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Audrey Mirand, François Vié le Sage, Bruno Pereira, Robert Cohen, Corinne Levy, Christine Archimbaud, Hélène Peigue-Lafeuille, Jean-Luc Bailly, Cécile Henquell
The clinical impact of enteroviruses associated with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is unknown outside Asia, and the prevalence of enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) in particular might be underestimated. To investigate the prevalence of enterovirus serotypes and the clinical presentations associated with HFMD in France, we conducted prospective ambulatory clinic-based surveillance of children during April 2014-March 2015. Throat or buccal swabs were collected from children with HFMD and tested for the enterovirus genome...
November 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Miao Yu, Qi Long, Huan-Huan Li, Wei Liang, Yu-Hua Liao, Jing Yuan, Xiang Cheng
Myocardial injuries in viral myocarditis (VMC) are caused by viral infection and related autoimmune disorders. Recent studies suggest that IL-9 mediated both antimicrobial immune and autoimmune responses in addition to allergic diseases. However, the role of IL-9 in viral infection and VMC remains controversial and uncertain. In this study, we infected Balb/c mice with Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), and found that IL-9 was enriched in the blood and hearts of VMC mice on days 5 and 7 after virus infection. Most of IL-9 was secreted by CD8(+) T cells on day 5 and CD4(+) T cells on day 7 in the myocardium...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16 at various time points using high-throughput sequencing...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Anna Sävneby, Johannes Luthman, Fabian Nordenskjöld, Björn Andersson, A Michael Lindberg
The transcriptomes of cells infected with lytic and non-lytic variants of coxsackievirus B2 Ohio-1 (CVB2O) were analyzed using next generation sequencing. This approach was selected with the purpose of elucidating the effects of lytic and non-lytic viruses on host cell transcription. Total RNA was extracted from infected cells and sequenced. The resulting reads were subsequently mapped against the human and CVB2O genomes. The amount of intracellular RNA was measured, indicating lower proportions of human RNA in the cells infected with the lytic virus compared to the non-lytic virus after 48 hours...
2016: PloS One
Outi Heikkilä, Pirjo Merilahti, Marika Hakanen, Eveliina Karelehto, Jonna Alanko, Maria Sukki, Saija Kiljunen, Petri Susi
BACKGROUND: Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the αVβ6 integrin receptor through a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is located at the exposed carboxy-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 detected in all studied clinical isolates. However, genetically-modified CV-A9 that lacks the RGD motif (CV-A9-RGDdel) has been shown to be infectious in some cell lines but not in A549, suggesting that RGD-mediated integrin binding is not always essential for efficient entry of CV-A9...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Norma H Medina, Emilio Haro-Muñoz, Alessandra Cristina Pellini, Braulio C Machado, Denise H Russo, Maria do Carmo Timenetsky, Rita de Cássia C Carmona
Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP) in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet) and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed...
February 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
Xiran He, Bo Gao, Lei Zhou, Sidong Xiong
Viral myocarditis, which is mainly caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), affects about 5%-20% of the world population and still lacks efficient treatments. Green tea, a tonic and healthful beverage that was originated in ancient China, has been receiving considerable attention for its protective effect on cardiovascular diseases in recent years. In present investigation, we aimed to explore the effect of Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on CVB3-induced myocarditis and its underlying mechanism...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Ioanna Eleftheriadou, Ioannis Manolaras, Elaine E Irvine, Michael Dieringer, Antonio Trabalza, Nicholas D Mazarakis
OBJECTIVE: We have previously described the generation of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (α CAR)-targeted vector, and shown that intramuscular delivery in mouse leg muscles resulted in specific retrograde transduction of lumbar-motor neurons (MNs). Here, we utilized the α CAR-targeted vector to investigate the in vivo neuroprotective effects of lentivirally expressed IGF-1 for inducing neuronal survival and ameliorating the neuropathology and behavioral phenotypes of the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of ALS...
