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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100612/sex-dependent-intestinal-replication-of-an-enteric-virus
#1
Christopher M Robinson, Yao Wang, Julie K Pfeiffer
: Coxsackievirus is an enteric virus that initiates infection in the gastrointestinal tract before disseminating to peripheral tissues to cause disease, but intestinal factors that influence viral replication are understudied. Furthermore, a sex bias for severe sequelae from coxsackievirus infections has been observed in humans. While mouse models mimicking human pathogenesis have been well characterized, many of these experiments use intraperitoneal injection of coxsackievirus to infect mice, bypassing the intestine...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095607/heat-shock-protein-70-promotes-coxsackievirus-b3-translation-initiation-and-elongation-via-akt-mtorc1-pathway-depending-on-activation-of-p70s6k-and-cdc2
#2
Fengping Wang, Ye Qiu, Huifang M Zhang, Paul Hanson, Xin Ye, Guangze Zhao Ronald Xie, Lei Tong, Decheng Yang
We previously demonstrated that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) infection upregulated heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and promoted CVB3 multiplication. Here, we report the underlying mechanism by which Hsp70 enhances viral RNA translation. By using an Hsp70-overexpressing cell line infected with CVB3, we found that Hsp70 enhanced CVB3 VP1 translation at two stages. First, Hsp70 induced upregulation of VP1 translation at the initiation stage via upregulation of IRES trans-acting factor La protein and activation of eIF4E binding protein 1, a cap-dependent translation suppressor...
January 17, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088354/uncovering-oxysterol-binding-protein-osbp-as-a-target-of-the-anti-enteroviral-compound-ttp-8307
#3
Lucian Albulescu, Joëlle Bigay, Bishyajit Biswas, Marion Weber-Boyvat, Cristina M Dorobantu, Leen Delang, Hilde M van der Schaar, Young-Sik Jung, Johan Neyts, Vesa M Olkkonen, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Jeroen R P M Strating
The genus Enterovirus (e.g. poliovirus, coxsackievirus, rhinovirus) of the Picornaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses includes many important pathogens linked to a range of acute and chronic diseases for which no approved antiviral therapy is available. Targeting a step in the life cycle that is highly conserved provides an attractive strategy for developing broad-range inhibitors of enterovirus infection. A step that is currently explored as a target for the development of antivirals is the formation of replication organelles, which support replication of the viral genome...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070615/detection-of-enteroviruses-in-stools-precedes-islet-autoimmunity-by-several-months-possible-evidence-for-slowly-operating-mechanisms-in-virus-induced-autoimmunity
#4
Hanna Honkanen, Sami Oikarinen, Noora Nurminen, Olli H Laitinen, Heini Huhtala, Jussi Lehtonen, Tanja Ruokoranta, Minna M Hankaniemi, Valérie Lecouturier, Jeffrey W Almond, Sisko Tauriainen, Olli Simell, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Hanna Viskari, Mikael Knip, Heikki Hyöty
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: This case-control study was nested in a prospective birth cohort to evaluate whether the presence of enteroviruses in stools was associated with the appearance of islet autoimmunity in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. METHODS: Altogether, 1673 longitudinal stool samples from 129 case children who turned positive for multiple islet autoantibodies and 3108 stool samples from 282 matched control children were screened for the presence of enterovirus RNA using RT-PCR...
January 9, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063993/inhibition-of-enterovirus-71-replication-by-an-%C3%AE-hydroxy-nitrile-derivative-nk-1-9k
#5
Yaxin Wang, Lin Cao, Yangyang Zhai, Jiaming Ma, Quandeng Nie, Ting Li, Zheng Yin, Yuna Sun, Luqing Shang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the major etiological agents of human hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide. EV71 infection in young children and people with immunodeficiency causes severe symptoms with a high fatality rates. However, there is still no approved drugs to treat such infections. Based on our previous report of a peptide-aldehyde anti-EV71 protease, we present here a highly specific α-hydroxy-nitrile derivative NK-1.9k, which inhibited the proliferation of multiple EV71 strains and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) in various cells with EC50 of 37...
