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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925655/pleuritic-chest-pain-sorting-through-the-differential-diagnosis
#1
Brian V Reamy, Pamela M Williams, Michael Ryan Odom
Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A validated clinical decision rule for pulmonary embolism should be employed to guide the use of additional tests such as d-dimer assays, ventilation-perfusion scans, or computed tomography angiography. Myocardial infarction, pericarditis, aortic dissection, pneumonia, and pneumothorax are other serious causes that should be ruled out using history and physical examination, electrocardiography, troponin assays, and chest radiography before another diagnosis is made...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922636/effects-of-mutations-on-active-site-conformation-and-dynamics-of-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-from-coxsackievirus-b3
#2
Hujun Shen, Mingsen Deng, Yachao Zhang
Recent crystal structures of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) from Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) revealed that a tyrosine mutation at Phe364 (F364Y) resulted in structures with open active site whereas a hydrophobic mutation at Phe364 (F364A) led to conformations with closed active site. Besides, the crystal structures showed that the F364W mutation had no preference between the open and closed active sites, similar to wild-type. In this paper, we present a molecular dynamics (MD) study on CVB3 3D(pol) in order to address some important questions raised by experiments...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912259/nod2-nucleotide-binding-oligomerization-domain-2-is-a-major-pathogenic-mediator-of-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#3
Carsten Tschöpe, Irene Müller, Yu Xia, Konstantinos Savvatis, Kathleen Pappritz, Sandra Pinkert, Dirk Lassner, Markus M Heimesaat, Frank Spillmann, Kapka Miteva, Stefan Bereswill, Heinz-Peter Schultheiss, Henry Fechner, Burkert Pieske, Uwe Kühl, Sophie Van Linthout
BACKGROUND: The cytoplasmatic pattern recognition receptor, NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2), belongs to the innate immune system and is among others responsible for the recognition of single-stranded RNA. With Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) being a single-stranded RNA virus, and the recent evidence that the NOD2 target, NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) is of importance in the pathogenesis of CVB3-induced myocarditis, we aimed to unravel the role of NOD2 in CVB3-induced myocarditis...
September 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900642/a-mutation-resistant-deoxyribozyme-or-gate-for-highly-selective-detection-of-viral-nucleic-acids
#4
Ola Kamar, Sin-Cih Sun, Chieh-Hua Lin, Wan-Yu Chung, Min-Shi Lee, Yu-Chieh Liao, Dmitry M Kolpashchikov, Min-Chieh Chuang
Highly selective probes hybridize only to fully complementary DNA or RNA sequences and, therefore, often fail to recognize mutated viral genomes. Here we designed a probe that possesses two seemingly incompatible properties: it tolerates some point mutations in genome, while it remains selective towards others. An OR deoxyribozyme logic gate was designed to fluorescently report the sequences of enterovirus 71 (EV71) covering ∼90% of all known EV71 strains. Importantly, sequences of closely related coxsackieviruses that differed by single nucleotides were reliably differentiated in 7 out of 8 cases...
September 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894095/atomic-structures-of-coxsackievirus-a6-and-its-complex-with-a-neutralizing-antibody
#5
Longfa Xu, Qingbing Zheng, Shaowei Li, Maozhou He, Yangtao Wu, Yongchao Li, Rui Zhu, Hai Yu, Qiyang Hong, Jie Jiang, Zizhen Li, Shuxuan Li, Huan Zhao, Lisheng Yang, Wangheng Hou, Wei Wang, Xiangzhong Ye, Jun Zhang, Timothy S Baker, Tong Cheng, Z Hong Zhou, Xiaodong Yan, Ningshao Xia
Coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) has recently emerged as a major cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in children worldwide but no vaccine is available against CVA6 infections. Here, we demonstrate the isolation of two forms of stable CVA6 particles-procapsid and A-particle-with excellent biochemical stability and natural antigenicity to serve as vaccine candidates. Despite the presence (in A-particle) or absence (in procapsid) of capsid-RNA interactions, the two CVA6 particles have essentially identical atomic capsid structures resembling the uncoating intermediates of other enteroviruses...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886971/traf6-a-player-in-cvb3-induced-myocarditis
#6
Oana N Ursu, Tina Beyer, Martina Sauter, Annunziata Fragasso, Sandra Bundschuh, Karin Klingel, Barbara Munz
Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is an important inducer of myocarditis, which, in susceptible individuals, can chronify and eventually lead to the development of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure. The respective mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we analyzed expression of the TRAF6 gene, encoding TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a signal transduction scaffold protein that acts downstream of cytokine receptors, in heart tissue of susceptible and non-susceptible mouse strains. We found that after infection, TRAF6 expression was upregulated in both non-susceptible C57BL/6 wildtype and susceptible A...