October 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Wei Li, Hui-Hui Gao, Qiong Zhang, Yu-Jie Liu, Ran Tao, Yu-Ping Cheng, Qiang Shu, Shi-Qiang Shang
Herpangina, usually caused by coxsackie virus A, is prevalent in children spreading through the fecal-oral transmission and the respiratory droplets dissemination. Also, it is mostly asymptomatic and self-limiting. In our study, we found that large outbreak of herpangina in children occurred in the summer of 2015 in Hangzhou, China. From May 1th to August 31th, a total of 10 210 children were diagnosed with herpangina in Children's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine. 2 310 throat swabs were collected and tested for enterovirus detection by real-time RT-PCR, while 1 651 cases were positive with the rate of 71...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Xin-Yue Cheng, Yu-Huan Li, Sheng Tang, Xin Zhang, Yan-Xiang Wang, Sheng-Gang Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang, Ying-Hong Li, Dan-Qing Song
Twenty-eight new 12N-benzenesulfonyl matrinic butane and halogenated 12N-sulfonyl matrinic butane/ethane derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-coxsakievirus activities against CVB3 taking compound 1 as the lead. SAR analysis indicated the introduction of a fluoro atom on the 1'-position might be helpful for keeping potency. Among them, compound 8a exhibited potential activities against all CVBs with IC50 ranging from 0.69 to 5.14 μM, suggesting a broad-spectrum anti-coxsackievirus B feature...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Li Wei, Zhang Qiong, Shen Xiao-Ting, Liu Yu-Jie, Mao Jian-Hua, Shu Qiang, Shang Shi-Qiang
Enterovirus (EV) has over 100 serotypes of species A-D, which can cause various symptoms in infants. Enterovirus encephalitis (EVE) is serve disease with high morbidity and mortality in children. To well define the epidemiology of EVE, we wanted to know more about EV and EV molecular typing by conducting this study in Hangzhou.Cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from children with diagnosis of encephalitis. Meanwhile, one-step real-time RT-PCR was used for the detection of EV, and we also identified the serotypes of EV by using gene sequencing of VP1 or 5'UTR region...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kan Xing Wu, Patchara Phuektes, Pankaj Kumar, Germaine Yen Lin Goh, Dimitri Moreau, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Frederic Bard, Justin Jang Hann Chu
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic enterovirus without antivirals or vaccine, and its host-pathogen interactions remain poorly understood. Here we use a human genome-wide RNAi screen to identify 256 host factors involved in EV71 replication in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Enrichment analyses reveal overrepresentation in processes like mitotic cell cycle and transcriptional regulation. We have carried out orthogonal experiments to characterize the roles of selected factors involved in cell cycle regulation and endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation...
October 17, 2016: Nature Communications
Kyungtaek Im, Jisu Kim, Hyeyoung Min
Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) is a heat-processed ginseng developed by the repeated steaming and air-drying of fresh ginseng. Compared with fresh ginseng, KRG has been shown to possess greater pharmacological activities and stability because of changes that occur in its chemical constituents during the steaming process. In addition to anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory activities, KRG and its purified components have also been shown to possess protective effects against microbial infections. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the properties of KRG and its components on infections with human pathogenic viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human herpes virus, hepatitis virus, norovirus, rotavirus, enterovirus, and coxsackievirus...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Xiao-Qiang Li, Xiao-Xiao Liu, Xue-Ying Wang, Yan-Hua Xie, Qian Yang, Xin-Xin Liu, Yuan-Yuan Ding, Wei Cao, Si-Wang Wang
The chemical property of cinnamaldehyde is unstable in vivo, although early experiments have shown its obvious therapeutic effects on viral myocarditis (VMC). To overcome this problem, we used cinnamaldehyde as a leading compound to synthesize derivatives. Five derivatives of cinnamaldehyde were synthesized: 4-methylcinnamaldehyde (1), 4-chlorocinnamaldehyde (2), 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (3), α-bromo-4-methylcinnamaldehyde (4), and α-bromo-4-chlorocinnamaldehyde (5). Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells infected by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) were used to evaluate their antiviral and cytotoxic effects...
