EV by using gene sequencing of VP1 or 5'UTR region...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890633/comparison-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-ev71-and-ca16-infection-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-by-high-throughput-sequencing-to-reveal-differential-infective-mechanisms
#4
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Ying Zhang, Jingjing Wang, Lichun Wang, Shengtao Fan, Ming Feng, Qihan Li
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) mainly caused by Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) infections which presented significantly different clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, the factors underlying these differences remain unclear. Recently, the functions of microRNAs (miRNAs) in pathogen-host interactions have been highlighted. Here, we performed comprehensive miRNA profiling in EV71- and CA16-infected human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells at multiple time points using high-throughput sequencing...
November 24, 2016: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886550/v%C3%AE-1-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-early-cardiac-infiltrated-innate-population-dominantly-producing-il-4-protect-mice-against-cvb3-myocarditis-by-modulating-ifn%C3%AE-t-response
#5
Fangfang Wan, Kepeng Yan, Dan Xu, Qian Qian, Hui Liu, Min Li, Wei Xu
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of the myocardium closely associated with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection. Vγ1(+)γδT cells, one of early cardiac infiltrated innate population, were reported to protect CVB3 myocarditis while the precise mechanism not fully addressed. To explore cytokine profiles and kinetics of Vγ1(+)γδT and mechanism of protection against VMC, flow cytometry was conducted on cardiac Vγ1 cells in C57BL/6 mice following CVB3 infection. The level of cardiac inflammation, transthoracic echocardiography and viral replication were evaluated after monoclonal antibody depletion of Vγ1γδT...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883919/bayesian-belief-network-modelling-of-chlorine-disinfection-for-human-pathogenic-viruses-in-municipal-wastewater
#6
Guido Carvajal, David J Roser, Scott A Sisson, Alexandra Keegan, Stuart J Khan
Chlorine disinfection of biologically treated wastewater is practiced in many locations prior to environmental discharge or beneficial reuse. The effectiveness of chlorine disinfection processes may be influenced by several factors, such as pH, temperature, ionic strength, organic carbon concentration, and suspended solids. We investigated the use of Bayesian multilayer perceptron (BMLP) models as efficient and practical tools for compiling and analysing free chlorine and monochloramine virus disinfection performance as a multivariate problem...
November 3, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878462/enterovirus-a71-and-coxsackievirus-a16-show-different-replication-kinetics-in-human-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-cell-lines
#7
Thinesshwary Yogarajah, Kien Chai Ong, David Perera, Kum Thong Wong
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are closely related enteroviruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. Serious neurological complications almost always occur in EV-A71 infection, but are rare in CV-A16 infection. Based on the hypothesis that this may be because EV-A71 infects neuronal cells more easily than CV-A16, we compared virus infection, replication and spread of EV-A71 and CV-A16 in SK-N-SH cells. We found that CV-A16 invariably showed significantly lower replication and caused less necrotic cell death in SK-N-SH cells, compared with EV-A71...
November 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878326/a-novel-72-kda-leukocyte-derived-osteoglycin-enhances-the-activation-of-toll-like-receptor-4-and-exacerbates-cardiac-inflammation-during-viral-myocarditis
#8
Marieke Rienks, Anna Papageorgiou, Kristiaan Wouters, Wouter Verhesen, Rick van Leeuwen, Paolo Carai, Georg Summer, Dirk Westermann, Stephane Heymans
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis can severely damage the myocardium through excessive infiltration of immune cells. Osteoglycin (OGN) is part of the small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP) family. SLRP's may affect inflammatory and fibrotic processes, but the implication of OGN in cardiac inflammation and the resulting injury upon viral myocarditis is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study uncovered a previously unidentified 72-kDa variant of OGN that is predominant in cardiac human and mouse samples of viral myocarditis...