January 4, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056277/-direct-medical-costs-and-influencing-factors-in-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-children-aged-between-six-months-and-five-years-old
#6
Y M Zheng, J Yang, Q H Liao
Objective: To estimate the direct medical cost of severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in patients aged less than five years. Methods: A stratified sampling method was used to collect data on severe HFMD cases reported in the National HFMD surveillance database between Jan 1, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013. The sampling was referenced with the national aetiologic distribution of Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and other Enteroviruses (OEV) for severe HFMD cases and the included cases were distributed among seven geographic regions (Northeast, North China, Northwest, Central China, Southwest, East China and South China)...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049062/adenovirus-transduction-more-complicated-than-receptor-expression
#7
Priyanka Sharma, Prithy C Martis, Katherine J D A Excoffon
The abundance and accessibility of a primary virus receptor are critical factors that impact the susceptibility of a host cell to virus infection. The Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) has two transmembrane isoforms that occur due to alternative splicing and differ in localization and function in polarized epithelia. To determine the relevance of isoform-specific expression across cell types, the abundance and localization of both isoforms were determined in ten common cell lines, and correlated with susceptibility to adenovirus transduction relative to polarized primary human airway epithelia...
December 31, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041873/il-33-enhances-macrophage-m2-polarization-and-protects-mice-from-cvb3-induced-viral-myocarditis
#8
Chao Wang, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
Viral myocarditis is the inflammation caused by myocardial virus infection, and the coxsackievirus group B3 virus (CVB3) is the most common pathogen. An efficient therapeutic agent against viral myocarditis is currently unavailable. IL-33, a new member of the IL-1 cytokine superfamily, exhibits potential immunotherapeutic effect against inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, the functional role of IL-33 in viral myocarditis has not been investigated. To examine the therapeutic role of IL-33 in viral myocarditis, an IL-33 overexpression plasmid (pDisplay-IL-33) and IL-33 knockdown plasmid (pLL3...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030650/two-genotypes-of-coxsackievirus-a2-associated-with-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-circulating-in-china-since-2008
#9
Qian Yang, Yong Zhang, Dongmei Yan, Shuangli Zhu, Dongyan Wang, Tianjiao Ji, Xiaolei Li, Yang Song, Xinrui Gu, Wenbo Xu
Coxsackievirus A2 (CV-A2) has been frequently detected and commonly associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in China since 2008. However, limited sequences of CV-A2 are currently available. As a result, we have been focusing on the genetic characteristics of CV-A2 in the mainland of China during 2008-2015 based on national HFMD surveillance. In this study, 20 CV-A2 strains were isolated and phylogenetic analyses of the VP1 sequences were performed. Full-length genome sequences of two representative CV-A2 isolates were acquired and similarity plot and bootscanning analyses were performed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027826/clinicopathologic-analysis-of-atypical-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-adult-patients
#10
Julie Second, Charles Velter, Sophie Calès, François Truchetet, Dan Lipsker, Bernard Cribier
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious viral infection usually affecting children. A resurgence of cases in adults, mainly caused by coxsackievirus A6 and with an atypical and more severe presentation, has taken place. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to examine the clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical features of this disease in adults. METHODS: This is a retrospective study on documented cases of adult hand, foot, and mouth disease from France's Dermatology Department of Strasbourg University Hospital and Bel-Air Hospital in Thionville...
December 24, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025712/a-cluster-of-coxsackievirus-a21-associated-acute-respiratory-illness-the-evidence-of-efficient-transmission-of-cva21
#11
Lirong Zou, Lina Yi, Yingchao Song, Xin Zhang, Lijun Liang, Hanzhong Ni, Changwen Ke, Jie Wu, Jing Lu
In March 2016, a cluster of unexplained respiratory illnesses was reported by the acute respiratory infections (ARI) surveillance system of Guangdong Province, China. Twenty-three high school students and one teacher from the four neighboring classes were admitted to a hospital. CVA21 was found in eight of fourteen patients. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the CVA21 outbreak was most likely caused by transmission of the virus from person to person. This is the first report of an ARI outbreak caused by CVA21, which suggests that CVA21 has the potential to be transmitted efficiently from person to person and should be closely monitored by clinicians and public health agencies...