October 17, 2016: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Jin-Song Li, Xiao-Gen Dong, Meng Qin, Hui-Ru Feng, Jun-Yong Yang, Ruo-Xi Li, Jian-Jun Zhang, Li-Shu Zheng
An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) that occurred in a Juku in Fengtai District, Beijing, China, in 2015 was monitored by the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiological investigation showed that 11 cases occurred from two classes in the preschool art training department in the Juku. Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) was identified as the causative pathogen of the outbreak via sequences analysis of products of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR...
2016: SpringerPlus
Haibin Jin, Xiaoming Guo
BACKGROUND: Viral myocarditis, which is often caused by coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), is a serious clinical disorder characterized by excessive myocardial inflammation. Valproic acid (VPA) is described as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory diseases. However, the role and the detailed mechanism of VPA in viral myocarditis remain unclear. METHODS: Experimental CVB3-induced myocarditis was induced in mice by intraperitoneally (i...
October 10, 2016: Virology Journal
Kaifeng Wang, Yue Wu, Dan Yin, Shixing Tang, Guifang Hu, Yaqing He
Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) is an important pathogen causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a rapid real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for detection of CV-A6. The sensitivity of this assay was 202 copies/reaction, with 100 % specificity. Furthermore, this assay yielded consistent results comparable with a commercial qRT-PCR diagnostic kit. This assay is therefore potentially useful for surveillance of CV-A6 infections and outbreak control...
October 8, 2016: Archives of Virology
Gladys Carrion, Jose L Huaman, Maria Silva, Julia S Ampuero, Irmia Paz, Victor R Ocaña, V Alberto Laguna-Torres, Robert D Hontz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the molecular epidemiology of seven CVA16 strains previously reported by our team. METHODS: Full-length VP1 and VP4 sequences were obtained and phylogenetic analyses were performed. RESULTS: Six strains were classified as genotype C. Moreover, we found one divergent strain not clustered in any of the three currently reported genotypes. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of CVA16 in Peru and provides valuable baseline data about its potential distribution in South America, as well as evidence of a potential divergent genotype that has never before been reported...
October 6, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Jie Zhang, Haihao Zhang, Yilin Zhao, Chen Guo, Zhaoqing Yang, Shaohui Ma
Human coxsackievirus B2 (CVB2) belongs to the species Human enterovirus B and can cause aseptic meningitis, myocarditis and hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We first determined the complete genome of the RW41-2/YN/CHN/2012 strain, isolated from a patient with HFMD and aseptic meningitis in the Yunnan Province, China in 2012. The strain shared 83.5 % and 82.2 % nucleotide similarity with CVB2 prototype strain Ohio-1, in the complete VP1 gene and the complete genome, respectively. Using phylogenetic and homogeneity analyses for the complete VP1 gene, CVB2 strains could be divided into four genogroups (A-D); the RW41-2/YN/CHN/2012 strain belonging to genogroup D...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Virology
Zixiang Zhu, Guoqing Wang, Fan Yang, Weijun Cao, Ruoqing Mao, Xiaoli Du, Xiangle Zhang, Chuntian Li, Dan Li, Keshan Zhang, Hongbing Shu, Xiangtao Liu, Haixue Zheng
: The role of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)-infected cells remains unknown. Herein, we showed that RIG-I inhibits FMDV replication in host cells. FMDV infection increased the transcription of RIG-I, while it decreased RIG-I protein expression. A detailed analysis revealed that FMDV leader proteinase (L(pro)), as well as 3C proteinase (3C(pro)) and 2B protein, decreased RIG-I protein expression. L(pro) and 3C(pro) are viral proteinases that can cleave various host proteins and are responsible for several of the viral polyprotein cleavages...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Virology
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