November 23, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871939/cell-cell-communication-mediated-by-the-car-subgroup-of-immunoglobulin-cell-adhesion-molecules-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Claudia Matthäus, Hanna Langhorst, Laura Schütz, René Jüttner, Fritz G Rathjen
The immunoglobulin superfamily represents a diverse set of cell-cell contact proteins and includes well-studied members such as NCAM1, DSCAM, L1 or the contactins which are strongly expressed in the nervous system. In this review we put our focus on the biological function of a less understood subgroup of Ig-like proteins composed of CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor), CLMP (CAR-like membrane protein) and BT-IgSF (brain and testis specific immunoglobulin superfamily). The CAR-related proteins are type I transmembrane proteins containing an N-terminal variable (V-type) and a membrane proximal constant (C2-type) Ig domain in their extracellular region which are implicated in homotypic adhesion...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855715/erratum-to-antiviral-activity-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-protectis-against-coxsackievirus-a-and-enterovirus-71-infection-in-human-skeletal-muscle-and-colon-cell-lines
#10
Lei Yin Emily Ang, Horng Khit Issac Too, Eng Lee Tan, Tak-Kwong Vincent Chow, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Elizabeth Huiwen Tham, Sylvie Alonso
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847478/the-protective-effects-of-ivabradine-in-preventing-progression-from-viral-myocarditis-to-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#11
Li Yue-Chun, Chen Guang-Yi, Ge Li-Sha, Xing Chao, Tian Xinqiao, Lin Cong, Dai Xiao-Ya, Yang Xiangjun
To study the beneficial effects of ivabradine in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) mice, which evolved from coxsackievirus B3-induced chronic viral myocarditis. Four-to-five-week-old male balb/c mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with coxsackievirus B3 (Strain Nancy) on days 1, 14, and 28. The day of the first virus inoculation was defined as day 1. Thirty-five days later, the surviving chronic viral myocarditis mice were divided randomly into two groups, a treatment group and an untreated group. Ivabradine was administered by gavage for 30 consecutive days in the treatment group, and the untreated group was administered normal saline...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845890/virus-inactivation-under-the-photodynamic-effect-of-phthalocyanine-zinc-ii-complexes
#12
Mimi Remichkova, Luchia Mukova, Lubomira Nikolaeva-Glomb, Nadya Nikolova, Lubka Doumanova, Vanya Mantareva, Ivan Angelov, Veselin Kussovski, Angel S Galabov
Various metal phthalocyanines have been studied for their capacity for photodynamic effects on viruses. Two newly synthesized water-soluble phthalocyanine Zn(II) complexes with different charges, cationic methylpyridyloxy-substituted Zn(II)- phthalocyanine (ZnPcMe) and anionic sulfophenoxy-substituted Zn(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPcS), were used for photoinactivation of two DNA-containing enveloped viruses (herpes simplex virus type 1 and vaccinia virus), two RNA-containing enveloped viruses (bovine viral diarrhea virus and Newcastle disease virus) and two nude viruses (the enterovirus Coxsackie B1, a RNA-containing virus, and human adenovirus 5, a DNA virus)...
November 15, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843944/systematic-identification-and-bioinformatic-analysis-of-micrornas-in-response-to-infections-of-coxsackievirus-a16-and-enterovirus-71
#13
Zheng Zhu, Yuhua Qi, Huan Fan, Lunbiao Cui, Zhiyang Shi
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), mainly caused by coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections, remains a serious public health issue with thousands of newly diagnostic cases each year since 2008 in China. The mechanisms underlying viral infection, however, are elusive to date. In the present study, we systematically investigated the host cellular microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in response to CVA16 and EV71 infections. Through microarray examination, 27 miRNAs (15 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were found to be coassociated with the replication process of two viruses, while the expression levels of 15 and 5 miRNAs were significantly changed in CVA16- and EV71-infected cells, respectively...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829175/pathologic-and-immunologic-characteristics-of-coxsackievirus-a16-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#14
Jingjing Wang, Ying Zhang, Xiaolong Zhang, Yajie Hu, Chenghong Dong, Longding Liu, Erxia Yang, Yanchun Che, Jing Pu, Xi Wang, Jie Song, Yun Liao, Min Feng, Yan Liang, Ting Zhao, Li Jiang, Zhanlong He, Shuaiyao Lu, Lichun Wang, Yanyan Li, Shengtao Fan, Lei Guo, Qihan Li
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) causes human hand, foot and mouth disease, but its pathogenesis is unclear. In rhesus macaques, CV-A16 infection causes characteristic vesicles in the oral mucosa and limbs as well as viremia and positive viral loads in the tissues, suggesting that these animals reflect the pathologic process of the infection. An immunologic analysis indicated a defective immune response, which included undetectable neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ-specific memory T-cells in macaques infected with CV-A16...