December 26, 2016: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018858/coxsackievirus-b3-directly-induced-th17-cell-differentiation-by-inhibiting-nup98-expression-in-patients-with-acute-viral-myocarditis
#12
Qi Long, Yu-Hua Liao, Yu Xie, Wei Liang, Xiang Cheng, Jing Yuan, Miao Yu
Th17 cells play a key role in the progression of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced acute viral myocarditis (AVMC). However, the direct effect of virus on Th17 cell differentiation is still unknown. Recently, nucleoporin (Nup) 98 has been proved to be associated with lymphocyte differentiation. Therefore, we investigated whether Nup98 mediated Th17 cell differentiation in AVMC. In our study, patients with AVMC and healthy controls were recruited. The results showed that CVB3 could enter into the CD4(+) T cells in AVMC patients and healthy controls...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011355/elimination-of-representative-contaminant-candidate-list-viruses-coxsackievirus-echovirus-hepatitis-a-virus-and-norovirus-from-water-by-coagulation-processes
#13
N Shirasaki, T Matsushita, Y Matsui, K Murai, A Aochi
We examined the removal of representative contaminant candidate list (CCL) viruses (coxsackievirus [CV] B5, echovirus type [EV] 11, and hepatitis A virus [HAV] IB), recombinant norovirus virus-like particles (rNV-VLPs), and murine norovirus (MNV) type 1 by coagulation. Water samples were subjected to coagulation with polyaluminum chloride (PACl, basicity 1.5) followed by either settling or settling and filtration. Together with our previously published results, the removal ratio order, as evaluated by a plaque-forming-unit method or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after settling, was HAV>EV=rNV-VLPs≥CV=poliovirus type 1=MNV>adenovirus type 40 (range, 0...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008251/coating-with-spermine-pullulan-polymer-enhances-adenoviral-transduction-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#14
Li Wan, Xinglei Yao, Francesco Faiola, Bojun Liu, Tianyuan Zhang, Yasuhiko Tabata, Hiroyuki Mizuguchi, Shinsaku Nakagawa, Jian-Qing Gao, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells with multilineage potential, which makes them attractive tools for regenerative medicine applications. Efficient gene transfer into MSCs is essential not only for basic research in developmental biology but also for therapeutic applications involving gene-modification in regenerative medicine. Adenovirus vectors (Advs) can efficiently and transiently introduce an exogenous gene into many cell types via their primary receptors, the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors, but not into MSCs, which are deficient in coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptors expression...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004945/rational-design-of-novel-highly-potent-and-selective-phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase-iii%C3%AE-pi4kb-inhibitors-as-broad-spectrum-antiviral-agents-and-tools-for-chemical-biology
#15
Ivana Mejdrová, Dominika Chalupská, Pavla Plačková, Christin Müller, Michal Šála, Martin Klíma, Adriana Baumlová, Hubert Hřebabecký, Eliška Procházková, Milan Dejmek, Dmytro Strunin, Jan Weber, Gary Lee, Marika Matoušová, Helena Mertlíková-Kaiserová, John Ziebuhr, Gabriel Birkus, Evzen Boura, Radim Nencka
Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIβ (PI4KB) is indispensable for the replication of various positive-sense single stranded RNA viruses, which hijack this cellular enzyme to remodel intracellular membranes of infected cells to set up the functional replication machinery. Therefore, the inhibition of this PI4K isoform leads to the arrest of viral replication. Here, we report on the synthesis of novel PI4KB inhibitors, which were rationally designed based on two distinct structural types of inhibitors that bind in the ATP binding side of PI4KB...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000722/an-ifih1-gene-polymorphism-associated-with-risk-for-autoimmunity-regulates-canonical-antiviral-defence-pathways-in-coxsackievirus-infected-human-pancreatic-islets
#16
Erna Domsgen, Katharina Lind, Lingjia Kong, Michael H Hühn, Omid Rasool, Frank van Kuppeveld, Olle Korsgren, Riitta Lahesmaa, Malin Flodström-Tullberg
The IFIH1 gene encodes the pattern recognition receptor MDA5. A common polymorphism in IFIH1 (rs1990760, A946T) confers increased risk for autoimmune disease, including type 1-diabetes (T1D). Coxsackievirus infections are linked to T1D and cause beta-cell damage in vitro. Here we demonstrate that the rs1990760 polymorphism regulates the interferon (IFN) signature expressed by human pancreatic islets following Coxsackievirus infection. A strong IFN signature was associated with high expression of IFNλ1 and IFNλ2, linking rs1990760 to the expression of type III IFNs...