September 5, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883283/oncolytic-coxsackievirus-therapy-as-an-immunostimulator
#7
Shohei Miyamoto, Miyako Sagara, Hiroshi Kohara, Kenzaburo Tani
Recently, the active development of oncolytic virotherapy has gathered attention. Enterovirus research seeks to better understand its pathogenicity. In particular, coxsackievirus A21 (CVA21) is a promising candidate for oncolytic virotherapy, and thus is the focus of many clinical trials. We have reported that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) had potent oncolytic activity for cancer, and induced immunogenic cell death of CVB3-infected cells. We then genetically engineered wild type CVB3 and successfully produced a novel recombinant CVB3-miRT, improving its safety by the introducing an organ-specific miRNA target sequence...
2017: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871120/development-of-a-luciferase-based-biosensor-to-assess-enterovirus-71-3c-protease-activity-in-living-cells
#8
Yuan Zhang, Xianliang Ke, Caishang Zheng, Yan Liu, Li Xie, Zhenhua Zheng, Hanzhong Wang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). To date, no antiviral drug has been approved to treat EV71 infection. Due to the essential role that EV71 3 C protease (3C(pro)) plays in the viral life cycle, it is generally considered as a highly appealing target for antiviral drug development. In this study, we present a transgene-encoded biosensor that can accurately, sensitively and quantitatively report the proteolytic activity of EV71 3C(pro). This biosensor is based on the catalyzed activity of a pro-interleukin (IL)-1β-enterovirus 3C(pro) cleavage site-Gaussia Luciferase (GLuc) fusion protein that we named i-3CS-GLuc...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870395/synthesis-and-anti-enterovirus-activity-of-new-analogues-of-mdl-860
#9
Georgi M Dobrikov, Ivaylo Slavchev, Ivanka Nikolova, Adelina Stoyanova, Nadya Nikolova, Lucia Mukova, Rosica Nikolova, Boris Shivachev, Angel S Galabov
A series of twelve novel compounds, analogues of antiviral agent MDL-860 were synthesized and their antiviral activity was evaluated in vitro against enteroviruses poliovirus 1 (PV1), Coxsackieviruses B1 (CVB1) and Coxsackieviruses B3 (CVB3). Compounds 14, 24 and 25 manifested strong antiviral effects against CVB1 and PV1 (SI values of 405 and 118 for CVB1 and PV1 respectively). In contrast to the wide anti-enteroviral activity of MDL-860, these three compounds were inactive against CVB3. Compounds 14, 24 and 25 along with MDL-860 were tested in vivo in mice infected with CVB1...
August 30, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868926/a-novel-chloro-substituted-pentenamide-from-the-fruiting-bodies-of-amanita-virgineoides
#10
Liang-Yan Liu, Ji-Kai Liu, Wen-Han Su, Tao Peng
One unusual chloro-substituted pentenamide, (3R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxy-4-pentenamide (1), together with 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Amanita virgineoides. The structure of 1 including the absolute configuration was characterized by extensive spectroscopic analyses and quantum calculation. Compound 1 displayed no obvious activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV), human enterovirus 71 (EV71) or coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3).