November 6, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820939/protease-activated-receptor-1-enhances-poly-i-c-induction-of-the-antiviral-response-in-macrophages-and-mice
#15
Silvio Antoniak, Kohei Tatsumi, Michael Bode, Swetha Vanja, Julie C Williams, Nigel Mackman
The coagulation cascade is activated during viral infections as part of the host defense system. Coagulation proteases activate cells by cleavage of protease-activated receptors (PARs). Recently, we reported that the activation of PAR-1 enhanced interferon (IFN)β and CXCL10 expression in cardiac fibroblasts and in the hearts of mice infected with Coxsackievirus B3. In this study, we used the double-stranded RNA mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) to induce an antiviral response in macrophages and mice...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815331/anti-enteroviral-triple-combination-of-viral-replication-inhibitors-activity-against-coxsackievirus-b1-neuroinfection-in-mice
#16
Adelina Stoyanova, Ivanka Nikolova, Gerhard Pürstinger, Georgi Dobrikov, Vladimir Dimitrov, Stefan Philipov, Angel S Galabov
BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy is an important tool for controlling enterovirus infections, but clinically effective anti-enterovirus drugs do not currently exist, mainly due to the development of drug resistance. We investigated the combination effects of enterovirus replication inhibitors in order to limit this process. In previous studies, we showed the efficacy of consecutive alternating administration of the triple combinations disoxaril/guanidine/oxoglaucine and pleconaril/guanidine/oxoglaucine against coxsackievirus B1 infection in newborn mice...
November 4, 2016: Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796546/epidemiology-and-etiology-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-fujian-province-2008-2014
#17
Yuwei Weng, Wei Chen, Meng Huang, Wenxiang He, Kuicheng Zheng, Yansheng Yan
Millions of cases of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been reported annually in mainland China since 2008. In this study, we investigated the epidemiology and etiology of an HFMD epidemic in Fujian province, which is located in subtropical southeastern China. Our study found similar epidemiological features of HFMD in southern areas of China, including seasonality and demographic distribution, as well as correlation between severity of illness and serotype. At least 22 serotypes of other enterovirus co-circulating with enterovirus 71 were found to belong to clade C4a, and those circulating with coxsackievirus A16 were associated with clades B1a and B1b...
October 28, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793649/coxsackievirus-b3-induces-the-formation-of-autophagosomes-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Xia Zhai, Ying Qin, Yang Chen, Lexun Lin, Tianying Wang, Xiaoyan Zhong, Xiaoyu Wu, Sijia Chen, Jing Li, Yan Wang, Fengmin Zhang, Wenran Zhao, Zhaohua Zhong
Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) is one of the common pathogens that cause myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Evidence has shown that CVB replication in cardiomyocytes is responsible for the damage and loss of cardiac muscle and the dysfunction of the heart. However, it remains largely undefined how CVB would directly impact cardiac fibroblasts, the most abundant cells in human heart. In this study, cardiac fibroblasts were isolated from Balb/c mice and infected with CVB type 3 (CVB3). Increased double-membraned, autophagosome-like vesicles in the CVB3-infected cardiac fibroblasts were observed with electron microscope...
October 25, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792461/anti-coxsackievirus-b4-cv-b4-enhancing-activity-of-serum-associated-with-increased-viral-load-and-pathology-in-mice-reinfected-with-cv-b4
#19
Firas Elmastour, Hela Jaïdane, Mehdi Benkahla, Leila Aguech-Oueslati, Famara Sane, Aymen Halouani, Ilka Engelmann, Antoine Bertin, Moncef Mokni, Jawhar Gharbi, Mahjoub Aouni, Enagnon K Alidjinou, Didier Hober
In previous studies it was shown that inoculation of Swiss albino mice with CV-B4 E2 resulted in the production of serum IgG capable of enhancing the CV-B4 E2 infection of murine spleen cells cultures. To investigate whether such an enhancing activity of serum can play a role in vivo, we decided to study the CV-B4 E2 infection in mice exposed to successive inoculations of virus. In Swiss albino mice infected with CV-B4 E2 at the age of 21 days, anti-CV-B4 E2 neutralizing and enhancing activities of their serum peaked after 55 d...
October 28, 2016: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790717/in-utero-coxsackievirus-b4-infection-of-the-mouse-thymus
#20
Hela Jaïdane, Aymen Halouani, Habib Jmii, Firas Elmastour, Saïda Abdelkefi, Gwennaëlle Bodart, Hélène Michaux, Tahar Chakroun, Famara Sane, Moncef Mokni, Vincent Geenen, Didier Hober, Mahjoub Aouni
Type B Coxsackievirus (CV-B) infections are frequently involved in the triggering of several autoimmune diseases such as myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, pericarditis, pancreatitis, type 1 diabetes, encephalitis, thyroiditis, or Sjögren's syndrome. Serological and virological evidence suggests that maternal infections during pregnancy can play a role in the appearance of these diseases in offspring. The current study aims to explore the effect of an in utero CV-B infection on the fetal thymus, the central site for programming immunological self-tolerance...
October 28, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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