December 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974562/in-vivo-imaging-with-bioluminescent-enterovirus-71-allows-for-real-time-visualization-of-tissue-tropism-and-viral-spread
#17
Elizabeth A Caine, Jorge E Osorio
: Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a re-emerging illness caused by a variety of enteroviruses. The main causative agents are enterovirus 71 (EV71), Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and most recently Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6). Infections of enteroviruses can vary from asymptomatic, mild fever and blisters on infected individual's hands, feet, and throat, to severe neurological complications. Viral persistence has also been documented for weeks post infection (w.p.i.) by demonstration of virus in the stool of children...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940223/mops-and-coxsackievirus-b3-stability
#18
Steven D Carson, Susan Hafenstein, Hyunwook Lee
Study of coxsackievirus B3 strain 28 (CVB3/28) stability using MOPS to improve buffering in the experimental medium revealed that MOPS (3-morpholinopropane-1-sulfonic acid) increased CVB3 stability and the effect was concentration dependent. Over the pH range 7.0-7.5, virus stability was affected by both pH and MOPS concentration. Computer-simulated molecular docking showed that MOPS can occupy the hydrophobic pocket in capsid protein VP1 where the sulfonic acid head group can form ionic and hydrogen bonds with Arg95 and Asn211 near the pocket opening...
January 15, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934956/placental-antibody-transfer-efficiency-and-maternal-levels-specific-for-measles-coxsackievirus-a16-enterovirus-71-poliomyelitis-i-iii-and-hiv-1-antibodies
#19
Chuanxi Fu, Long Lu, Hao Wu, Jeffrey Shaman, Yimin Cao, Fang Fang, Qiongying Yang, Qing He, Zhicong Yang, Ming Wang
Maternal antibodies transported across the placenta can provide vital immunity against infectious pathogens for infants. We here examine maternal antibody (MA) levels and their association with neonatal antibody levels. Pregnant women of gestational age ≥35 weeks were enrolled at a Guangzhou China hospital and mother-infant paired sera were collected. Measles IgG antibody was detected using ELISA assay, neutralizing antibodies titers against coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), enterovirus 71 (EV71), PV I-III and HIV-1 were performed...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933184/coxsackie-adenovirus-receptor-expression-is-enhanced-in-pancreas-from-patients-with-type-1-diabetes
#20
M Hodik, M Anagandula, J Fuxe, L Krogvold, K Dahl-Jørgensen, H Hyöty, L Sarmiento, G Frisk
OBJECTIVES: One of the theories connecting enterovirus (EV) infection of human islets with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the development of a fertile field in the islets. This implies induction of appropriate proteins for the viral replication such as the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent CAR is expressed in human islets of Langerhans, and what conditions that would change the expression. DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry for CAR was performed on paraffin-embedded pancreatic tissue from patients with T1D (n=9 recent onset T1D, n=4 long-standing T1D), islet autoantibody-positive individuals (n=14) and non-diabetic controls (n=24) individuals...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
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