September 4, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866672/increased-mobilization-of-cd45-cd34-vla-4-cells-in-acute-viral-myocarditis-induced-by-coxsackievirus-b3
#11
Xingcui Gao, Bin Wei, Yan Deng, Yan Lan Huang, Weifeng Wu
OBJECTIVES: Bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) have recently been identified to play a vital role in repairing damaged myocardium; however, it is not known whether or not mobilization of BMCs is involved in the pathogenesis of acute viral myocarditis (VMC). Thus, we analyzed the expression of CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cells and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) in a murine model of acute VMC. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with coxsackievirus B3 to establish acute VMC...
September 2, 2017: Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864155/large-scale-hfmd-epidemics-caused-by-coxsackievirus-a16-in-bangalore-india-during-2013-and-2015
#12
Rao C Durga, Naidu R Jagadeesh, Maiya P Padmanabha, M Ananda Babu, Bailly Jean-Luc
Hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a relatively unreported disease in India. This study was undertaken to characterize the enterovirus type/s associated with two unexpectedly-massive epidemics that occurred in Bangalore, India in 2013 and 2015. Stool samples of 229 children with HFMD living in Northern and Southern areas of Bangalore were tested by RT-PCR; 189 (82.5%) were enterovirus positive. The Indian CV-A16 strains exhibited 98-99% sequence identity with those reported in France and China in the 5' untranslated region...
August 29, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861621/enteroviruses-in-blood-of-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-detected-by-integrated-cell-culture-and-reverse-transcription-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#13
Enagnon Kazali Alidjinou, Famara Sane, Christine Lefevre, Agathe Baras, Ilham Moumna, Ilka Engelmann, Marie-Christine Vantyghem, Didier Hober
AIMS: Enteroviruses (EV) have been associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D), but EV RNA detection has been reported in only a small proportion of T1D patients. We studied whether integrated cell culture and reverse transcription real-time PCR could improve EV detection in blood samples from patients with T1D. METHODS: Blood was collected from 13 patients with T1D. The presence of EV RNA in blood was investigated by using real-time RT-PCR. In addition, plasma and white blood cells (WBC) were inoculated to BGM and Vero cell line cultures...
August 31, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856411/evaluation-of-contamination-risks-with-coxsackievirus-b4-e2-in-swiss-albino-mice-stools
#14
Leïla Aguech-Oueslati, Hela Jaidane, Famara Sane, Nedia Jrad-Battikh, Sabrine Ben Hamed, Didier Hober, Jawhar Gharbi
Coxsackie B4 (CV-B4), is a major cause of viral myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and pancreatitis. Like other human enteroviruses, CV-B4 is ubiquitous, excreted in the stool, transmitted by fecal-oral route, and persists in the environment. In the context of studies on CV-B4 infection, it is important to investigate how this virus can be eliminated and to show the possibility of contamination risk with a CV-B4 E2 infected Swiss albino mice. Swiss albino female mice were inoculated with CV-B4 E2 strain and divided in two groups: the first was intraperitoneally (I...
August 30, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843814/interaction-of-2a-proteinase-of-human-rhinovirus-genetic-group-a-with-eif4e-is-required-for-eif4g-cleavage-during-infection
#15
Martina Aumayr, Anna Schrempf, Öykü Üzülmez, Karin M Olek, Tim Skern
In enteroviruses, the inhibition of protein synthesis from capped host cell mRNA is catalyzed by the virally encoded 2A proteinase (2A(pro)), which cleaves eukaryotic initiation factors (eIF) 4GI and 4GII. Despite much investigation, the exact mechanism of 2A(pro) cleavage remains however unclear. Here, we identify the domains responsible for the eIF4E/HRV2 2A(pro) interaction using molecular modelling and describe mutations that impair this interaction and delay in vitro cleavage of eIF4G isoforms. Furthermore, we produced HRV1A viruses bearing the mutation L17R, Y32A or Y86A in the 2A(pro) sequence...
August 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827733/epidemiological-characteristics-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-shandong-china-2009-2016
#16
Jing Wang, Tao Hu, Dapeng Sun, Shujun Ding, Michael J Carr, Weijia Xing, Shixue Li, Xianjun Wang, Weifeng Shi
In the past decade, hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has posed a serious threat to childhood health in China; however, no epidemiological data from large HFMD epidemics have been described since 2013. In the present study, we described the epidemiological patterns of HFMD in Shandong province during 2009-2016 from a large number of symptomatic cases (n = 839,483), including >370,000 HFMD cases since 2013. Our results revealed that HFMD activity has remained at a high level and continued to cause annual epidemics in Shandong province from 2013 onwards...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800592/cx3cr1-knockout-aggravates-coxsackievirus-b3-induced-myocarditis
#17
Irene Müller, Kathleen Pappritz, Konstantinos Savvatis, Kerstin Puhl, Fengquan Dong, Muhammad El-Shafeey, Nazha Hamdani, Isabell Hamann, Michel Noutsias, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Wolfgang A Linke, Sophie Van Linthout, Carsten Tschöpe
Studies on inflammatory disorders elucidated the pivotal role of the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis with respect to the pathophysiology and diseases progression. Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced myocarditis is associated with severe cardiac inflammation, which may progress to heart failure. We therefore investigated the influence of CX3CR1 ablation in the model of acute myocarditis, which was induced by inoculation with 5x105 plaque forming units of CVB3 (Nancy strain) in either CX3CR1-/- or C57BL6/j (WT) mice. Seven days after infection, myocardial inflammation, remodeling, and titin expression and phosphorylation were examined by immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Pro-Q diamond stain...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796556/systemic-virotherapy-for-multiple-myeloma
#18
Stefania Oliva, Manuela Gambella, Mario Boccadoro, Sara Bringhen
The multiple myeloma (MM) treatment scenario has changed considerably over the past few years. Several novel targeted therapies are currently under consideration including oncolytic virotherapy. Areas covered: This review provides an analysis of the mechanisms of action of virotherapy, and summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies of systemic virotherapy developed for the treatment of MM. Different types of viruses have been identified, including: adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus 1, myxoma virus, reovirus, measles virus, vesicular stomatitis virus and coxsackievirus A21...
August 10, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774989/complete-genome-sequences-of-four-coxsackievirus-a16-strains-isolated-from-four-children-with-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#19
Shao-Jian Xu, Hong Yang, Xiang-Jie Yao, Hai-Long Zhang, Yan Ren, Wei Wu, Jun Meng, Hong-Biao Chen, Ya-Qing He, Ren-Li Zhang, Qi-Hui Lin, Long Chen
Here, we report the complete genome sequences of four coxsackievirus A16 strains isolated from four children with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease. Three of them were assigned to subgenotype B1b based on phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 gene, and the other one belonged to subgenotype B1a.
August 3, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771766/impact-of-coxsackievirus-a6-emergence-on-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-epidemic-in-osaka-city-japan
#20
Daiki Kanbayashi, Atsushi Kaida, Seiji P Yamamoto, Yuki Hirai, Hideyuki Kubo, Ryoko Fujimori, Noritaka Hakui, Hidetetsu Hirokawa, Nobuhiro Iritani
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute febrile illness characterized by fever; sore throat; and vesicular eruptions on the hands, feet, and oral mucosa. Until 2010, HFMD was predominantly associated with enterovirus (EV) A71 and coxsackievirus (CV) A16 in Japan. In 2011, CV-A6 emerged as a primary causative agent, causing the largest HFMD epidemic in Japan since 1981. Since then, CV-A6 has caused large HFMD epidemics every 2 years. The phylogenetic analysis of complete Viral Protein 1 (VP1) sequences revealed that most CV-A6 strains detected from 2011 to 2015 in Osaka City were classified into a different clade compared with CV-A6 strains detected from 1999 until 2009...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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